Environmental Ethics - all class materials - ES 188
Environmental Ethics - all class materials - ES 188
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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 188 ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS WINTER 201 1 Instructor GR Graves Bren 4007 HSSB 4020 graveshistoryucsbedu Office Hours 13 Mondays in HSSB 4020 330430 Mondays in Bren 4007 Welcome to environmental ethics There are many approaches to teaching ethics Ethics with regard to our environment narrows the spectrum somewhat by focusing on ethical human behavior regarding the environment After defining ethics and environmental ethics we will examine the most important collection of works with regard to modem environmental ethics That is Aldo Leopold s A Sand County Almanac It is a book of dichotomies revealing the ethical views of a man bom in the nineteenth century and constantly coming to grips with the twentieth century After looking at his work we will drop back in time to trace the origins of his inspirations Therefore we will examine at ancient humans and their relations with their environment After examining certain ethical behaviors with the Hebrews Greeks Romans early Christians and various other cultures we will advance quickly to the Industrial Revolution and beyond to find more in uences in Leopold s land ethic The second half of ES 188 explores the modem issues of environmental ethics We will assess the broadening of the land ethic by urbanites who although estranged from the natural world developed a unique set of environmental ethics We will examine how modem environmental ethics attempts to speak for the land the entire biosphere and the future With the course novel A Friend of the Earth we will look at many of the modem manifestations of environmental ethics from the perspective of the future past and present In addition to land and planetary ethics we will also periodically examine the ethical treatment of animals NOVEL ANALYSIS A Friend of the Earth is a lively and racy novel taking place mostly in Califomia It spans the future past and present of our own times and encompasses many of the paradoxes and passions surrounding actions to save the planet We will discuss the novel extensively in lecture and sections There will be a 5to7page book analysis of A Friend of the Earth Guidelines will be distributed in week seven The analysis will be due in class with the takehome final essay on March 16 between 13pm BOOKS ES 188 Reader available at Grafikart in Isla Vista Sections correspond to week reading Aldo Leopold A Sand County Almanac begin week one finish week five TC Boyle A Friend of the Earth begin week six finish week ten SCHEDULE WEEK ONE January 5 Introduction January 7 De ning Ethics WEEK TWO January 12 Aldo Leopold and the Land Ethic January 14 Leopold and the Ancients WEEK THREE January 19 Leopold and the Greeks and Romans January 21 Agrarian Environmental Ethics WEEK FOUR January 26 Food and Environmental Ethics January 28 Native American Ethics WEEK FIVE February 2 Leopold and Biocentrism February 4 Leopold and Anthropocentrism WEEK SIX February 9 Midterm in class February 11 Case Study in Environmental Ethics Easter Island WEEK SEVEN February 16 Ethical Treatment of Animals Does nature have rights February 18 Animal Rights and Food Security WEEK EIGHT February 23 Speaking for the Planet I February 25 Speaking for the Planet II WEEK NINE March 2 Speaking for the Planet III March 4 Deep Ecology and Ecofeminism WEEK TEN March 9 Speaking for Future Generations March 11 Conclusions MARCH 16 WEDNESDAY TAKE HOME FINAL AND NOVEL ANALYSIS DUE IN CLASS 13PM The midterm section grade takehome final and novel analysis are equally valued at onequarter of the final grade each Please tum cell phones off during class Envs 188 Section 12111 TA s 7 rules of argumentation Rule 1 have a claim Rule 2 providing evidence Rule 3 Overtly addresses all sides amp disagreement Rule 4 Knowing audience and what to argue Rule 5 Sources variety credible Rule 6 Stick to your argument don39t argue many claims Rule 7 Clear simple focused Midterm will involve making an argument and supporting it Anthropomorphism giving anything human qualities 3 key terms for class discussion Biocentricism humans and animals are equal the perspective is from the point of nature or incorporates other species Anthropocentricism everything is viewed from the human standpoint we are at the top and rule and decide all Naturalism natural environment forms and processes are considered one system Humans Gods industries all part of the overall natural system Ex Gods were incorporated into their lifestyles and each god represents a different quality of nature They would sacrifice pray have temples Aldo Leopold Talks about anthropocentrism versus biocentrism april how people who drive by will not notice the small flower on the side of the road His outlook is very biocentric because even if nature or the animals get in the way of his goal he accepts it as t heir position in the overall cycle He gives value to nature although it is poor town it has a lot to offer and is rich in other thingsnature In the last century mankind has been led in movements in regards to various ethical arguments from the fight for Civil Rights by Martin Luther King Jr to the battle for women39s voting rights with Susan B Anthony and most presently the expanding of laws for ethical treatment of all of earth39s Flora and Fauna All of these movements have been approached with varying degrees of activism some of which have led to the success of these movements while others harm their progress In A Friend of the Earth TC Boyle presents Extreme environmental activism in as neither effective nor ethical and highlights the failures and hypocrisies of the environmental activists in an effort to guide future generations of environmentalists in enacting a change The author of this novel focuses on the failures of the environmental protests which are separated into three distinct forms of protest but each of which are neither planned nor executed with thorough consideration for the greater issue The first episode when Teo our protagonist Andrea Ty and Sierra his daughter cement their feet to block the illegal logging of the forest and gain media attention to show the world turns into a painful and humiliating scene for the group with no positive end result quotFor all the pain and boredom and humiliation there wasn39t a single reporter on hand to bear witness with so much planning and sacrifice this end result is unacceptable and just goes to show how this form of radical protest is useless and only grows hate in the opposition turning this into a personal war and landing Ty in prison rendering him helpless in any future environmental protests Even after suffering a jail sentence Ty cannot resist displaying his hatred for the loggers and the quotprogress away from environmental protection so he returns to his nightly sleuth activities of sabotaging anyone s activities who work towards this progress The second time he is caught lands him in high security prison and he is charged with the repairs of all the damage he did Is stopping a day or a week of felling trees in a remote area work years in prison and the destruction of his own family Ty believes wants to hit the logging companies where it hurts and he think if he stops their monetary gains it will hurt them in the long run This is of course is not the truth These forms of small minded ecotage are useless because they serve only to anger the opposition and ruin Tierwater s life marking him as a criminal in the eyes of the public As a fairly new movement environmental activism must be approached with care and consideration and strive to create an image of positive progress for all of mankind TC Boyle plays on the hypocrisies of environmental extremists to highlight the detrimental effects that these have on the overall environmental movement Every time some econut blows something up or spikes a grove of trees we lose points with the public not to mention the legislature We39re succeeding We don39t need violence anymore don39t know if we ever did 235 violence is not an appropriate measure because fighting unethical environmental action with unethical violence is only hypocritical and damages the media representation that Earth Forever work so hard to garner Every protest must be accompanied with sincere thought and Ty s actions may slow the felling of trees for short time period but are only detrimental to the greater scheme of the environmental movement His will to help the movement needs to be given serious direction at which point he could help gain positive media attention But the main problem remains that his hatred forms a cloud over his reasoning allowing him to rationalize his harmful decisions thinking that they will make a difference This small scale small minded action is the main problem with Ty s efforts displayed by the novel His restlessness fuels an addiction for his illegal and destructive actions which reflects his overall personality seen earlier in the book quotExasperated I take Chuy by the collar and drag him into the room I39m not a patient man37 This lack of patience is the most dangerous quality for someone who wants to do good through ecotage It takes persistence and calculation to gain the appropriate media attention In fighting for civil rights Martin Luther King Jr the martyr of the civil rights movement stood in the face of the white oppressors provoking crowds to rally with him and spoke these words quotPeace is not merely a distant goal that we seek but a means by which we arrive at that goal In pursuit of ethics towards the environment quotecoterrorists or those who stand in the way of the oppressor cannot stoop to the oppressor s mindset They must act ethically to propagate ethics Sierra s approach to environmental activism manages to gather media attention and slow the lumber industry temporarily but it also builds resentment in the loggers and has very little effect on the greater picture quotThe longer she stayed up there the less anybody woul care and before long she39d get tired of the whole thing hold a press conference and leave them to strip every last dollar out of the forest and nobody to say different 258 Boyle nonchalant and mocking tone in this passage explicitly states how useless her efforts are Her will to sacrifice her life and time are important but her loss of focus on the greater picture of the environmental movement turns into a selfish bout against the loggers resulting in her odd death and the cutting of the great Artemis tree anyways Finally Ty s and Andrea39s naked retreat into the wilderness for a month with nothing to live on but what they can gather is a great media gatherer but plays very little to no role in progressing towards a global scale of ethical environmental treatment They battle nature and fight to survive but in the process disrupt a pristine ecosystem with their survival attempts quotThey herded fish into shallow pools and scooped them out with a sort of lacrosse stick the protected golden trout Salmo aguabonita mostly 181 Killing of this threatened species is hypocritical and detrimental to the environmental movement because this opposes their main statement of protecting the environment To survive Ty and Andrea are possibly driving a population of fish to extinction driving a nail into their fight for environmental protection The main reason behind these failed environmental activism attempts is the fragmentation of efforts To attack the issue of appropriate environmental treatment all of the parties in the environmental movement of the book must work as a unit to disrupt the activities of those that harm the environment Ecotage passive protest and media outreach must be planned on and carried out simultaneously As in all protests the way to make a significant statement are persistency and well thought out and calculated action In the movie quotConfessions of an EcoTerrorist 2011 the crew of Whale Wars uses media and the anger of the fishermen to win battles They destroy nothing and hurt nobody but their message is heard all over the world because they get themselves into situations that anger the law breakers to the point of life threatening situations which the media love to report If Earth Forever managed to harness the individual efforts of Sierra and Ty as well as Andreas and Teo media efforts through multiple attempts their message would have been heard all over in turn growing their support This book serves as a lesson for future generation as well as a warning and guide book for people reading the novel As the novel comes to a close in the year 2026 and quotthe forest It39s gone 338 Andrea and Ty come across the much hated insurance agent Quinn from their past and exchange dialogue over Tierwater s protest efforts when he burned down part of the forest to make a statement against the logging industry quotAnd what did you accomplish Look around youjust look around and you answer me that At that point Andrea and Ty have admitted defeat as the world has crumbled around them and hope only lies in future generations When Ty admits that nothing was accomplished it places the burden of responsibility onto the reader to understand and make the appropriate changes in environmental activism to protect the earth39s Flaura and Fauna in future generations This statement is a culmination of every act of environmental protest throughout the book which is shown as ineffective and hurtful to the cause in most cases but is nonetheless a lesson for us environmental activists in the future Sierra s comment from the first protest highlights the main problem of all of these protests quotWe come all the way out here with all this planning and all and nobody knows what they39re doing No wonder my generation is going to wind up inheriting a desert 35 Throughout the book Andrea Teo Ty and Sierra fail to see the bigger picture of making true environmental change and focus too closely on the issue before them which detracts them from making a serious change Their lessons are learned through trial and error The error here is the destruction of most plants and animals as well as earth39s climate observed in the descriptions of 2025 These errors however serve as guidelines for readers to follow so that they do not fight the battle on the field but win the war with planning negotiation and strategy The work of Earth Forever Teo Andrea Sierra and Ty are regarded as serious failures in this novel which highlight the problems with such tactics when mounting a protest The machine of progress is almighty and our main characters fall victim to this machine because of their lack of solidarity and rational action To protect us from the demise of all of nature39s Flora and Fauna efforts must be focused and carried out in rational ways When mounting an offense in the protection of ethics towards the environment the author makes it clear that ethical means must be pursued and efforts must be tailored appropriately to garner the support of the masses Works Cited Boyle T Coraghessan A Friend of the Earth New York Viking 2000 Print Envs 188 Environmenta Ethics 1122011 HSSB office 4240 Environmental Ethics Aldo Leopold and Speaking for the Land Ado to went to Yale and studied Forestry graduated with masters degree in 1909 Founded by Gifford Pinchot Burlington Iowa Yale Forestry School Gifford Pinchot born in 1865 also studied at Yale studies in France estabished European silver culture in the US he then endowed the forestry studies at Yale Contracted Bright39s Disease in 1912 can be compared to John Muir39s close call to blindness After he recovered he pledged himself to the wildlife aspect as the forest in contrast to the current forestry methods of taming the forest for lumber purposes Wildlife management became his true call He went around setting up wildlife management watershed wildlife management for animals as well as trees In his view recreation was for hiking hunting and exploring these wild forest areas He returned to the Forest Management service upon request from fear that their organization was being taken over by the National park service Became University of Wisconsin39s Game Management Chair gave him time to reflect on his days in forestry and hunting Hunting it was here that biota was in perfect aboriginal health 193039s begins his study of ecology plant and animal communities Highly influenced in readings of Hinduism and Buddhism Darwinian Theory Idea that Christianity has built up for so long has put humans at the center of the universe as opposed to Darwin39s explanation that humans are just animals so our dominant position is not true He had great interest in geology due to its explanations of historic events and the challenge it presented to the Christianity version of the Garden of Eden These two factors Darwin Geology contributed to his philosophy on the kinship between humans and the earth and wildlife The human race is arrogant self centered and conceited about their status on earth Need to protect biodiversity Albert Schweitzer was extremely influential in Ado s philosophy He spent most of his life in Africa providing care for the people that lived there Man has the ability to conquer and destroy Aldo used Schweitzer ideas to develop what we call the land ethic Self imposed limits on the struggles for existence human ethics are gradually widening A Sand County Almanac book He bought a ranch in Sauk County Wisconsin knows that when carpenter ants come into his shack it39s going to rain When Blue jays fly away it will get cold US Forest Service Carson National Forest Bright39s Disease National Park Service Under Steven Mather was overtaking the Forest service management department Gila Wilderness Area Wilderness Act of 1964 The hunter US Forest Products Laboratory UW Game Management Chair Buddhism Hinduism The great chain of being Aristotle Expansion of Muir and Marsh Albert Schweitzer Philosophy of Civilisation 1923 reverence for life Sauk County Fisherman and Hunter must have ethics of sef restrain 11411 Ethic of Ecoogy Limitation on freedom of action symbiosis quote from book Luna Leopold son took all of Aldo Leopad s records and brought them together in an Almanac Land conservation is disappearing Abrahamic concept of the land we abuse land because we regard it as something that belongs to us Review of the Abrahamic Tradition Beginning starts with first domestication of sheep goats pigs ducks Also cattle and horses 2000 years later With large animal domestication came things like property cities monarchy heroes and ethics Cuniforms done on clay tablets first form of writing and history Code of Hammurabi 1790 BCE Kind of Babylon 270 different rules of strict and strange punishments of the rules Rules to keep herd alive and healthy to keep population safe These rules only applied to maintain the economy of the civilization by keeping livestock alive this is contrasted with today39s ethic laws where animals must be taken care of properly If someone s cows destroyed someone s crop the owner was helped responsible If someone is too lazy to maintain his damn and the damn breaks and ruins crops he will have to pay The Mesopotamians messed up the fertile crescent and created unfertile lands for future generations Abraham was said to have lived for 175 years born in Ur fertile crescent Abraham volunteer to kill his son Isaac to prove his belief in God The Israelites gather into houses and were nomadic people who followed their sheep to watering holes In exodus Moses people are slaves to Egypt Mesopotamia saw dualism 2 Gods good 1 bad Hebrew took this a step farther with 1 God They had rules that governed health and rules to control peope s land and livestock This shows that land and animals are owned because th Debate of Easter Island Not right to Kill invasive species in the right of ecological restoration 1 Killing animals is unethical thing to do they did nothing wrong not their fault 2 These were once domestic animals sheep and pigs our fault for not keeping them in line 3 Just because an animal isn39t native to an area doesn39t mean they don39t have the right to be there Just by saving one species and killing of other animals we might be killing off another ecological ecosystem 4 Pigs are highly intelligent creature smart and compassionate 5 If we are to save the environment we should get rid of ourselves instead of other animals 6 What gives us the right to enjoy the island if our presence disturbs the ecosystem What are some alternatives if a new species is decimating the population control remove Rebutta cross examination Feral Pigs Disease carriers Can39t be domesticated Relocated Golden eagles Killed 9 species of native plants Possible loss of foxes Maintaining Biodiversity Resistance amp Resilience nationa marine sanctuary Sef reliant and replenishing ecosystem killing of endemic plants Goden eagle isand foxes picked off Example possums 30M in New Zealand Ethics of Animal Experimentation Before animals are given drugs they are given lots of tests invitro higher moral obligation to humans than animals most bred for these particular experiments Animas serve as replacements for discovery of human anatomy it used to be almost impossible to use real bodies for science 90 of animals used are mice that are bred just for research httpwwwscmpcomportalsiteSCMPmenuitem2af62ecb329d3d7733492d9253aOaOaOvgnextoid f6f019760ad9d210VgnVCM1000OO360a0a0aRCRDampssHongKongampsNews Pollution reducing visibility and life expectancy But living in a city that doesn39t make its own pollution but receives the pollution from a nearby city is even worse This article emphasizes the underlying importance of having international regulations on actions that are detrimental to the environment Hong Kong is an island off the coast of China with strict regulations on owning cars as well as polluting elements of factories on the island It is part of China but does not have the same socialist government or industrial progress driven economy It does however receive all of the air pollution of nearby Shenzhen which is a huge industrial hub with very little regulations on work or the environment This of course has allowed China to explode in the past 10 years into what the world sees as a super power but their complete lack of care for the environment that they are abusing is getting ridiculous Every day in Hong Kong I looked out of my 20 story window onto the sea and could only barely glimpse the sun through the thick layer of smog Now as this articles clearly shows this pollution is a nuisance on a day to day basis for the inhabitants of Hong Kong who in no way contribute to the haze but most importantly it is degrading to their health This is just one example of sharing the detrimental effects of abusing the environment As our population swells and emerging countries such as China and India continue growing we must focus all of our attention on creating strict guidelines for all nations to follow We have the UN to control wars in different countries but the horrible things that we are doing to our planet will come back and harm us in the future in more than any ways than any war ever has For now everyone is just watching the squabbles over the environment but to be truly ethical we must stop only taking care of our territory and push our neighbors in this world to join us Ethical Chicken Consumption Presented by TA 12811 New Model of monitoring diet and what we eat proposed by TA Production distribution distribution from wherever it was produced Consumption Waste Thinking Scientifically Rene Descartes argued that all animals are machines and if you need to sacrifice a dog to see how breathing works then you will go ahead and sacrifice it Charles Darwin On the origin o the Species human Exceptionalism Darwinism 18091882 Argued that man is just another animal in evolution Biocentric perception of humans we are no longer the center of the world What differentiates us from animals A Painting By Valzques Las Meninas Just by asking ourselves the question of are we human shows how different we are We play with the perceptions of the world B Jean Anthelm Briat Savarin 17551826 The Pysiology of Taste At dinner we interact we socialize we eat not just to be sated not just to consume calories and con nue Animal Rights said to be started by Peter Singer in Animal Liberations How do we qualify who has what kind of rights Problems with utilitarian ethics Side note Singer got into an argument about bestiality Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFO Factory farm productions where food comes form today Cost Efficiency Abundance Health Environment Costthousands of animals in a small space smes toxic substances Efficiency Government subsidizes food for poultry and kettle High Bacteria Contaminations high meat recalls Heath overabundance can lead towards obesity cholesterol heart disease Antibiotics are given to animals before they die usuay this passes into the ground water Environment Waste affect 35000 miles of rivers 17 different states affected by contaminated ground water Understanding Terms Free Range can mean any term with fresh air Pastured Natural Naturally Enhanced coud mean that it39s brined no real meaning No Hormones No Antibiotic against the law to give chickens hormones Air Chied Slaughter Halal kosher Organic We consider our foods in terms of brands and food status Organize Prioritize Env 188 Environmental Ethics 2414 1155 AM Key Terms Defining Ethics right and wrong vaues Lecture 2 2414 1155 AM Defining Environmental Ethics What is an ethic Webster39s Dictionary Ethikos Ethice ethik ethique Unethics or unethical Good and bad Ayn Rand Values and ethics Bertrand Russel Civis morality Personal morality Analytical philosophy Positivism What is the truth Logic Environment and environmental Wak in music Wednesday Nikolai Rimsky Korsakov Capriccio Espangol Movie Cabaret 1972 First five sections of reader for midterm All of Leopold for midterm Boyle for novel analysis turned in with final Strict dictionary definitions Ethics the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation Ethica of or relating to ethics and conforming to a accepted professional standards of conduct ethikosGreek earliest origin of the word ethics ethice latin ethik middle English ethique middle germanEnglish What is an ethically behaved society What is good in individuals What is good in the world What is a moral duty What is an obligation Ayn Rand 19051982 Ethics is a code of values which guide our choices and actions and determine the purpose and course of our lives Not all values are ethical however values talking about right and wrong are ethical Bertrand Russell 18721970 Without civic morality communities perish without personal morality their survival has no values Civic morality ethics of being a good citizen ethical in society Persona morality ethical person decent human being Anaytica philosophy Russell positivist view there are no specific philosophical truths don39t try to find absolute truth in world main purpose of philosophy is the logical clarification of thought Logic human s ability to reason to solve to explain orderly system The science of correct reasoning science that deals with the criteria of valid thought Environment The circumstances objects or conditions by which one is surrounded the aggregate of social and cultural conditions that influence the life of an individual or community Environmenta ethics The study of aggregate social cultural and biological conditions that influence the life of an individual or community and determining what is good bad moral duty and obligation The study of proper human behavior regarding use and treatment of the land air water flora and fauna of the planet Earth Social condition influences communities If actions save money and reduce carbon footprint at same time then he39s happy to be ethical Do you have to give up things to be environmentally ethical We are tied to modernity Dick Cheney Conservation of resources is a virtuous personal choice not a course for energy security Lecture 3 Leopold 2414 1155 AM HSSB office is 4240 Aldo Leopold and Speaking For the Land Burlington Iowa Yale Forestry School Gifford Pinchot US Forest Service Carson National Forest Bright39s Disease National Park Service Gila Wilderness Area The hunter US Forest Products Laboratory UW Game Management Chair Ecologyecoystems Buddhism Hinduism the great chain of being Aristotle Environmenta ethics new field of moral philosophy because of new science technology hey matt what sup John Muir What one tugs at a single thing in nature he finds it attached to the rest of the world Moving towards the establishment of interconnectedness moving towards land ethic quote by Muir implies that all thing in the world are connected Becomes more clear as the 20 century passes you can39t just solve one problem Sometimes it creates more problems because everything is interconnected Ado Leopold Born in Burlington Iowa Went to Yale and then Yale Forestry School into bird watching and hun ng Graduated with masters studied forestry Yale forestry school was founded by Gifford Pinchot who was a wealthy kid born in 1865 student at Yale decided that he was going to become a Forester studied in France came back and established European silver culture techniques and established US Forest Service and Yale Forestry School Leopold joined US Forest Service in 1909 in 1912 he was named the supervisor of the Carson national forest Got Bright39s Disease all sorts of problems almost died after he recovered he said that it changed his life and so he pursued things that were more in his interests instead of doing what the forest service wanted Remained at Carson National Forest for a while but then decided that he was into wild life management and went to a bunch of different forests and establishes wild life management programs Created recreation areas in Carson and in New Mexico Forests Recreation areas used for hunting and fishing Associate director of US Forest Products Laboratory here began to deepen his view of wild land began to insist that civilization could go too far if the symbol of our progress is a tree stump then that39s not good Can develop too much Lots of wild land is a great thing He doesn39t want to be in the world where there isn39t a lot of wild land The forest service didn39t like this at the time His views became more mainstream in the forest service in the 192039s Felt threatened by Leopold because he was taking away acreage from them First steps of establishing large wilderness areas in public lands Wilderness act of 1964 1930s University of Wisconsin Game Management Chair had more time to reflect it was there that he first clearly realized that land was organism and that his whole life he had only seen sick land Began to develop ideas of ecologyecosystems Gained knowledge that everything is interdependent Started using term ecological consciousness bio centric ethics Biocentrism health of the land itself leave land alone for the reasons of land health Aristotle39s idea of the great chain of being the creator had an unlimited number of life forms and they are arranged on a scale or a chain arranged by lowest to highest man is about midway on chain in this chain of being everything is important all beings on chain have a right to exist 2 great cultural advances of era 0 Darwinian Theory theories on evolution where all beings had common origins o The development of geology revealed earth39s mysteries diminished idea that everything was created in 6 days diminished idea that humans were divine and should have lordship over everything on earth The idea that the world was slowly for the use of man was an enormous conceit arrogant wrong way to look at world Spoke about land health Said that environmental factors caused the fall of Rome Albert Schweitzer 0 Influence Leopold 0 Turned to medicine after studying philosophy became doctor spent most of his life living in central Africa providing medical help for people who lived that o In 1923 he wrote the Philosophy of Civilization encompassed what he began to call a reverence for life argued that human ethics have always focused on humans ethics needs to be expanded beyond humans compassion must embrace all living creatures Leopold developed the land ethic Immoral to treat anything living badly Web of life web will fail if you remove too many strands away from the web if you take too much of the aboriginal health away from the land then you39ll ruin the land time to see the land as a whole Ethics Self imposed limits on the struggle for existence according to Leopold Bought ranch in Sauk County went there to get away from modernity Said that you have to actually know the land live there not just visit lived like the native Americans He learned how different plants worked The quality of landscape Thinking Like a Mountain recollection of his hunting experiences in area hunting wolves to allow more deer to hunt was the traditional idea of game management SEE NOTEBOOK 2414 1155 AM Lecture 5 2414 1155 AM Leopold and Greco Roman Naturalism and Science More Abraham Constantine 330 AD Leopold and Homer Egyptian cultural influence Egyptian religion Ra Amun Isis Horus Ancient Greece Minoans Crete Linear A King Minos Mycenaeans Linear B Mycenae Pylos Athens Animal domestication Inadequate arable land Inadequate fresh water Barley olives grapes vin Greek scholarship Setting the foundations for modern environmental ethics Leopold is the pivotal figure To understand Leopold it is necessary to understand his in uences The Abrahamic concept of the land what it is where it came form Nature worship its origins its progression to Leopold39s time Science treatment of non human life the place of humans in the world Non Western philosophy Bio centrism and anthropocentrism For midterm Leopold39s Land Ethic and its bio centric and anthropocentric elements and their origins Course objective to help make you the environmental philosophers of the mid 215t Century Abraham one of the decedents of Noah his story part of genesis Constantine 330 AD Roman emperor who converted to Christianity Anthropocentric environmental ethic spread with monotheistic faiths of the Hebrew and then Christians Idea of God and heaven and trinity part of Abrahamic tradition None of the deity is any part of the earth Leopod makes many references to the Greeks talks about constellations personifying trees and dogs and other animals like the Greeks did Leopold also makes specific references to Homer is the Almanac Makes references to the Odyssey Wants to show that when Odysseus got home that he sold slave women as chattel but now they have rights just as land should have rights as well Got very ill with kidney disease that can kill you So ill that he had to leave south west and move back in with his parents He read while he couldn39t do anything Read the Greek classics bible latest on science and forestry Minoans were the first Greek civilization On the island of Crete Date back to 2000 BCE Heavily influences by Egypt Were very advanced sea faring culture 0 Had hieroglyphic script known as Linear A still haven39t fully translated it Term Minoans comes from Greek myth King Minos the legendary king of Crete that rules a vast sea empire Depended upon a navy ships for trading and defence Crete was isolated which helped them with security threats Great art and architecture excellent at pottery Mycenaeans came 500 years after Minoans on Greek islands came down from Greek mainland Conquered Crete eventually Dominant over main islands as well Influenced by Mesopotamia Traders pirates sea farers as well Took over Greek territory A lot we don39t know about Mycenaeans LanguageLinear B Grain and livestock Had city states Mycenae Pylos and Athens Large walls around cities and central gathering areas people lived inside of walled cities Don39t know if the city states were completely independent Could unite at times during Trojan War United all islands in order to fight Trojans Good art armor forts a lot more warlike than Minoans 1200 800 BCE we don39t know much about what goes on in Greece Greeks in 800 BCE thought that the Mycenaean ruins were from Giants Greeks in bronze age from the start and had boats and writing Economy based off of animals domestication and crop cultivation Sheepgoats and some horses Didn39t have as much herders and Hebrews or Mesopotamians because the Greek islands wouldn39t support it Hot year around Mediterranean climate LACK OF ARABLE LAND amp LACK OF FRESH WATER Only 20 of land was suitable for crop growth The rest of the land was too steep rocky dry Changed what they were able to grow Grew barley with success Olives and grapes good cash crops Good wine makers Had bad water so they would drink wine Allowed them to have more freedom to earn Greek Scholarship Sought to explain the beginnings of the earth took a lot from Egyptian religion and culture Egyptian civilization religion was based off of Nile River Didn39t need environmental manipulation as Greeks 2000 Egyptian gods and deities Main ones Ra Sun God Amun Isis Goddess of magical power and healing horus Multi Layered Many Gods were animals Horus represented the falcon Greek religion Hesiod not sure when he lived Best guesses are 8 or 7 centuries BCE 0 Known for Works and Days and Theogony aka births of Gods 0 From Botia 0 Got story from muses daughters of Zeus Tells the story of the earth and human beings First void or chaos then broad bosomed earth Called Gaia or Mother Earth Then Eros comes next love or desire This is fallowed by night and darkness Gods of all feelings Mother Earth mates with sea to produce other gods Two of the children between Gaia and sea are Rhea Titaness and Cronus Her brother and husband castrate father Uranus Cronus swallows all children because he finds out that they over throw him Rhea gets tired of this and they have another child who is Zeus Swallow stone not Zeus Hid in cave in mountain Long story short he becomes lord of gods Demigods part god and part human Hercules Greek gods permeate nature Gaia Hpothesis the earth is an organism that is alive and we are all a part of it Greco Romans celebrated and feared nature Part of religion and way of life Greek mythology permeated culture and religion To read nature then it meant that you had to be able to read So more people became literate in order to practice religion Bio centric environmental ethics Greek religion tied people to the natural world can39t be urbanites that are completely taken away from nature Greeks gave impact towards Anthropocentric environmental ethics as well because of their science and philosophy Weren39t content to say that gods controlled everything in human affairs Socrates Plato Aristotle Greek naturalism Desire to find answers gave us science and philosophy 0 OOOOO Leopold amp GrecoRoman NaturalismSciencez414 1155 AM Greek mythologyRoman paganism ZeusJupiter HeraJuno HermesMercury AphroditeVenus Legend 1 Numitor Amulius Rhea Silvia AresMars Romulus and Remus Tiber River She wof Legend 2Aeneas Venus King Latinus Latium Latins and Etruscans Geographical protection Roman agriculture a Roman ake Stoicism Marcus Aurelius Cicero Natural law Greek mythology became Roman paganism Officia religion of Rome from 750 330AD when it became Christian Had a lot to do with nature 9 Demigods Legends about the beginnings of Rome Legend 1 0 Royal paower struggle in central Ital between Numitor and Amulius o Amulius won and then killed all of Numitor s sons 0 Made Numitor s daughter Rhea Silvia a virgin bound to protect virginity by pain of death 0 Ares rapes Rhea while she was sleeping and then she had two twin sons Romulus and Remus so she was thrown into the Tiber River when Amulius found out about sons 0 Then god of river married her 0 He let the sons go adrift in a basket down the Tiber River which eventually got caught on branches of a fig tree 0 Then She wof comes along and finds the two babies she takes them to her cave and raises them 0 Raised by wolves until shepherd found them and raised them to manhood o Eventually they find out who they are and what has happened and they decide to go to battle against Amulius and over throw him and put Numitor back on the thrown 0 Go back to where she wof found them and that39s where they founded the city of Rome 0 Brothers got into argument so one killed the other hence the name Rome Legend 2 o Aeneas was a demigod mother was Venus Aphrodite father mortal o Joins in sack of troy with greeks o Goes back to Italian peninsula and marries daughter of king Latinus who is king over Latium 0 Another guy wants to marry his daughter so they go into a war 0 Aeneas is a demigod so he won and then he united all the lands around him and created Rome Legendary founding of Rome based off of Gods but also from getting help from animals so nature is involved filled with half humanhalf animal creature TWINS lt3 Real founding of Rome 750 BCE Herded everything lots of grains took control of the Italian peninsula All roads lead to Rome When in Rome Rome is burning Jim Rome went to UCSB We go to UCSB Thus we are burning Deveoped Latin Stoicism study of reason rationality ethics logic move away from naturalism talked about one creator or god Greeks invented it came to Rome through Marcus Tullius Cicero Marcus Aurelius stoic emperor gave reason to his rule one of the last emperors 121180 AD GrecoRoman tradition STARTREK From Rome to the 20 Century 2414 1155 AM Roman Law Civil criminal Natural law moral obligation The end of naturalism The Middles Ages Roderick Nash Old World Roots of Opinion Bias against nature Environmental Ethics Convergence and Divergence Abrahamic tradition Manorial divisions of labor Agricultural sustainability Beekeepers horsemen blacksmith fow keepers pig men cowmen sheep shearers wastelands Bioregionalism Mutton Lynn White Medieval technology and Social Change Wil Rogers from Oklahoma first stand up comedian no religion is the religion said in 192039s controversial Vadimir Illich Lenin Setting the foundations for modern environmental ethics and Leopold39s land ethic For midterm identifying the bio centric and the anthropocentric origins and elements of Leopold39s land ethic and modern environmental ethics one essay Wednesday February 9 Webster s on natural law Rules of conduct supposedly inherent in the relations between human beings and discernable by reason Law based on man39s innate moral sense End of naturalism ended belief that human beings were part of nature and that there was more than one god that was located in nature dies out with Roman empire Anthropocentric ideals such as Greek stoicism made its way into Roman Law Roman Law39s 3 aspects civil law criminal law natural law Natura law was believed to be there before civil and criminal law said to be the innate law between human beings It is moral lawethics A moral obligation that you have as a human Romans codified it into their system of laws Makes up a lot of modern environmental ethics Says moral obligation only applies to human beings anthropocentric Leopod applied this to land and made land ethic less anthropocentric People would eventually apply it to land and animals Christianity spread throughout Europe by Middle Ages 500 AD 1100 AD Roman pagan priests set up framework for settlements By year 1000 most of Europe was overwhelmingly Christian priests spread word of Jesus out to convert monks and friars came out with orders from Rome or Constantinople Brought Judaic Christian religion Came with tools of agriculture that had been refined by Greeks and Romans codes like Code of Hammurabi that were codes for land use and animal management Also transferred attitudes of religion mixing of humans an animals not smiled upon seen as beasts and associated with devil separated humans from animals demons and spirits seen as part of animal world Roderick Nash wrote about European bias towards land that places humans away from nature bias against nature engrained with livestock and crop growing had a bias against anything wild Environmenta Ethics Convergence and Divergence taks about Judaism Christianity and Islam acknowledges the biases that Nash talks about anticipates revolution of anthropocentric environmental ethics talks about how it comes out of monotheism with the regard to taking care of the land has to do with Abrahamic concept of land only what the land can do for humans is important Had idea that the division of labor maintains sustainability of these areas very anthropocentric Peope had specialized jobs cowmen shepherds sheep shearers wool important export land had to be kept in good condition or else land would turn into wastelands and would lose productivity Manors generally small few dozens acres inside difficult to get new land Peope lived on these little units couldn39t really pu rchase more land agricultural land precious Everything produced on the manor self sufficient agricultural units bioregionalism locally grown things are better No need to transport goods over long distances because they were produced right there crop growing local for local people sustainable agriculture The residents of the manor wanted to protect and conserve the animals and the land very survival dependent of them taking care of their land Mutton flesh of a fully grown sheep old sheep Medieval term Don t slaughter until animal is old because you can get so many things from the animal through out its life Lynn White Medieval Technology and Social Change a real analysis of the anthropocentric environmental ethics from the Neolithic age to about 300 years ago before the 1700s there was no community where 910 of the people were not involved with agriculture Complained that medieval history usually just looks at battles and kings Gives history of agriculture transference of olden days to medieval times says the biggest transition was form scratch plow to the heavy plow Sois of northern Europe too dense for the little plow and it was also too wet so they needed the heavy plow Heavy plow caused there to be more technological advances in the forcing of more cooperation a form of farm cooperatives one guy alone couldn39t afford to build a heavy plow so they would pull their resources together and it would be own by 36 peasants the use of oxen also caused farmer cooperation Horsepower problem with horses too wet in Europe so they needed to make horseshoes in order to compensate and combat hoof disease Thus this increased the need of blacksmiths and also increased the productivity of the land by tilling the land with horsedrawn plows three crop field rotation under the three field plan land was divided into thirds They plant different crops on the fields and only use two at a time leaving one field fallow in order to allow the soil time to recover properly In the Roman two crop rotation it was only two crops thus slow and longer down times in the fallow fields This is not ok in Europe with less room too plant compared to the vast Roman lands Three field crop rotation yielded 50 more crops plus it aided in labor division Also good for the environment due to increasing the diversity of what is grown Oats are the best food for horses once you pick the produce they would plow directly afterward thus using the unwanted parts of the plants essentially as fertilizer for the new crops replacing nitrogen levels in the soil Sustainabe agriculture for like 500600 years very self serving very anthropocentric We are stewards of the land Leads to the Izations Commerciaism population grown increased and began to produce goods and food in excess allowing for more commercialized trade Thus the smaller more self sustaining farms were put out of business by larger farms which could produce more goods at a lower price Less concerned about the land more about more and more money Urbanization leaving farms and countryside going more to cities and heavy industry Increasing pace of industrialization Coonization 1600s1800sciviization rising to new urban levels Marvelled at humanities seeming control over nature Lecture 8 2414 1155 AM Midterm February 9 In class one essay on Leopold IFC Portlandia Traditionally think about food as the food chain and food pyramid We like to think about eating a health diet often look at nutritional labels Guttony as a sin Need to think about what we eat by looking at production distribution consumption and waste Production farm level maintenance of what we eat Distribution both the transportation of food as well as the markets themselves Consumption very specific individual choices what you eat why you eat it Waste we throw away a lot of food also animal waste Historical Perspective Scientific Revolution 16th and 17 century in western Europe 0 Rene Descartes 15961650 mechanical philosophy nature functions like a machine said humans were a very distinct type of being very anthropocentric view of nature sees nature as serving a human purpose instead of having intrinsic value Attempt to control the environment and making specific observations do experiments in mathematical way Look at nature attempt to understand it mathmatize it control it Emergence of technologies Charles Darwin On the origin of the Species fundamentally altered the way biology works Said that man kind was just another animal destroyed core idea that humans are exceptional a much more biocentric way of looking at the world Evolution by the process of natural selection The Physiology of Taste by Jean Anthelme Briat Savarin Deals with the idea that humans sit at a table and eat and consume but we do so for reasons not explicitly about eating we talk we socialize we eat because we love it not just to live o 1975 Animal Liberation by Peter Singer Utilitarian Ethics when making a consideration about our actions we should always do that which is the greatest good to the greatest number of people Very practical way of looking at the world In his book he applies Utilitarian Ethics and applies it to animals How do we qualify who has what kinds of rights Think about how we treat animals Do cows and chickens suffer Yes He said that humans were a type of speciesism we treat animals differently just because they aren39t part of our species Utilitarian Ethics Problems doing these types of calculations leads to some problems mentally handicapped child compared to a pig the pig would be worth more according to utilitarian ethics Consumption Most food that comes into grocery stores comes form concentrated animal feeding operations factory farms 0 To provide cheap efficient healthy food abundance 0 Cost a factory farm does have economy of scale gigantic operations and they produce a massive amount of food cheaply however there are many externalities associated with the costs going on that are not directly put into the price tag waste emissions from animal farts and wastes run offs toxic that can spread disease and ruin water supplies a factory farm destroys property values costs include increased medical bills from repeated motions of factory workers costs of cleaning up environmental degradation of factory farms 0 Efficiency they are efficient but there are a lot of secondary factors Government subsidies help factory farms save money Regulatory is not good Contaminations of animals themselves Meat recalls 0 Health concerns an over abundance of meat does lead towards in an increase in cholesterol obesity and heart disease More than 1 million Americans take their drinking water from nitrogen pollutants which can contain antibiotics that were put into animals ecoli 0 Environmental concerns greenhouse gas emissions waste has effected rivers and groundwater o Abundance we have chosen huge amounts of land to grow food to feed animals which we eat feed animals grains produced instead of feeding them to humans turning animal into machines to be eaten We are making more products with less animals 0 Understanding Terms Free Range producers must demonstrate that the poultry has been allows access to the outside outside could mean a window what does outside mean Pastured not a legal term means that birds are allowed to be out in field during the day in cages at night Natural doesn39t mean anything Naturally Enhanced alone it doesn39t mean anything No Hormones against law to give hormones to chickens so that is a marketing term No Antibiotics even chickens that have antibiotics they should have them out of their system Air Chied tastes better because not soaked in chlorine cooled by cold air instead of chlorinated water Slaughter electrified in electrified water usually shocks chickens so that they are stunned so that they don39t feel them cutting their throats Watch Earthlings Halal Kosher religion guidelines do lead towards better health in birds Organic certified organic does mean something but there is a legal certification to term about what they are fed doesn39t talk about ethics of how they are treated o What can you do Sma Scae Solutions be aware of local ordinances Proposition 2 read labels ne conscientious consumer There are two spiritual dangers in not owning a farm One is the danger of supposing that breakfast comes from a grocery and the other that heat comes from a furnace Ado Leopold Waste 10 of developed nations greenhouse gasses comes from growing wasted food twice food needed in US and Europe 0 Conclusions Leopold39s NonWestern Influences 2414 1155 AM Bring blue book Friday Beringia Theory how people were brought to the Americas Humans came out of Africa and moved eastward eventually crossed Bering straight to Alaska Believe that some moved all the way down to tip of south America some to Mexico some to American south west the Aanasazi Hohokam Mogollon Went there probably 1000 BCE Settled into Rio Grande River Valley Gila River Valley and the Colorado River Valley Had very elaborate sandstone dwellings By the 1500s AD they had faded out Puebo Indians ancestors were the Anasazi Hohokam and Mogollon 1000 years old Very strong agriculture communities Spanish decided to colonize area around 1600 Century of war between the Pueblos and Spanish Pueblo Rebellion of 1680 Religious people decided to run the Spanish out of New Mexico back to northern Mexico Eventually the Spanish came back by mid 1700s and there was a period of peaceful coexistence Mexican Cession 1848 treaty brought California and New Mexico into the US Carson National forest established around the same time 1908 This is when Aldo Leopold crossed the pueblos He was supervisor of the Carson National Forest Took a lot of federal government land that was debatable over whether it was government land or Indian land This was the Blue Lake Controversy The Blue Lake the sacred to them It doesn39t matter to them if they government gave them money and agricultural land elsewhere because it still doesn39t equal what the lake meant to them Reflects biocentric viewpoint non materiaistic US government wanted to protect it from getting into the wrong hands 547 recognized tribes in US so dangerous to make an ecological stereotype about the Indians Traditiona pueblo life moved with the changing seasons agricultural but worked with land instead of trying to control it The Whirlpool of Life showed connectedness of life to nature for the pueblo Indians circular course of life as opposed to linear course of life Western civilization sees life as linear intense environmental manipulation Puebos eventually got their way with the Blue Lake Controversy Leopod learned a lot of his land ethic from the Pueblos Leopod had near death experience kidney ailment had to go back and recuperate and while he did that he read about eastern philosophies and religions while he recuperated Impacted his land ethic Origins of Hinduism go back the Indus Valley Indus Valley culture was overwhelmed by these people the Aryans They were an invading culture from the North East Wrote in Sanskrit VedaVedic textstheir religious texts 33 different Hindu deities ways to observe and sacrifice to deities Hindu describes the observers to the Veda Collection of thoughts called Dharma within this there are the concepts of reincarnation rebirth karma cause and effect relationships and Moksha liberation from earthly matters can include the absence of earthly pleasures free mind through practices of yoga Siddhartha Gautama Buddha 563483 BCE Buddha means awakening or enlightenment went through life trying to find the meaning of life born a Hindu wanted to achieve Nirvana the perfection of mind and body through Moksha lived life of poverty for a while wrote philosophized his followers became Buddhists There are Zen Buddhists a sect of Buddhism Buddha is often portrayed in a lotus position Yoga is one of the practices of Moksha improve ones self Shiva oldest Hindu deity Hatha Yoga Vinyasas Sun Salutations The asinas A lot of animal postures in yoga Putting it All Together 2414 1155 AM Pranyama breath and breathing biocentric ethics declined in middle ages Loss of romanticism Cities grew up where countryside had been before Cities magnets for intellectuals Europe and the United state urbanizing in 1700s 1800 s John Muir 18381914 was born in a small town in Dunbar Scotland then moved to near Portage Wisconsin onto a farm Came a year after it had became a state Still extremely rural Dunbar had an area that was inhabited back to 200 AD if not earlier but Wisconsin had never really been touched by human hands Had a cruel strict father who was a religious fanatic Remembered hard work of making a farm out of the wilderness Harsh climate to do farm work in Grew up in wilderness right by lake that shimmered no matter what Image of lake gave him very strong zenlike experience He saw holinessgod in the wilderness Left the farm in 1865 to get away from his father and went to the University of Wisconsin Eventually made his way to urban San Francisco Showed him that he liked the wild more Wrote about aestheticism of nature called themselves romantics uncomfortable with pace of change in urbanized world didn39t like conversion of wild land to land that was developed and tamed Uncomfortable with the idea that any kind of advance for humans is good Romanticized about a distant past Referred back to Breco Roman time Revered primitive cultures thought they shouldn39t be changed and modernized Said natural world was better than improved world Talked a lot about over civiization Afraid man would eventually control everything so wrote pose to celebrate nature Transcendentalists romantics that studied with European romantics but they wanted to restore religion and put god in nature Felt that religion had gone cold Developed faith around good work nature anti savery Very educated Developed nostalgia for nature and wild past as they saw it disappearing o Emerson wrote Nature founder of transcendentalism nature garment for under soul symbolic in its moral bound not something purely of the matter but alive with god39s presence children can see nature better than adults in wildness we return to reason and faith god is in nature 0 Fuller talked about self improvement she said that life is hard because you39re constantly battling the monstrous me that being inside you that is aboritious and jealous and has all the negative components of a human being 0 Thoreau believed that getting away from city of Boston was the best thing that he could do to become contemplative built cabin at Walden pond John Muir started learning about Transcendentalism in college in Madison John Muir39s transcendentalist imagery Talked about sounds of wind in nature as harp music He gave nature a voice said god was in nature he said it was a direct manifestation of the creator Went to Alaska with a Christian reverend Seen as an artist of nature Wrote about science of Yosemite then talked about wonders of nature as he got older The clearest way to the universe is through transc We as humans are just another animal we must learn our place and just be another humble creature John Muir set bio centric standard for world Aldo Leopold says there are some who can live without wild things and some who cannot these essays are from one who cannot Anthropocentric These people went to the same universities but focused on different things studied rationality reason economics science that came from ancient Roman cultures Focused on this part of Greco Roman times Studied Plato Socrates and Aristotle Advanced mathematics and sciences Scientific Revolution in 1700s Think of human as special animal with practical reason George Perkins Marsh Man and Nature 1864 Anticipates a lot of env concerns that we have today Talked about man altering earth Went to college at 15 Served in congress Said humans can alter environment and not always in positive ways man is a disturbing agent the earth is fast becoming unfit for its noblest inhabitant perhaps it will lead to the extinction of the species walk more softly on land Leopold would call it Land Health Developed andunheathy land Clean up act or face destruction Developed modern anthropocentric Bertrand Russell Logical positivism cant be too sure about anything Strong only values non human species if they are useful to humans so no ethics applied to it Immanuel Kantweak talks about the moral responsibility to the rest of nature call it stewardship Biocentrism nature has rights and we are part of it Weak nature doesn39t really have rights unless we give it nature but we should give it to nature Draws on reason and law of Socrates and stoics Draws from bible Says that we do have dominion but that we have responsibility Strong we have no responsibility for stewardship for things that aren39t valuable to humans Marshweak anthro but also said that if we don39t practice stewardship we face global disaster Talked about deforestation top soil loss contaminated water used Roman empire as test case Leopold read marsh and made him want to be a forester is what made him rail against abrahamic concept of land expand on greeks and romans hindus native Americans sustainable agriculture Environmenta Ethics The study of proper human behavior regarding use and treatment of the land water flora and fauna of Planet Earth Leopod To make men aware that their environment was a community to which they belonged not that they possessed Check out the end of Round River Leopold quote about conservation MIDTE RM REVIEW Analyzing Aldo Leopold39s influences for his land ethic and A Sand County Almanac both bio centric and anthropocentric environmental ethics Biocentric gods and religions of the ancients Mesopotamians Egyptians Greeks Romans 9 lifestyles of those societies 9 revivals of Greco Roman naturalism Native American and Eastern philosophies 9 Muir and Bio centrism influences views Anthropocentric herding and agriculture cultures religions codes practices 9 monotheistic cultures and the Middle Ages 9 Food and ethics revivals of Greco Roman science and philosophy 9 Marsh and Anthropocentrism influences views Readings Sections 15 of reader and all of Leopold Deep Ecology and the Future of HumanKind Radical Feminism 1973Roe Vs Wade choice of abortion Goria Stein misogyny hatred of women dated back to Adam and Eve Hatred of women and hatred of women are mutually connected amp connected to Gaia hypothesis Vandana Shiva women and nature are marginalized more attention should be granted to women environmental ethics as opposed to men s environmental ethics Ecosophy Tdeep ecology links of deep ecology to Leopold and Carson Norway developed ideas of biosophy 1940s evoved into ecophilosophy Deep Ecology idea sprung by Ernie Naess 191220009 who was a strongly opposed to the Nazi movement Deep ecology went against Dominant paradigm between human and environment relationship Human beings are the masters of the earth and everything is centered around them It was time for a new paradigm called Ecoogica egaitarianism every form of life a right to function normally with equal rights Everything has equal right to life and to blossom species and ecosystems A River should be unencumbered and allowed to flow from the source to the mouth Deep ecoogists say humans have the right to be humans If we are part of the greater whole the system then the question is shouldn39t they get to function as they have evolved to do plunder use destroy kill Philosophical discussion since 1970s Sef reaization George Sessions student of Naess who continued deep ecology thinking Using Aldo Leopold39s arguments they argue that killing is part of the ecosystem Humans should not kill or exploit resources beyond vital needs Environmental ethics Humans must restrain themselves and pursue only their vital needs Bioregionalism live gently simply in a bioregion ex Santa Cruz Island Shallow ecology Old style conservation a la Gifford Pinchot conservation view point of Park Services wilderness preserved because people will enjoy it anthropocentric we must be stewards of the land and preserve its integrity for us Deep ecologists say that this viewpoint is too anthropocentric its not all about humans they decry Deep Ecoogy connected to Ecoterrorism EF use violence and sabotage Has it started to fall with the death of Ernie Naess Still permeates discussions of modern environmental ethics Satish Kumar discipe of Naess Reading Summary What struck me most about the reading but mainly quotWilderness and the American Mind was the progressive description of man39s attitude towards nature as it changes through time The evolution from folklore and mythology to necessity of conquering the land and finally adopting an ethical perspective as feeding the population became less of an issue With this class being centered on the topic of environmental ethics namely Aldo Leopold39s quotland ethic it is interesting to observe past thoughts and beliefs on what the natural world was and had to offer according to the people in each respective time period This weeks readings catapulted us back in time as well and the anthropocentric viewpoints were still just as prevalent Religion is at the foundation of many societies Religious thoughts and practices dictate what their followers do because religion has the ability to set up the concept of right and wrong good and bad In Western societies JudeoChristian philosophy dominated and still continues to dominate for the most part In numerous passages in the Old and New Testament alike the wilderness is depicted as an evil environment where the devil dwells The separation from the wild or natural is what God wanted and the Promise Land was filled with abundant water and arable land Close followers of Christian doctrine challenged the distinct separation of the man from wild most notably St Francis of Assisi The domination of land and animals by man is mentioned in the first book of the Bible and this thought is never let go The utilitarian use of the land during these times can be blamed on the fact that they needed to survive but this notion has been carried on for centuries and has yet to leave mainstream thought The most interesting aspect of Roderick s quotOld World Roots of Opinion in my opinion is the fact that he mentions how Eastern culturesreligions regard the environment The reverence shown to animals and land alike in Buddhism and Hinduism portrays that this concept or idea of man above nature had not consumed all humans at this point in time very poignant Take a look at the PETA website How does the website39s content writing photographs video etc make youthe audience empathetic to animals What are the rhetorical devices used effects an empathy for things beyond the human As soon as the website loads you see four pictures in the middle of the screen looking at them clockwise we see a rabbit a kitty and a pig all surrounding the picture of an adorable human baby The marketing of the message that the PETA delivers is extremely powerful as it touches on our deepest emotion of sympathy and empathy Their videos catch our attention with powerful music footage that depict the worst and even disgusting treatments of some animals Paul Mcartney English singer and songwriter narrates the video which enhances the strength behind the message as a well known celebrity discusses the issue He is careful to explain how hens are intelligent and social animals with an elaborate social ranking system He says they have the ability to reason greater than that of children and dogs These two references specifically compare the chickens to things that we protect with all our might When discussing the conditions of mother pigs he notes how they don39t even have enough space to breastfeed their own pigets this makes people relate to a real mother being separated from her children and how truly horrible this is In this same manned caves are taken away from their mother cows which he says causes them distress In their section called Veggie Love beautiful women are displayed loving fruits and veggies to show that it is acceptable to each vegetables and not animals This triggers the human sex appeal with the woman posing with sexual implications I think the most important approach of the PETA is that which humanizes any of the animals that we see We have grown accustomed to differentiating animals from humans and placing ourselves in higher esteem but the PETA turn this notion around and show that dogs can be sad chickens have thoughts and pigs are intelligent which then forces us to place their position in perspective Future of ethics Planetary ethics must be separated from environmental ethics for future generations Agriculture Ethic used to be don39t abuse land water and resources so as not to jeopardize your life Leopold39s land ethic combination of biocentrism and anthropocentrism NEPA ESA Expressions of a future generation environmental ethics Expansion of Gaia hypothesis 1919 James Lovelock earth has been very good at maintaining the stability of its resources the sun is 25 hotter than it was previously the earth is alive and has responded to changes with chemical changes Earth and everything that lives on it is one part of a living system Human race is making Gaia s job much harder to kill gaia is to kill ourselves FINAL Last page of reader Berey article on deep ecology what is it What does it criticize bioregionaism Problem with organizing egalitarian movement Reading from section 9 in reader Bioregionalism belief that environmental problems begin at home and individuals carry out to the world 265 Get back to the land culture of the back to the earth60s educated younger kids that realize they should be happy with where they live content oneself with basic living standard What is a bioregion Santa Cruz sand Shasta Forest What39s Ecological Egalitarianism Ecological community fairness and equality The Dutch support this movement Chose a life that associates with bioregionaism fair towards the environment It also puts people on equal footing making sure that certain people aren t exploiting resources causing some to be rich and some to be poor This plays hand in hand with the Gaia hypothesis because everything is connected and earth is one important things where all functions on earth ad to its survival and are therefore important Addressing Prompt 2 How do we know what future earthlings will want Expectations from TA Write an interesting paper think about why you are interested in the topic you chose argument that generally addresses the prompt include all factors prove your argument thoroughy be direct about stating your argument if you state that someone is a martyr show how they are a martyr and then explain why their method is effective or not High School Student Discovers Plastic eating microbes We have to come an era where human waste is compiling and creating a direct threat to numerous ecosystems Previous attempts of handling large amounts of trash have been mainly directed at removing it from human habitation to prevent the spread of disease as well as the unsightly views of trash Now as our landfills overflow we look to find a sustainable solution because our population is only growing along with our consumption Of course we can look to greater areas of land the ocean or space but environmental ethics must be considered Have we asked ourselves what types of ecosystems we have destroyed while creating the continually growing landfills It39s interesting to note that we haven39t considered any alternative options previously and this goes to show that humans still only act when their own needs and convenience are harmed It was perfectly fine to create massive landfills and dump all of our trash there Nobody sees or knows where the trash that we leave in our bin disappears to overnight But when we start hearing that new landfills need to be opened possibly near human dwellings we find ourselves searching frantically for other solutions Well a teenage boy is ahead of the game in this respect He has been breeding plastic eating microbes which have decomposed a sample of plastic 43 in just the last 6 weeks We have heard other instances of such microbes such as the Gulf of Mexico oil spill where microbes took over and decomposed a large percentage of the oil in the water Now it39s is up to us to make use of natures wonder and start diminishing the scars that we are leaving on this planter LEOPOLD AND GRECOROMAN NATURALISM AND SCIENCE Ethnopocentric point of view learned from the bible He follows Greek literature carefully this lead him to believe that nature must also have right Minoans advanced sea faring cuture heaviy influenced by Egyptians Mycenae 15001100 BCE came down to Greek isles Traders amp pirates Language called linear B Tax records strong connection to Mesopotamia s structure of taxes City states Greek Economy Farming and agriculture Couldn39t do large scale mammal domestication such as cattle and sheep because of the lack of space and foraging area Lack of arable land and freshwater Only one crop that they grew with success Barely but also grapes and olives Not enough clean water so they drank Vin Greek History Sought to explain the origins of the earth took most of their information form Egyptians Hesiod wrote works and days amp Theogony birth of the gods got the story from the muses Gaia Hypothesis Mother earth from chaos comes everything the earth is alive Eros love and desire Followed by night and darkness Demigod half mortal amp gods Italian representation of the Greeks found in middles Aristotle and Socrates Aristotle Plato Socrates Aristotles Sylogisms To leave our generation with something more than a desolate destroyed earth absent of natures beauties and resources the current generation will need to abide by strict ethics towards the environment Environmental ethics is a complicated multifaceted issue that must be detailed appropriately and painstakingly defined in such respect The modern definition presents an all encompassing form of ethical consideration for a global timeline quotthe present and the future as well as directions for quotproper behavior means limiting economic and other human activities that are harmful to the global ecological heath n addition we must make it clear that quotglobal ecological health not only protects the overall health of our ecosystems but also protect individual living beings The current system that we have in place is directed towards exploitation of our natures living and nonliving resources and to bring ourselves closer to following the definition of environmental ethics we will have to adopt certain aspects of Deep Ecology ecological egalitarianism and bioregionalism However the feasibility of adopting these ideas in full is limited due their impact on human morals and ethics as well as the lifestyle that we have grown so accustomed to The concepts of Ecological Egalitarianism and Deep Ecology work hand in hand to remove man39s negative impact on Earth39s Flora and Fauna but must be approached with caution as they infringe on our moral and ethical standards Arnes Naess a Norwegian philosopher and monumental figure in the world of environmental studies coined the term quotDeep Ecology in the early 197039s This philosophy strives to dig deeper than any environmental protection ideas and movement of the time Ecological egalitarianism suggests that we must be mindful about equal appropriation of resources and space between all species The quotAbrahamic traditions referred to by Aldo Leopold have for centuries pushed man to conquer the land and turn all of nature39s gifts into utilities and property These utilities and property are separated between a select few of the entire human population and this hoarding brings great troubles to humans and nature alike We have reached a point in the development of mankind where there are sufficient resources to feed and clothe every man woman and child The leveling of classes is an interesting idea and certainly represents ethical repartition of the environment but remains an idea that is unattainable in our society We have grown to live off competition in the capitalist system maximizing profits while minimizing losses and liability are the most important factors Therefore as the definition suggests a serious change in politics and economics would be required before this type of change could be considered The concept goes on to state the detrimental effects of overcrowdingthe growth of human population has encroached on the habitats of many species and these must be restored to their natural state Also stating the lifespace requirement within mammalian species In high levels of crowding animals tend to show higher signs of neuroses and aggressiveness In response Arne Naess argues that the human population should be lowered to 1 billion people to allow the repopulation of nature39s other species This is a number that we haven39t seen in over 200 years on planet earth and suggesting this as a means of protecting nature is a serious breach of human morals and ethics How do we chose and then tell people they may or may not have children How are we to maintain a work force to uphold the lives of current living people without inducing starvation or the collapse of our economic and political system We cannot reject the confines of current ethical political and moral standards which mean these are all questions that must be considered as we rule out some of the ideals presented by Deep Ecology and Ecological Egalitarianism Humans must find a balance when considering environmental ethics in an attempt to maximize the benefits for the earth without infringing on ethics or morals To best protect the environment while providing for the needs of the current human population it is integral to merge human benefits with environmental welfare We must learn to adopt concepts of bioregionalism and learn to live within our own means and value what we have As Foreman states quotHuman beings have stepped beyond the bounds we are destroying the very process of life and until we can clearly asses how we are changing and destroying these processes and manage these changes we need to step within our quotbounds According to bioregionalism this means utilizing resources that are local to us and living within the boundaries of our region I believe that it is important to quotthink globally and act locally to the greatest extent possible without harming the work and education systems we have in place If we are to follow the concept of bioregionalism to its full extent education would no longer be part of our lives as each individual of a bioregion would have to work to feed themselves and their community Our society is divided in well thought out segments which operate as separate limbs of the same organism allowing some to feed the world while others work in the areas of politics education serviceetc It took this type of separation of duties to arrive to the advanced civilization that we are today and there is no possibility of backtracking without making unimaginable sacrifices It is clear that bioregionalism is an important concept to reduce human s impact on nature but cannot be adopted fully without dire circumstances which would breach ethical standards that we have in place today Similarly to bioregionalism humans should pursue a biocentric point of view following Aldo Leopold39s studies A true appreciation of what we have and a distancing from what we long for will slow the progress machine and create a greater appreciation for nature This type of education and appreciation of nature39s functions is the basis for further ethical extensionalism according to Leopold39s ideas Ethical extensionalism is the attribution of ethical consideration which changes over time as humans experience and educates themselves It has gone from right of women slave children and is now headed towards the granting of rights to all living things and perhaps one day all of earth elements living and nonliving As humans have advanced technology to a point where all of our actions have the possibility of harming the nature around us it is important to the future of our planet for people to speak for nature Speaking for the land was first brought to the attention of the law in 1972 when Walt Disney was granted rights to build a ski resort in Mineral King and was challenged by the Sierra Club due to the scale of effects this project would have on the environment Sierra Club was not an entry party but William Douglass and a historian Christopher Stone wrote a 50 page dissent explaining how the trees should have standing They requested that they be granted legal standing so that they could speak for the trees which was approved marking a monumental change for the future of natures living beings 1511 Lecture Notes Following the speaking of the land the Endangered Species Act was votes unanimously in the house in 1972 and in 1980 the PETA People for the ethical treatment of animals was founded taking leaps and bounds in the effort to protect every species on earth The protection of living beings on earth shows how human ethics have evolved over time to assign intrinsic value to all animals and plants in alienating themselves from utilitarian conservationalism and pursuing a biocentric regard towards all of earth39s elements instead However important the protection of animals may be there are limits to this protection which include animal testing which has saved millions of people lives by discovering vaccines for small pox and polio making replacement reduction and refinement of these animals the only methods of limiting the harm Lecture notes Granting organizations the ability to speak for the protection of nature is a big step towards structuring the future of mankind39s place alongside all other species on earth For far too long humans have turned a blind eye to treating the environment with ethical consideration and now when the quotdiversity of perhaps 30 million species faces radical and unprecedented change Dave Foreman we must study the proper behavior to achieve the environmental wellbeing of the planet for the present and the future As we work towards the protection of the global ecological health we will adopt ideas presented by great environmental figures namely Deep Ecology environmental egalitarianism and bioregionalism These must be implemented with the highest consideration of current moral and ethical standards that humans have developed and will only run into opposition if they do otherwise Now that humans have attributed rights to all living species we must minimize areas that infringe on such rights such as animal testing all the while maintaining man39s interests in mind Throughout the last century the battle for environmental protection has been met with serious and sometimes violent opposition which leads us to the understanding that to continue our progress towards global environmental ethics we must work to seamlessly integrate the new ideas with the economic and social structures that we have in place today and that benefit all of mankind Works Cited Environmental Ethics 188 Reader 20102011 Foreman Environmental Ethics Environmental Ethics Reader 188 20102011 G Graves Lecture Environmental Studies Environmentanl Ethics 188 20102010 Midterm Review Key Terms Land Ethic Transcendentalismz God is within natural and everywhere Anthropocentric John Muir and Sierra Club quotThe philosophical perspective asserting that ehitcal principles apply to humans only and that human needs and interests are of highest and even exclusive value and importance Thus concern for non human entities is limited to those entities having value to humans 134 reader Strong Anthropocentrismquotnotion that nonhuman species and natural objects have value only to the extent that they satisfy afufi able human desirewhether or not it is based on thought and reflection Weakquotaffirmation that nonhumans and natural objects can satisfy a human need or desire that is based on careful deliberation and is compatible with a rationally adopted world viewthus weak anthros value nonhuman entities for more than their use in meeting unreflective human needs they value them for enriching the human experience Human capacity to reason plays a large role in arguments as to our superiority also language Modern anthropocentrismquotA crisis occurs when our knowledge of nature which determines our power to exploit nature exceeds our improvement in the quality of our lives An anthropocentric belief in the value meaningfulness and creative potential of the human phenomenon is considered a necessary motivating factor to participatory evolution whichmay be requisite to the future survival of the human species and its cultural values 141 reader biocentrism quotMan always kill the things he oves Aldo Leopold Even if you are conversationalist and nature lover as soon as you venture into the true wilderness you expose the nature to human contact and destruction Abrahamic traditionquotMonotheism Judaism Christianity reader Lynn White39s thesis Christianity bears major responsibility for the current environmental crisis Naturalism Gk Native America Philosophies Eastern Theology when farming rice must have specific terrace landprecision and special work of the landstrong support of nature life goes full circle biocentrism If you believe in reincarnation as a different you are automatically biocentric and equal treatment of other animals is a must Agricultural methods and change science Food ethics Monotheismpaganism Land ethic We can only be ethical towards something we can feel we love or understand 214 ourab p72 When God gave man tree he was able to give trees when man got axe he became a taker man has power to destroy and give anthropocentric quotTo make man aware of land as a community not one they posses class quote p204 in the Odyssey Odysseus kills servant women and this is accepted Leopold compares this to the changing mindset of land ethic evolution of peoples conception of laws p225 quotemotional processconservationalism is dangerous because it is devoid of critical understanding of the land or economical land views Leopold Role of science in this is to describe the basic role that humans effects have on nature Talk about all the themes listed above for midterm NOTES FROM READING Natures hand at work creation prairies and forest line by rabitts amp mice 27 Sky Danceanthropocentric explanation of the mating ritual of the woodcock with curtains drawing and preparation for a theatrical spectacle 31 He has a paternal feeling for the pine which he planted while the region is covered in birch69 Manipulation of land by man Extinction of pigeons 110 for one species to mourn the death of another is a new thing under thesun See famous quotfierce green fire quote wolvesSaw mother wolf dying and the fierce green fire leaving her body Ethical extensionismovertime society has granted a larger ethics to humans and then other living things Ex slavery has become unacceptable as well a severe hunting p 181 more and more mechanization with corresponding shrinkage in cultural values especially splitrail values and ethical restraints Tech influences anthropocentrism telling ppl where the animals are making them targets instead of knowing the wildlife travels the land quotOne such deserves special mention the quotwheretogo department knowledge of the whereabouts of the good hunting or fishing is a very personal form of property Modernization is catalyzing human efforts in attaining the Abrahamic vision of conquering the land quotWildlife managers are trying to raise game in the wild by manipulating the environment and thus to convert hunting from exploitation to cropping Think like a mountain The mountain has heard the cry of the wolf for centuries whilst the man can39t possibly know enough control the wildlife living in the mountain range The Shepherd will try to trim the number of wolves to protect his cows but he doesn39t 1 part of the book Biocentric point of view takes notice of the small processes of life 3 Values Wildlife amp American Culture 1Split rail concept positive cultural attributes attained by learning and participating in nature 2necessary importance of the ecological food chain peopleanimalplantsoil we depend most highly on the bottom of this food chain while only focusing our efforts to preserve the top 3positive attributes of sportsmanship its our moral obligation to demonstrate this capability because even though we have the means to eradicate these species its ties us to biocentrism as someone who acts responsibly towards our equals wildlife With the advancement and modernization of society as a whole our views towards ethics and man39s role in the world has changed drastically since the first record of the consideration of ethos in the time of Aristotle 400 BC Issues such as woman39s children39s and slaves rights have been challenge and reversed as we progress towards and egalitarian society and the possibility of granting every living thing a certain right It s only natural after pondering the ethics of treatment of one human to another that we consider human behavior regarding the use and treatment of land air water flora and fauna of Planet Earth in essence what Aldo Leopold refers to as land ethic in the Sand County Almanac Along with names such as Gifford Pinchot and John Muir Leopold is recognized as one of the greatest environmental conversationalist of all time pushing all men to reconsider our actions towards the Land which we rely on so severely Starting with his education at the Yale school of forestry Leopold led a life that predisposed him to the biocentric views that he adopts in his narrative of the Sand County Almanac Introduction of Anthropocentrism vs Biocentrism Biocentrism is an ethical point of view which extends inherent values to non human species the ecosystem and natural processes Code of Hammurabi amp Old Testament Ancient laws regarding the land Botzer s Environmental Ethics weak and strong Anthropocentrism Human capacity of reason and language thinking of ethics Biocentrism Jonh Muir When one tugs a single thung in nature he finds it attached to the rest of the world GrecoRoman Naturalism Personification of Sky Earth even to the point of them making ove and it is these elements that decide the fate of man Native American Relationship Land Dependence of Native Indians on Buffalo expresses an intimate for of biocentrism as these cultures worshipped and lived of the buffalo They migrated with them they were careful to not overexploit them because the entirety of their livelihoods came from these beasts Tents Weapons ifestyea dictated by the herd Leopold A thing is right when it tends to preserve integrity stability and beaty of the biotic community It is wrong when it tends otherwise Sand County Almanac Outline Aldo Leopold Prompt Analyze Aldo Leopold39s influences on his Land Ethic and the Sand County Almanac I Introduction A Define Environmental Ethics The study of the proper human behavior regarding the use and treatment of the land air water flora and fauna of Planet Earth B The Unthinkabe articleethe extension of ethicsrights to things that once did not have any ie women children immigrants shoud be extended to land ethics Ethical Extensionism p204 in the Odyssey Odysseus kills servant women due to in delities and this is accepted Leopold compares this to the changing mindset of land ethic evolution of peoples conception of laws C Introduce concept of Anthropocentric vs Biocentric Biocentric an individual is a member of a community for interdependent parts Land ethic enlarges the boundaries of the community to include soiwater pantseverything II Anthropocentric A Abrahamic Tradition Code of Hammurabi amp Old Testament Ancient Laws regarding land Tota Utilitarian Use The Code of Hammurabi offers over 300 clear guidelines and laws but it centered around the ownership of man over property land field and animals All of the laws explain punishments that are placed upon individuals who damage another s property Abrahamic tradition ownership of the land God created the world and placed it at Man39s disposition traced back to the garden of Eden Abraham knew exactly what the land and honey was for it was to drip milk and honey into his mouth B Botzer s quotWeak and Strong Anthropocentrism Human Capacity to reason along with advanced language plays a large role in arguments as to our superiority Strong Anthropocentrismquotnotion that nonhuman species and natural objects have value only to the extent that they satisfy afufi able human desirewhether or not it is based on thought and reflection Weakquotaffirmation that nonhumans and natural objects can satisfy a human need or desire that is based on careful deliberation and is compatible with a rationally adopted world viewthus weak anthros value nonhuman entities for more than their use in meeting unreflective human needs they value them for enriching the human experience Modern anthropocentrismquotA crisis occurs when our knowledge of nature which determines our power to exploit nature exceeds our improvement in the quality of our lives An anthropocentric belief in the value meaningfulness and creative potential of the human phenomenon is considered a necessary motivating factor to participatory evolution whichmay be requisite to the future survival of the human species and its cultural values 141 reader III Biocentrism John Muir When one tugs a single thing in nature he finds it attached to the rest of the world Related to web will fail if you remove to many of the strands away from the web if you take too much of the aboriginal health away from the land then you39ll ruin the land Saw the mother wolf dying and the fierce green fire leaving her body the chains everything is important Aristotle The Great Chain of Being the creator had an unlimited number of life forms man is mid way on the chain A GrecoRoman Naturalism Hesiod Theogeny List of natural Pagan Gods Each natural element has a God that is respected List some God names what they relate to in nature B Native American Relationship with Land 137 quotWe spoke harshly of the Spaniards for needlessly extinguishing the native Indians in their pursuit of gold and converts it did not occur to us that we too were captains of an invasion too sure of its own righteousness Relates to Greek naturaism Indians whole culture revolves around the Buffalo their migrating patterns eating and overall sustenance depends on these iconic beasts They built their tents out of the fur used their bones and worshipped the creature to maintain their food supply C Leopold39s Land Ethic and How it ties into these and refutes anthropocentrism Gifford Pinchot of US Forest Service prevailing land ethic sum biotic community was economic and utilitarian while Leopold argued for an ecological approach quotA thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity stability and beauty of the biotic community It is wrong when it tends otherwise How science and technology strayed us from landewe outgrew it Tech influences anthropocentrism telling ppl where the animals are making them targets instead of knowing the wildlife travels the land quotOne such deserves special mention the quotwheretogo department knowledge of the whereabouts of the good hunting or fishing is a very personal form of property Essentia decoupling of land and economic benefit needs to be given intrinsic value 188 quotWidife has still another value now visible only to a few ecoogists We must be conscious of the permanent damage that we are doing to the land even if it is for future uses of medicine to help us survive Viewing other species from an anthropocentric point of view to support biocentrism We would take notice if the last pigeon died but all the humans died no other species would make a conscious note of our extinction 110 for one species to mourn the death of another is a new thing under the sun The extension of social conscience from people to the and mportance of Split Rail Values p 181 more and more mechanization with corresponding shrinkage in cultural Values especially splitrail Values and ethical restraints The natural process of evolution wants to elaborate on diversity biodiversity and biota not slim it down As humans we have worked to simplify the biota by eliminating what we see as competitors to our survival and growth such as coyotes and wolves However this biodiversity is an integral part of maintaining the ecosystem for purposes of resilience and resistance of species Eliminating biodiversity makes humans more vulnerable in the overall picture because species will have more trouble recuperating with this loss of biodiversity IV Conclusion A Readdress Environmental Ethics As a species that has the gift and capability to reason and language it is our duty to act in responsible fashions towards use of the land and nature We have gone through periods in our history where we have forgotten how reliable we are on land and we must take a moment to consider adopting the Native ndian s worship and care for the land or suffer the possibilities of species extinction which in the long run will harm us These ethics are all considered from an anthropocentric point of view but used to highlight the importance of naturalism and biocentrism as important elements to the cultural development of humans as a species B Aldo Leopold39s Impact Ideals and realityeweak anthropocentrism C What to do next environmentally speaking Week 4 In my opinion there is no question to the detrimental effects of human advancement by the anthropocentric views of Monotheistic religions The mindset where man39s role is to control the land and where man dominates above all other animal species was understandable at the time of the Bible and Ko ran But as society advances so must our mindset while teachings in these old manuscripts are dedicated to the old ways of people We can trace this example back to numerous scientific discoveries which served as quintessential advancements for human development such the rotation of the planets around the Sun and not vice versa as was believed in previous times Galileo was treated as a heretic for his discovery and his discoveries treated as lies Now Lynn White39s thesis says that Christianity bears a major responsibility for the current environmental crisis in western society but I think this is view is a bit extremist As we know there are many different sect of Christianity as well as the other monotheistic religions As explained in the text Christianity is separated by those that believe in quottheism versus those that believe in quotdeism These lacking ethical views towards the environment are examples of what Leopold strongly stands against in his narratives towards the Abrahamic treatment of nature It must be noted that at the times of the writing of these ancient texts man39s modification of the land was minimal and barely noticeable compared to what we are able to do these days With technological advancement we have acquired the ability to cut down entire forests drain large bodies of water and essentially build anywhere we want These levels of exploitation increased drastically in the medival times around the time where Christianity began winning over the Pagan religions and changing the overall mindset of people towards nature The ideas of Deep Ecology present factors that cannot be ignored if we are ever to consider human use of resource sustainable and limiting interference with the non human world According to the Deep Ecology Platform richness and diversity of life forms are values in themselves and contribute to the flourishing of human and non human life on Earth This is a very new idea for human impact on the environment because for centuries we have distanced ourselves from a biocentric point of view away from the native Indian treatment of nature and polytheistic respect of nature It is difficult as a human being to grasp that everything in nature including rocks and water have equal status with living beings These do make sense if you sit back and think about the beauty and intricacies of nature but I have always been a very realistic person and without some damage to the environment there would be no human survival Even in the novel A Friend of the Earth when the protagonist and his wife go naked into nature and survive off nothing but what they catch they still harm nature and the ecosystem around them Just to survive they kill golden trout which are considered a threatened species This examples goes to show that even at the most basic survival level humans damage the earth and must manipulate the environment Humans have no right to reduce this richness and diversity except to satisfy vital needs This statement is easily challenged and needs to be debated thoroughly because human s vital needs are debatable It is true that we have surpassed the use of resources to simply survive but as mentioned in the above example we could not support a civilization Without manipulating the land humans would still be fending off starvation every time the seasons change Another interesting point is Striving towards a low population to allow species to grow and inhabit territories that they lived in previously Population control by the government is a breach of serious ethical issues which has been seen in China with the 1 child law The way they supported this law is with heavy taxes on living and education costs for an extra child and it became so deeply engrained in the social norm that people with more than one kid were looked down upon which created a sort of social control I do agree that there needs to be some sort of population control but it is hard to consider a world where human population has been reduced significantly enough to allow large predators to return to their original habitats Review Easter Island Over exhaustion of land fisheries and resources wipe out of population famine lack of resources die offs Good representation of what could happen to the rest of our planet preview warning of our potential futures How did we get to the dieoff stage 0 Lack of thought Cornucopian myth of limitless resources 0 Overhunting smartest people of tribe didn39t consider detrimental effects 0 Utilitarianism with no conservation checks Tragedy of the commons Individual over exploitation of resources until the general common is hurt Main sources of survival disappear Fishing birds wood Lost knowledge of making boats Birds lose habitat trees Giant Structure building 20 70ft moai Currency of a spiritual economy Clans would compete to build the biggest ones when resources were scarce Upped caloric intake by 25 of entire society Animal Rights Consciousness Greening of America New way of life 0 De institutionaization o De aienation o De speciaization Mechanization of mankind 0 Industrial revolution 0 Striving for easier and better life 0 New Deal Consciousness I Individualism Rural based traditions Consciousness II Big social institutions Public need and betterment is the motivating factor Larger scale of organization economic planning greater degree of political administration Consciousness III Transcendence find fulfillment in life work One of the most important means employed by the new generations in seeking to transcend technology is to pay attention to the great nonmachine elements that are always with us Technology The market idea of progress the institutions that support Zen amp motorcycle maintenance Paper Outline A Friend of the Earth TC Boyle Chose a character 1 Provider for the animals making an ethical decision to save the animals by providing his mansion as protection when it is raining 2 Sierra Dietary changes vegetarian then vegan Tracks animals background Tree sitting possiby forgot her initial reasons for protecting the trees turns into sef absorbed nature sefish 3 Tyrone Torn between altruism environment vs his volatile temper Many things he does contradict the benefits of the environment Disillusionment Environmentalism and Ethics rationa environmentalism doesn39t work The intricacies of the obedience of laws is challenged in the quotAnimal Rights and Human Morality article where morals are attributed to laws that must be followed A section of the article goes to state that laws passed in Nazi Germany are not real laws and hold no ground because they were not built on true morals Well I am not one to support the laws of Nazi Germany but I will argue that laws are often times created and enforced either disregarding morals or lacking proper thought about implications of such law To add to this we find that morals are constantly shifting as we have seen previously with Leopolds extensionalism of ethics where it was normal to have slaves and give no rights to women or children to new ideas where these laws are considered absolutely immoral So how do we account for changing morals if we have created laws based on our previous ideas Do we constantly modify our laws and what does that say about enforcing laws that are created which will hypothetically be changed in the future In the ideals of Logical positivists who take a highly utilitarian stance argue that the quotthe purpose of law is the advancement of general welfare But this also creates a grey area as quotgeneral welfare is not a stand that supports the seamless integration of morals in laws Therefore when discussing the rights of animals we must distance ourselves from this mindset and create laws that are ethically sound which is a debate in itself Covering the laws of animals we find that in most cases laws surround your property so pets cattle sheep and if they are damaged you the owner is protected by the law However this is the old mindset over animals and today we see a new take on the position of animals within our society Laws concerning morals have been introduced and abusing harming or killing animals in many cases is illegal As humans we are able to attribute ethics to our actions and it is our duty to act responsibly towards other species and not destroy everything that we are able to which is in fact everything
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