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HIST150 Anti-Semitism in Germany and Hitler’s Foreign Policy and the Road to World War II

by: Sarah Foster

HIST150 Anti-Semitism in Germany and Hitler’s Foreign Policy and the Road to World War II History 150

Marketplace > Ball State University > History > History 150 > HIST150 Anti Semitism in Germany and Hitler s Foreign Policy and the Road to World War II
Sarah Foster
GPA 3.8

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These notes cover Anti-Semitism in Germany and Hitler’s Foreign Policy and the Road to World War II, which was covered during the Winter 2016 school year at Ball State University
The West in the World
Dr. Malone
Class Notes
David Low, Appeasement, Anglo-German Treaty, Munich Conference, Exclusionary Laws, The Reich Citizenship Law, Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor, March 1935- first violation of Treaty of Versailles, Public announcement of German rearmament
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Foster on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 150 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Malone in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 04/08/16
HIST150 Anti-Semitism in Germany, 1933-1939 Jewish Population • In 1933—500,000 Jewish people lived in Germany —0.77% of the population • They were a minority, but the victims of Hitler’s hate Persecution of Jewish people in 3 stages • “The Jews are our ruin” • Stage 1: 1933. Actions to undermine the economic situation of Jewish people o April 1, 1933 boycott of Jewish shops and businesses ( 1 anti-Semitic action) o Wanted public to participate, but people had lack of enthusiasm and didn’t participate § Called the boycott after day 1 o Exclusionary Laws of 1933 excluded Jewish people from working in the civil service; legal profession; judgeships; medical profession; teaching positions; cultural and entertainment enterprises; the press o Hurt the Jewish population economically • Stage 2: Anti-Semitic legislation: The Nuremberg Laws o The Reich Citizenship Law stripped Jewish people of their citizenship and made them subjects of the state § The SS could do whatever they wanted to them o Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor prohibited marriage and sexual relations between Jews and Germans § In 1935, there was “racial defilement” § Determined if you were Jewish based on your grandparents’ religion § A matter of religion, to a matter of race o Consequences if caught § Jail for men (longer time for Jewish men versus Aryan men) § Public humiliation for women • Stage 3: Nov. 9, 1938 - “The Night of the Broken Glass” o Destroyed over 7000 Jewish businesses o Burned down synagogues o Invaded Jewish homes o (in their memoirs, women tend to refer to it as “the night of flying feathers”) o Result: Jewish people had to pay for the damages and money was handed over to the state § 30,000 Jewish men were sent to concentration camps • Could be free if they immigrated Leaving the country • The Jewish population immigrated after The Night of the Broken Glass • The Nazis encouraged the people to leave Germany • Made it as difficult as possible: o Find a country that sponsored you o Get a bunch of papers in order to leave o Had to pay the Reich flight tax Being a Jewish person in Nazi Germany • Extracts from Marta Appel’s account: o She was scared to anything st o Brings back the time to the April 1 boycott o Self conscious about being Jewish • Friendships: o Her friends didn’t want to be around her o She was embarrassed to be Jewish • There was social death before there was physical death. They were self conscious • Felt the pain through her children o A “Race” specialist took one of her daughters and depicted her as the pure Aryan race even though she was Jewish Jewish children in school • Were taught to draw a Jewish person with big noses • Stated Jewish people were not welcomed in certain towns • Taunted by their youth groups • Some parents took their kids out of schools and put them into Jewish schools Hitler’s Foreign Policy and the Road to World War II FP Centered on two things • Free Germany of Treaty of Versailles • Expand territories eastward • British will respond with policy of appeasement March 1935- first violation of Treaty of Versailles • Public announcement of German rearmament: o Expand army, build up navy, build an air force • Violated treaty • Papers were printed the mark Hitler’s “first great measure to liquidate Versailles Responses • Representatives from France, Britain, and Italy were alarmed, but took no action o Britain goes off on its own Anglo-German Treaty • ****June 1935—the Anglo-German Treaty was signed; this treaty marked the beginning of the British policy of APPEASEMENT • German can build navy, but limit size of navy • Keep peace in Europe and avoid war • Popular during this time period Reasons for Appeasement 1. ****WW1. No war, no blood 2. Some people believed the Treaty was too harsh and Germany had legitimate grievances to redress a. Reasonable to want modification 3. Some people believed a strong Germany would stop spread of communism Pushing forward • March 1936 in violation of Treaty, Hitler lead troops into the Rhineland o Was not allowed to have an aggressive Germany around the Rhineland o British and France did NOTHING because they justified he was marching into his own back yard Expansion Eastward • March 1938—Hitler annexed Austria • “United with their kin in the homeland ” • Austria did NOTHING • The Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia to collect natural resources o Said he’d be willing to go to war over this land o Got attention of Neville Chamberlain (Britis h Prime Minister) o “Avoid the great war in Europe” Munich Conference • Leaders of Britain, Germany, Italy, and but not Czechoslovakian leader • Hitler got land, but could have no more • Hitler said he was a “Satisfied power” Supplementary Agreement Chamberlain and Hitler o “The desire of our two peoples to never go to war with one another again ” o Anglo-German “peace” declaration o “Diplomatic victory” o Chamberlain was the hero at the time Critics of Appeasement • David low political cartoon “Evening Standard” • Hitler is walking over them • “Spineless” • Winston Churchill • “The German dictator instead of snatching his victuals from the table, has been contend to have them served to him course by course… • “Presence of a disaster of the first magnitude” • “Not the end” Invasion of Czechoslovakia • March 1939—Hitler invaded and took over the rest of Czechos lovakia • If Poland was attacked, Britain would intervene and stand up for Poland • Hitler knows there’s no free ride, makes alliances • End of APPEASEMENT Pact of Steel/Nonaggression Pact • May 1939: mutual aid in the war between Germany and Italy • Nonaggression pact Aug. 1939 between Stalin and Hitler • Soviet Union would remai n neutral in the event of a war David Low political cartoons (TQ)


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