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Citizen of Rome: Dr. Frederick D. Wilhelmsen In his book of essays, Citizen of Rome: Reflections from the Life of a Roman Catholic (1980), Frederick Wilhelmsen—or “Fritz” as he was known to his friends—described growing up in the Catholic ghetto of Detroit before World War II. He made the point that it was not at all a confining experience, as some Catholics later protested after the Second Vatican Council when assimilationists called for the mainstreaming of the Church into the wider American society. On the contrary, said Wilhelmsen, his parish church in the Catholic ghetto was the very symbol and reality of Transcendence, a summons to the higher life in the Modern world which threatened to enclose him and everyone else in a deformed condition of pure immanence. When young Wilhelmsen passed through the doors of his parish chuich and into the Presence of Our Lord in the Blessed Sacrament he entered Heaven itself. Theologian William Marshner of Christendom College, whose founding in 1977 as an orthodox Catholic College was owing mainly to the inspiration of Wilhelmsen and his apostolic colleague, L. Brent Bozell, wrote that his mentor developed this great truth of the Catholic Faith in a lifetime of teaching and writing. “Fritz Wilhelmsen [Dr. Marshner went on] was unique because he believed in Christendom—the real Christendom of throne and altar…To Fritz, Christendom was achievable and good for mankind, and history was groaning for it, suffocating without it…” ii Frederick D. Wilhelmsen was born on May 18, 1923 in Detroit, Michigan of Swiss and Danish descent. As a boy his life was threatened by pneumonia on several occasions, but he grew strong and tall, towering in his presence. His parents early introduced him to the works of Catholic thinkers like John Cardinal Newman, Gilbert K. Chesterton, Hilaire Belloc, and Christopher Dawson. Fritz’s first book, published in 1053, was, not surprisingly, on Hilaire Belloc. It was revealingly subtitled No Alienated Man . Like the great historian and defender of the Faith, Wilhelmsen was himself no “alienated man.” “For him,” said his companion-in-arms, Dr. Warren H. Carroll, “romance, reason, and iii faith were one.” “Had we had ten Hilaire Bellocs in the English-speaking world in the past fifty years,” Fritz declared later, “we might have converivd the whole kit-and- caboodle and avoided the mess we find ourselves in today.” After leaving the University of Detroit to serve as a medic in World War II, Fritz took his B.A. In philosophy at the University of San Francisco in 1947, and then went on to Notre Dame where he received the M.A. for his thesis on St. Thomas Aquinas under Msgr. Gerald Phelan and Yves Simon, both distinguished students of Jacques Maritain. From South Bend Wilhelmsen took a teaching position at the University of Santa Clara in California. It was there that the young professor attracted world-wide attention when he led a public protest against the U.S. Government’s decision not to help the Hungarian Freedom-Fighters during the uprising of 1956. With over a thousand students Fritz signed a petition to take up arms, if necessary, to aid the anti-communist Hungarian revolutionaries. In 1958 Wilhelmsen, having moved to Spain with his wife and three young daughters, was awarded the doctorate by the University of Madrid, writing his dissertation on the Thomism of Jacques Maritain. He then taught at the University of Navarra in Pamplona before accepting in 1965 a professorship in philosophy and politics at the University of Dallas, where he was to work closely with Willmore Kendall and Louise Cowan in establishing the University’s graduate institute of Philosophic Studies. His growing reputation as a lecturer and author—he was affectionately known among the students as “MetaFritz”—led to his receiving invitations to teach as a visiting professor in Argentina, Bagdhad, Mexico, Peru, and Nicaragua. Dr. Wilhelmsen’s former student and close friend, Dr. Thomas Schaefer of the University of Texas, who was with Fritz when he died from heart failure on May 21, 1996, recalled in his eulogy at the funeral Mass his mentor’s youthful life-changing experience which Weilhelmsen was to describe many years later in his memoirs. It fulfilled, Dr. Schaefer said, what Jacques Maritain believed every true philosopher must experience—an “intuition of being” which he then developsover a lifetime of philosophical reflection. v It was then, upon that bright morning, alone on my bicycle, that I was hit with an intense awareness. Sweeping through me and mingling with a heightened sense of well-being, physical as well as spiritual, there burst upon me the shattering conviction that I was, I existed. I was Being, separated from the abyss of Nothingness. I simply laughed out loud suffused with my good fortune. The privilege of existing at all covered the whole world and everything I looked at vi seemed to smile back, luxuriating in the beauty of glory of its own reality. The universe would never be the same for Frederick Daniel Wilhelmsen—and because of Fritz’s “intuition of being,” of what he called “is-ing” or “extramentality” in his lectures and writings on metaphysics, the universe could never be the same for the thousands who heard him over his lifetime. His vision of the universe, to borrow a thought from Gilbert Keith Chesterton—“that glorious amateur,” as Fritz called him—in his classic study of St. Francis of Assisi, was Franciscan. It was a vision of the world as though hanging upside-down and suspended in the air by a string, so utterly contingent and depending totally upon God for being. vii“To be taught metaphysics by Fritz Wilhelmsen,” said the distinguished Catholic historian Dr. Warren H. Carroll, “was a kind of cosmic experience.” He “talked about being and essence with a voice so powerful,” a student wrote at the University of Navarra, “that he made the window panes shake. His own personality created an absolutely unforgettable intellectual engagement with students.” viiiThe scales didn’t exactly fall from your eyes,” but it was close! I can attest to this myself, having heard Fritz several times and auditing his course on metaphysics with my son at the Rome campus of the University of Dallas in 1986. A young woman wrote Dr. Wilhelmsen a letter of appreciation after attending his last public lecture in April 1996. You have been an inspiration to me; you have taught me to think clearly and reason logically. Your lectures have not only been powerful but poetic as well…You taught me to love philosophy, a subject which I was unable to understand very well until I had you for class…Your lectures, especially your final lecture last year on St. Thomas’ proof for the existence of God, have moved me towards a fuller understanding of Christ and of my humanity, my place and purpose in creation. And then Margaret Burleigh, the Class of ’9 6 valedictorian, paid Dr. Wilhelmsen the highest compliment of all, showing how in her life the study of philosophy with him had raised her mind and soul to the contemplation of the greatest truths of the Catholic Faith, and in so doing honoring her t eacher’s apostolate love fo r Our Lord in the Blessed Sacreament. Because of you, Dr. Wilhelmsen, I have had a similar ‘metaphysical experience’ like the one you talked about yesterday. I was at Adoration last year when I contemplated the truth that I exist, that God has created me, and that He Himself was present fully in that tiny host. I realize that it is not you alone who has brought me to these truths. But I am saying that you have been a huge influenix on my life and I will never forget some of your lectures as long as I live. Frederick Wilhelmsen was, first of all, a Thomist philosopher, one of the “premier metaphysicians” of the United States, “and a leading twentieth-century representative of genuine Thomism.” So wrote Dr. Ralph McInerny of Notre Dame; and it was a judgment x shared by many others. Because of his Catholic Faith in the Incarnation, Fritz believed that he and all men and women can know the real (realism). In his forty-five years of teaching and writing, Fritz wrote more than fifteen books and hundreds of articles. A former student and fellow-philosopher, Dr. Michael B. Ewbank, explained Wilhelmsen’s thought as having three “central features”—Chestertonian paradox (critique of naturalism); Bellocian “historical imagination;” and “a robust attendance to reality in the light of principles,” as opposed to “from principles,” a distinction made by Etienne Gilson (“existence as act”) after a thorough study of St. Thomas Aquinas’s thought. From Christopher Dawson, added another student and philosopher, James J. Lehrberger, O.Cist., Wilhelmsen was deeply influenced by the formative role of xi Christianity in the making of Western culture. In his Preface to The Metaphysics of Love, published by Sheed and Ward in 1962 and translated into Spanish and French, Wilhelmsen wrote that his meditations were “written by a man who believes that agape lies at the heart of all being, and who believes that the best approach to agape is by way either of the theology of the Blessed Trinity or the xii ontology of human existence within history.” The Paradoxical Structure of Existence (1970), also much admired, argued that the “structure of being is non-dialectical.” Both books were milestones in the still continuing recovery of metaphysics in the post-Modern world. In 1956 Wilhelmsen introduced Romano Guardini’s work The End of the Modern World to English readers. Modern man, said the priest-philosopher who wrote during the Nazi occupation of his Fatherland, had succeeded in exiling his Creator and Sustainer from human life, nature, and culture. “With the denial of Christian Revelation genuine personality had disappeared from human consciousness.” Christendom had finally collapsed. Guardini continued: With it had gone the realm of attitudes and values which only it can subsume… The coming era will bring a frightful yet salutary preciseness to these conditions…as the benefits of Revelation disappear even more from the coming world, man will truly learn what it means to be cut off from Revelation. xiii Writing ten years later on “Harvey Cox’s Secular City: City of Night” in Triumph, Wilhelmsen once again saw dramatic and chilling confirmation of Guardini’s prophecy. “Like all Iconoclasts and Manicheans, the god of Harvey Cox has come riding out of the wastes of the East, determined on the destruction of Christendom’s glories.” xiv When Guardini wrote during World War II the “un-Human man,” the “nihilistic personality” of the Nazis (Peter Wust) was still an anomaly. In a true sense, his teaching was dedicated to exposing the Modern World’s lie about the autonomy of man, nature, and culture that Guardini had warned about; and trying to restore man, nature, and culture—and all things in Pius XI’s phrase—to God (Maritain’s “theocentric humanism viz. anthropocentric humanism”). From 1966 to 1976 L. Brent Bozell left the conservative National Review, which he had founded with William F. Buckley, Jr.—Brent’s brother-in-law—to start what he and Wilhelmsen hoped would be an authentically Catholic magazine. Triumph , which included such Catholic authors as Charles Cardinal Journet and Thomas Molnar, was so controversial and ahead of its time that the magazine’s days were numbered from the start. On June 6, 1970 the Society for a Christian Commonwealth, which published Triumph, and the “Sons of Thunder” under the leadership of Wilhelmsen and Bozell, conducted “the Action for Life,” which was probably the first anti-abortion demonstration in the United States. Fritz, students from the University of Dallas, and others appeared on the scene dressed like Spanish Carlists, or requetes, with red berets, khaki shirts with Sacred Heart patches, and rosaries around their necks. Wilhelmsen, brandishing a twelve-inch crucifix, read from Matthew 25 and the Book of Revelation, warning America that it must someday face God and receive judgment for the killing of its children. Five demonstrators were beaten by police and arrested. In January 1971 Fritz published in Triumph an article on “The Pope As Icon.” The article, like his bookThe Politics of Neuronic Man co-authored with Jane Bret and released the next year, reflected the influence of Fritz’s friend, Marshall McLuhan, convert and daily communicant, on the new electronic technology and how it might be used to help in the recovery of the Church amidst the confusion following the Second Vatical Council. Wilhelmsen’s prophecy in the “Pope As Icon,” that the popes would use the electronic media to reunite Catholics, has certainly come true in the pontificate of John Paul II and, notably, in the world-wide service to the Church by Mother Angelica’s Eternal Word Television Network. “The main political and social theme in Wilhelmsen’s thought,” his daughter Dr. xv Alexandra Wilhelmsen has written, “was sacral society (instead of secular).” Fritz’s Catholic activism, his social and political apostolate as a Carlist, hisHispanidad, was inspired by the profound conviction he shared with Hilaire Belloc and Henry Cardinal Manning that “all political philosophy at bottom is political theology and that very political problem…is at root theological.” xviThat was why Dr. Wilhelmsen often pointed out that the Carlist Militia wore Sacred Heart patches over their hearts when they liberated Madrid in March of 1939. “The world is hostile to the Church,” he wrote in 1968, “because the world is secularist and the Church must sacramentalize the whole of existence. A sacral world is one with the Faith’s perpetual rejection of Manicheanism and of any dualism that sharpely divorces the sacred from the profane.” xviiThose Catholics gravely mistake Catholic social doctrine, really caricature it, when they try to “adjust Catholicism to the world,” the secularized world. They many mean well; but they are not “Catholic enough” in their apostolate and do not understand that Catholics “ are called upon to shape the market place itself in the image of the Faith. The crippled spirit forgets that the Church of God does not stoop to conquer, but elevates to save.” xviii What attracted Dr. Wilhelmsen to the Spanish Carlist movement, a movement which recognized the knighted “Don Federico” as one of its doctors, was Carlism’s commitment to the “Catholic Thing,” to Christ the King of Kings, to “the full profession of the Christian Faith,” and the “corporate incarnation of Christian principles in the social and political order.” (Christendom) And what is the Catholic social order? Fritz answered in Triumph in his trenchant critique of “Harvey Cox’s Secular City” in 1966. Christian social order is “simply the vitality of a world that is always more than itself—always so supremely vital it spills over into prayer, exceeds the possibilities of its own nature, is always more that it might have been.” xix Carlism was radically opposed to the omni competent state and mass society, to secularism’s dictating to the Church, whose divine right and mission is to civilize man by helping him surpass himself, that “man’s relationship with God (if there be a God) is totally vertical and individualist;” and that the Church “has nothing to do with the horizontal task of fashioning talk of fashioning the social and political order.” “It is against the rock of the Sacrament of the Altar that the secularists, both within and without the Church, are bent upon doing battle.” Only in the “Christian sacramental order,” Wilhelmsen went on, is the Manichean “conflict between transcendence and immanence” ended. “In one supreme, ineffable thing, the Eucharist, the world isGod, but only through His own divine priesthood and not through anything divine that creation possesses of itself.”xx Like Carlists, but beyond their teachings about, e.g., subsidiarity, particularism, and the decentralization of the state—which he of course favored—Wilhelmsen embraced with his whole being “the Catholic adaptation of romanitas ; that is the truth that—in his own words—“Rome and the Keys of the Kingdom are one…[that] on this earth there is one supreme authority competent in the things of God, the Pope in Rome.” Fritz was proud to be called a Papist, “a citizen of Rome.” xxi My most vivid memory of Dr. Wilhelmsen is seeing him from a distance in St. Peter’s Square on a glorious Spring day, standing with a priest and framed against the background of the Basilica. In “The Sovereignty of Christ or Chaos” (1967) Wilhelmsen spoke of the real crisis of the West as a crisis of Faith. Distinguishing between authority and power, the former belonging to God and His Church on earth, he pointed out the disastrous consequences of the world’s identifying the one with the other. In 1993, in a Conference sponsored by the Marian Institute of Advanced Studies at the Franciscan University of Steubenville, Wilhelmsen developed this thesis with respect to the United States, especially as seen in the writings of John Courtney Murray, S.J. “The American political experience,” he wrote in the book We Hold These Truths and More which collected the papers in one volume, “has wavered between the older order admitting the independent authority of God and His law and the newer ethos of liberal democracy that identifies all authority with power,” In the end, Fritz argued, loyal Catholics must and shall “build up a Power for Peter’s authority…we will cling to thxxiisential Thing: the Real Presence on the Altar, Christ, King, Eucharistic Lord.” Our Lord Jesus Christ is the King of Kings, the ultimate authority. He will turn chaos into order. Christus vincit: Christus regnat: Christus imperat—Christ conquers: Christ reigns: Christ rules. Spain alone in Western civilization, Wilhelmsen believed, was defined by submission to the sovereignty of the Christ the King and His royal authority and power. Only Spain “crafted itself into existence thanks to its adherence to the Catholic Thing.” In his heart of hearts, Fritz said, every Spaniard was a “Don Quixote, a knight in the service of the Cross,” whose war cry was that of the Carlists, “Viva Cristo Rey! truer than of Don Federico himself. And so Wilhelmsen and L. Brent Bozell founded during the Triumph years the Christian Commonwealth Institutes in San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain, where Fritz taught for twenty summers and where students of all ages could learn metaphysics, theology philosophy, church history, and above all and where they could enjoy what remained of Catholic sacral culture. At least twenty vocations to the priesthood are known to have been associated with the El Escorial experience. xxiv Wilhelmsen liked to say that Spain herself was a mission, a never completed mission, and to enter into her history is to become a missionary yourself. Certainly Fritz was a missionary, an apostle in the best tradition of the Church. For Wilhelmsen knew as we should all know that man “hungers after vision” and perishes without it. Let us walk with him through the doors of our own parish churches, and bend our knee before the Tabernacle where the great King, the Eucharistic King reigns. Let us do so, not because we are slaves (as Swinburne wrote in his poem Before a Crucifix ); but—as Chesterton said—because like the French and Italian peasants we are free men! For what was taught at El Escorial was Hispanidad, what Dr. Wilhelmsen defined as “ a call to Transcendence, a surrender of self and world to their God.” It is walking through the doors of our parish churches into Eternity. One does not have to be Spanish or Hispanic-American by blood, said Wilhelmsen, to be a missionary of Christ and His Kingdom, to take the sword, the Cross. Dr. Frederick Wilhelmsen “helped us Spanish traditionalists understand that our political doctrine is universal,” was the way one Spaniard summed up Fritz’s contribution to his country and posterity. And what can we say in conclusion about our fallen friend, comrade-in-arms, and mentor, Dr. Frederick Daniel Wilhelmsen. He changed our lives—that’s true. He even now in his place in the Mystical Body of Christ keeps on changing our lives, deepening our commitment to the Church Jesus Christ founded. We can say of him that he wrote of St. Augustine: “The Mystical Body of Christ unites all axxviinto one company, and I can talk to Augustine, not as to a memory, but as to a man. We can now talk to Fritz not as to a memory, but as to a man. Fritz taught us and thousands more what he learned as a boy in the Catholic ghetto of Detroit on a fine Spring day so long ago. He taught us to smile at things, “the impossible things that are” (Chesterton)—and to know that in God’s great love and mercy they will smile back. a i l E ’ D . J d l a n o D References: Frederick D. Wilhelmsen, Citizen of Rome; Reflections from the Life of a Roman Catholic. LaSalle, Illinois: Sherwood, Sugden & Co., 1980. ----------------------------, Hispanidad, The Wanderer, Feb. 8, 1990. University of Dallas, Frederick Daniel Wilhelmsen (Eminent Professor and Catholic Intellectual). A Tribute. Irving, Texas: UDProfile Series, I, 1998. R.A. Herrera, James Lehrberger O. Cist., and M.E. Bradford, eds., Saints, Sovereigns, and Scholars. Studies in the Thought of Frederick D. Wilhelmsen. New York: Peter Lang, 1993. James J. Lehrberger, O. Cist., “Christendom’s Troubadour: Frederick D. Wilhelmsen,” The Intercollegiate Review (Spring 1996), 52-55. Warren H. Carroll, “In Memoriam: Dr. Frederick D. Wilhelmsen,” Faith and Reason. XXII, 4 (Winter 1996), 239-246. Dr. Alexandra Wilhelmsen, letter to the author, September 1, 2002. Patrick Foley, “In Memoriam, Frederick D. Wilhelmsen: One Year Later,” The Catholic Social Science Review, II (1997) 327-330. William H. Marshner, “Don Federico: Presente!” Faith and Reason, XXII, 4 (Winter 1996), 247-252. i“The Hour is Short: The Hour Is Now,” in Frederick D. Wilhelmsen, Citizen of Rome; Reflections from the Life of A Roman Catholic (LaSalle, Illinois: Sherwood, Sugden & Co., 1980), p. 176. I would like to thank Professor Alexandra Wilhelmsen of the University of Dallas and Professor Robert A. Herrera, Emeritus, Department of Philosophy, Seton Hall University, who helped in so many ways in the preparation of this article. iiWilliam H. Marshner, “Don Federico: Presente!” Faithand Reason, XXII, 4 (Winter, 1996), p. 250. iii “In Memoriam: Dr. Frederick D. Wilhelmsen,” ibid., 243. For FDW’s “Published Oeuvre,” see Frederick Daniel Wilhelmsen (Eminent Professor and Catholic Intellectual. At Tribute from the University of Dallas. UD Profile Series, I, 1998 (Irving, Texas), pp. 31-39. Here-after cited asTribute iv“Hilare Belloc: Defender of the Faith, “ in The Catholic Writer: The Proceedings of the Westerfield Institute, 2 (1989), p. 83; “Michael B. Ewbank,” “Dr. Frederick Daniel Wilhelmsen: 1923-1996,” in vribute, p. 59. “Remembrance of Dr. Frederick D. Wilhelmsen,” Tribute, p. 52; Patrick Foley, “Frederick D. Wilhelmsen,” The Catholic Social Science Review, I, 281. viIbid. viSt. Francis of Assisi (Garden City: Image Books, Doubleday, 1957, pp. 78-79, 70-71, 74-75; Gregory M. Schweers, O.Cist., “Adaptation of a Eulogy Given at the Funeral Mass for Dr. Frederick D. Wilhelmsen,” viiiute, p. 55. Carroll, p. 42; quoted in Redaccion (University of Navarra), February 1981, Tribute, p. 42. Fr. Gregory M. Schweers, O.Cist., recalls how when he arrived on the University of Dallas Campus as a “young and green” freshman on a sultry day in the 100+ heat, saw “in the distance a tall, shimmering smokestack moving rapidly in my general direction. This human mirage—now distinct with a lanky assertiveness; now, a quavering wisp of hair fluttering like some medieval pennant atop a noble’s castle—was to become ‘my rescue,’ or so I hoped! This ‘chimney-man’ walked up to me, stared down that long powerful nose of his, and spoke the comforting words I needed to hear: ‘Son, are you lost?’ Not knowing what academic god this was, I sheepishly squeeked, “Yes, sir, I am lost—and I don’t know what to do!’ Pausing hardly a moment, he solved my question by saying, ‘Why, take metaphysics, of course’—and briskly walked off down the hall!,” Ibid., p. 55. Fr. Schweers registered for “MetaFritz,” as the students fondly referred to Dr. ixlhelmsen’s courses in metaphysics, and the rest is history (ibid). Margaret Burleigh, “Last Letter of Appreciation,” ibid., p. 43. x Ibid., 30. See the festschrift, R.A. Herrera, James Lehrberger, O.Cist., and M.E. Bradford, eds., Saints, Sovereigns and Scholars. Studies in the Thought of Frederick D. Wilhelmsen(New York: Peter Lang, 1993). xi Ewbank, ibid., 60. xiiLehrberger, O.Cist., “Christendom’s Troubadour: Frederick D. Wilhelmsen,” Inter-collegiate Review (Spring, 1996), p. 53; Maguire, Robert E., O.Cist., “Homily: Frederick D. Wilhelmsen,” Tribute, p. 46; quoted in ibid., 48-49nn; R.A. Herrera, “Frederick D. Wilhelmsen,” The Catholic Social Science Review, I (1996), 283-284. xiiRomano Guardini, 1968, 1998. The End of the Modern World (1968 ed.; trans. Joseph Theman and Herbert Burke; edited with an Introduction by Rev. Richard Neuhaus, Wilmington, El.: Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 1998. 1968 ed., p. 123. xivCitizen of Rome, p. 288. xv Rev. Joseph M. Baker, “The End of An Era,” in Tribute, p. 63; Letter to the author, September 1, 2002; Peter Wust, “Crisis in the West,” in Christopher Dawson and J.F. Burns, eds., Essays in Order (New York: Macmillan Co., 1931), pp. 141-142; Frank Morris, “The Un-Human Man Predicted by Guardini Is here,” The Wanderer, August 2, 2001. xvi xviiHispanidad,” The Wanderer,Feb. 8, 1990. “Schism, Heresy, and a New Guard,” Citizen of Rome, p. 61. xvii“Hallowed Be They World,” ibid., 143. xix xx Ibid., 140.; “Harvey Cox’s Secular City,” ibid, 285. Ibid., 285-286; “Hallowed Be They World,” ibid, 140. xxiMaguire, Tribute, p. 48; “Schism, Heresy and a New Guard,” Citizen of Rome, 59; “Introibo Ad Altare Dei,” ibid., 77; “Catholicism Is Right—So Why Change It?” ibid., 35. “I am an ultramontanist and therefore the final authority in matters religious to who I respond is the Pope in Rome…Civus Romanus sum,” ibid., Foreward. xxii“John Courtney Murray: The Optimism of the 1950’s,” in Donald J. D’Elia and Stephen M. Krason, eds., We Hold These Truths and More: Further Catholic Reflections on the American Proposition; The Thought of Fr. John Courtney Murray, S.J. (Steubenville, Ohio: Franciscan University Press, 1993), p. 30; “The Sovereignty of Christ or Chaos,” Citizen of Rome, p. 325. xxiii xxiv“Hispanidad;” Baker, Tribute, p. 64 xxv Juan Bertran, Tribute, p. 77. On Chesterton, see D.J. D’Elia, “People of Festa; The Incarnational Realism of the Italian-Americans,” in Joseph A. Varacalli, et al, The Saints in the Lives of Italian- Americans; An Interdisciplinary Investigation (SUNY Stony Brook; FORUM ITALICUM, INC., 1999), p. 227n; “Hispanidad;” “Empty Altar, Empty Womb,” Citizen of Rome, p. 67. xxvi “Why I am a Catholic,” ibid., 312.
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