Geog 3a Winter 2012
Geog 3a Winter 2012
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U 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Answers for Study Questions for Geog 3a Exam 1 Winter 2011 What are the four major subdisciplines of oceanography chemical geological physical biological Do phytoplankton take up CO2 or 02 CO2 Name 3 similarities and 3 differences between the atmosphere and the ocean Similarities both are uids large scale circulation in uenced by Coriolis effect Differences atmosphere heated from below ocean from above affects stability density is very different speci c heat capacity is very different Name 4 methods for studying the ocean chemical analyses of water isotope studies physical measurements of ocean properties from different platforms ecosystem observationsexperiments in the eld and lab observation from satellites mathematical modeling from theory and observations Name 4 uses and 4 hazards associated with the ocean Fishing recreation transportation medicine production seaweed farming shel sh poisoning tsunamis hurricanes beach erosion anthropogenic pollution as a source of hazards Name 4 ocean observing platforms BTM XBTs Argo oats satellites ships How deep did the bathyscaphe Trieste dive a 11000 m What kind of phytoplankton are found in the White Cliffs of Dover in southern England Coccolithophorids Give 5 properties of water highly polar molecule high speci c heat capacity exists in all three states at typical earth temperatures excellent solvent maximum density is in the liquid state peculiar What percentage of seawater is water Dissolved material 965 wate5r 35 dissolved solids How does material enter the ocean Via rivers via the atmosphere on continental margins via wave action and tubidity currents via ice melting De ne salinity Grams of dissoloved solids per kg seawater Given a chlorinity of 20ppt what is salinity 36 ppt What is Dittmar s Principle Where does it fail lt s the principle 0 constant proportions it fails in rivers and near coastlines How is salinity measured Now routinely via conductivity What is the electromagnetic spectrum Division of electromagnetic radiation from bodies photon emissi9on into different wavelengths photons of the same energy How does density vary with temperature With Salinity Density increases as temperature decreases and as salinity increases Sketch a typical vertical pro le of temperature Usually decreases w depth non uniformly with a sharp change at the thermocline How many calories are required to change 1 gram of liquid water to vapor 540 cal Explain how clouds and CO2 affect shortwave and longwave radiation at the earth s surface Clouds re ectbackscatter and absorb sunlight shortwave but a high percentage of the shortwave radiation also passes through the CO2 and water vapor of the atmosphere to the surface of the earth including the ocean Both CO2 and water readily absorb longwave radiation and radiate heat effectively The net effect of CO2 and water in the atmosphere is to give a greenhouse effect Fundamentally allowing incoming shortwave radiation in but trapping outgoing longwave radiation 9 Some ExamType questions 1 Greenhouse gases in our atmosphere are a decreasing b increasing c do not change 2 Satellites are most useful for observing a upper ocean variables b deep ocean variables 3 Moorings are excellent for measuring a horizontal changes b time changes at xed depths c tracking water masses 4 Drifters and profiling oats ie Argo are excellent for a tracking water masses b bottom sediment observations c deploying ROV39s 5 IUP FLIP is a a stable platform b an unstable platform c an automated dolphin 6 The earth radiates mostly in which part of the electromagnetic spectrum a visible wavelengths b ultraviolet wavelengths c Xray wavelengths d infrared wavelengths 7 Capillary waves have surface tension intermolecular attraction as the major restoring force a True b False 8 In the open ocean which color of light penetrates the deepest a Ultraviolet b Violet c Blue d Orange c Red 9 Water vapor is a greenhouse gas a True b False 10 Coccolithophores are a Highly re ective b Producers of dimethyl sul de a greenhouse gas d All of the above d None of the above 11 Water constitutes about a 10 of seawater by percentage b 965 of seawater by percentage c 35 of seawater by percentage d 35 of seawater by percentage 12 Given seawater with chlorinity of 20 ppt what is its salinity a 3 ppt b 30 ppt c 36 ppt b 360 ppt 13 As temperature increases salinity increases density increases salinity decreases density decreases 999 14 The depth range where temperature change is greatest is called the a pycnocline b halocline c thermocline d phyotocline 15 Which type of electromagnetic radiation of those listed below has the shortest wavelength a Visible b Infrared 16 The radiation emitted from the earth has shorter wavelengths than the radiation emitted by the sun a True b False 17 Radiation entering the atmosphere is a Absorbed b Scattered c Both a and b d None of the above 18 The seasonal cycle of air temperature at midlatitudes is caused primarily by a The distance to the sun b The tilt of the axis of rotation of the earth with respect to the ecliptic plane c Lunar tides c Solar tides 19ln the open ocean blue light penetrates deeper than other wavelengths a True b False 20The Keeling time series curve shows a Increasing levels of oxygen b Decreasing levels of carbon dioxide c Increasing levels of carbon dioxide 21Carbon dioxide is the only greenhouse gas a True b False 22CTDs are used to a Directly measure currents b Measure temperature salinity and pressure c Measure sea surface elevation and waves 23Dissolved organic matter causes water to appear a blue b red c yellowishbrown 24The atmospheres carbon dioxide concentration has increased and decreased about 6 times over the past 650 thousand years a true b false 25According to recent research ice extent in the Arctic is decreasing such that there may be no more ice in 2010 2020 2030 2040 2100 F9999 MITESS Moored Insitu trace element serial sampler CTDRosette for measuring temp salinity pressure Conductivity temp and depth Expendable BathythermographXBT temperature as a function of depth AXBTaircraft drop Argo profiling oat measuring salinity in top 2000 meters of ocean Bermuda Testbed morringmeteorology currents temp salinity light bio Maj or Constituents of seawater Chloride 19353 Sodium 10781 Magnesium mg 1284 Sulphate 27 The Challenger facts 1900s 492 Depth sounding using lead lines 133 bottom dreadges 151 open water trawls for organisms 4700 new ones found Chemical analyses carbon Discovered Mid atlantic Ridge Mariana trench Found life in deep sea disproved azoic zone No primordial slime found Dittmore s Principal S 18 X Cl Micronutrients Fe Si Macronutreients P N Oligatrophic high in micronutrients Eutrophic High in macronutrients Temperature increase density of nutrient decrease Secchi disk to leam depth Sodium 10gkg Na Cl 20gkg Practice Exam for Chapter Six Ocean Chemistry Multiple Choice 1 The fundamental building blocks of matter are a atoms and molecules b minerals c elements d substances e rocks Answer a 2 The cyclic movement of water between various reservoirs of Earth is known as a the carbon cycle b the hydrologic cycle c the rock cycle d the ocean cycle e the rain cycle Answer b 3 Measurements obtained under undisturbed conditions for comparison with future conditions are called a hydrologic studies b baseline studies c chemical studies d impact studies e environmental studies Answer b 4 The pH of ocean water is a slightly acidic b neutral c slightly alkaline d highly acidic e highly alkaline Answer c 5 An imaginary volume of water from surface to depth is commonly called a the deep b the abyss c the water column d the water table e the water box Answer c 6 The Principal of Constant Proportions states that a all dissolved elements in the ocean have the same concentration b the concentration of dissolved elements in the ocean is constant c the relative proportions of major dissolved elements is constant d the relative proportions of minor dissolved elements is constant e the salinity of the ocean is constant Answer c 7 Evaporating two samples of seawater with a different salinity will yield a the same weight of salts b a different weight of salts c no salts at all Answer b 8 Precipitating the major constituents from two samples of seawater with a different salinity will yield a the same weight of major constituents in each sample b a different weight of major constituents in each sample c the same proportions of major constituents in each sample d b and c are correct e none of the above Answer d 12 The branch of science that deals with the ratios of elements in ecosystems is called a chemical oceanography b ecological stoichiometry c biogeochemistry d geobiology e ecological oceanography Answer b 13 Matter with a definitive or constant composition that exhibits distinct properties may be termed a compounds b elements c substances d atoms e all of the above Answer e 14 Elements are made up of of a single type a compounds b elements c substances d atoms e all of the above Answer d 15 are substances made up of the atoms of two or more elements chemically united in constant proportions a compounds b elements c substances d atoms e all of the above Answer a 16 Water consists of a one hydrogen atom b two hydrogen atoms c two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom d hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms e none of the above Answer c 17 The sharing of electrons between two atoms forms a a covalent bond b a hydrogen bond c an ionic bond d a permanent bond e metallic bond Answer a 18 The bond between a hydrogen atom of one water molecule and the oxygen atom of another water molecule is called a a covalent bond b a hydrogen bond c an ionic bond d a permanent bond e metallic bond Answer b 19 The bond most responsible for water s unusual properties is a the covalent bond b the hydrogen bond c the ionic bond d the James Bond e the metallic bond Answer b 20 The separation of charges on a water molecules makes it a a polar molecule b nonpolar molecule c anhydrous molecule d organic molecule e metallic molecule Answer a 21 The substance into which another substance dissolves is called the a solute b solvent c anion d cation e none of the above Answer b 22 The substance which is dissolved into another substances is called the a solute b solvent c anion d cation e none of the above Answer a 25 The point where no additional solute can be dissolved into a solvent and a given temperature and pressure is called the a point of no retum b saturation point c end point d in ection point e hydration point Answer b 26 Heating a solvent generally the amount of solute it can dissolve a decreases b increases c has no effect upon Answer b 27 Which kinds of compounds dissolve poorly in water a nonpolar compounds b hydrocarbons c olive oil d motor oil e all of the above Answer e 28 The total amount of a substance that can be dissolved in water at a particular temperature and pressure is called the a boiling point b freezing point c saturation concentration d solubility point e pH Answer c 29 The most common salt in the ocean is a sodium chloride b potassium nitrate c sodium silicate d hydrochloric acid e sodium hydroxide Answer a 30 An ionic compound produced by the neutralization reaction between an acid and base is a a base b an acid c a salt d a cation e an anion Answer c 31 A proton donor in water is termed a a base b an acid c a salt d a cation e an anion Answer b 32 A proton acceptor in water is termed a a base b an acid c a salt d a cation e an anion Answer a 33 Ions with a positive electrostatic charge are called a bases b acids c salts d cations e anions Answer d 34 Ions with a negative electrostatic charge are called a bases b acids c salts d cations e anions Answer e 35 The most abundant anion in the world ocean is a the sodium ion b the chloride ion c the potassium ion d the nitrate ion e the silicate ion Answer b 36 The most abundant cation in the world ocean is a the sodium ion b the chloride ion c the potassium ion d the nitrate ion e the silicate ion Answer a 37 Which of the following has the lowest pH a beer b pure water c seawater d bleach e ammonia Answer a 38 Which of the following has the highest pH a beer b lemons c seawater d bleach e ammonia Answer d 39 Formally the negative logarithm of the hydrogen concentration of a substance refers to its a polarity b isotopic composition c hydration ratio d pH e none of the above Answer d 40 A listing of the elements of seawater that highlights their common chemical and physical properties as they pertain to oceanographers is a the Periodic Table of the Elements b the Periodic Table of the Elements in the Ocean c the Earth Scientist s Periodic Table of the Elements d the Illustrated Periodic Table of the Elements e the Periodic Table of the Periodicals Answer b Study Questions for Geog 3a Exam 1 W2011 What are the four major subdisciplines of oceanography Do phytoplankton take up CO2 or 02 Name 3 similarities and 3 differences between the atmosphere and the ocean Name 4 methods for studying the ocean Name 4 uses and 4 hazards associated with the ocean Name 4 ocean observing platforms How deep did the bathyscaphe Trieste dive What kind of phytoplankton are found in the White Cliffs of Dover in southern England 9 Give 5 properties of water 10 What percentage of seawater is water Dissolved material 11 How does material enter the ocean 12 De ne salinity 13 Given a chlorinity of 20ppt what is salinity 14 What is Dittmar s Principle Where does it fail 15 How is salinity measured 16 What is the electromagnetic spectrum 17 How does density vary with temperature With Salinity 18 Sketch a vertical profile of temperature 19 How many calories are required to change 1 gram of liquid water to vapor 20 Explain how clouds and CO2 affect shortwave and longwave radiation at the earth s surface V 39gtP t Some ExamType questions 1 Greenhouse gases in our atmosphere are a decreasing b increasing c do not change 2 Satellites are most useful for observing a upper ocean variables b deep ocean variables 3 Moorings are excellent for measuring a horizontal changes b time changes at xed depths c tracking water masses 4 Drifters and pro ling oats ie Argo are excellent for a tracking water masses b bottom sediment observations c deploying ROV39s 5 RP FLIP is a a stable platform b an unstable platform c an automated dolphin 6 The earth radiates mostly in which part of the electromagnetic spectrum a visible wavelengths b ultraviolet wavelengths c Xray wavelengths d infrared wavelengths 7 Capillary waves have surface tension intermolecular attraction as the major restoring force a True b False 8 In the open ocean which color of light penetrates the deepest a Ultraviolet b Violet c Blue d Orange c Red 9 Water vapor is a greenhouse gas a True b False 10 Coccolithophores are a Highly re ective b Producers of dimethyl sulfide a greenhouse gas d All of the above d None of the above 11 Water constitutes about a 10 of seawater by percentage b 965 of seawater by percentage c 35 of seawater by percentage d 35 of seawater by percentage 12 Given seawater with chlorinity of 20 ppt what is its salinity a 3 ppt b 30 ppt c 36 ppt b 360 ppt 13 As temperature increases a salinity increases b density increases c salinity decreases d density decreases 14 The depth range where temperature change is greatest is called the a pycnocline b halocline c therrnocline d phyotocline 15 Which type of electromagnetic radiation of those listed below has the shortest wavelength a Visible b Infrared 16 The radiation emitted from the earth has shorter wavelengths than the radiation emitted by the sun a True b False 17 Radiation entering the atmosphere is a Absorbed b Scattered c Both a and b d None of the above 18 The seasonal cycle of air temperature at midlatitudes is caused primarily by a The distance to the sun b The tilt of the axis of rotation of the earth with respect to the ecliptic plane c Lunar tides c Solar tides 19In the open ocean blue light penetrates deeper than other wavelengths a True b False 20The Keeling time series curve shows a Increasing levels of oxygen b Decreasing levels of carbon dioxide c Increasing levels of carbon dioxide 21Carbon dioxide is the only greenhouse gas a True b False 22CTDs are used to a Directly measure currents b Measure temperature salinity and pressure c Measure sea surface elevation and waves 23Disso1Ved organic matter causes water to appear a blue b red c brown 24The atmospheres carbon dioxide concentration has increased and decreased about 6 times over the past 650 million years a true b false 25According to recent research ice extent in the Arctic is decreasing such that there may be no more ice in a 2010 b 2020 c 2030 d 2040 e 2100 Practice Exam for Chapter Seven Ocean Physics Multiple Choice 1 The physical structure of the ocean refers to a the layering and movement of water parcels b the distribution of marine organisms in the upper ocean c the distribution of marine organisms along the shore d the distribution of marine organisms along the deep sea oor e all except a are correct Answer a 2 The average kinetic energy of molecules in a system de nes its a temperature b speci c heat c heat capacity d work e all of the above Answer a 3 The inability to obtain a statistically signi cant number of measurements to accurately describe a property feature or phenomenon is known as a sampling error b precision c accuracy d undersampling e oversampling Answer d 4 The vast size of the ocean and our limited ability to sample it has led to a sampling errors in the world ocean b a lack of precision of measurements in the world ocean c a lack of accuracy in measurements of the world ocean d undersampling of the world ocean e oversampling of the world ocean Answer d 5 The greater the salinity of seawater the its conductivity a lower b higher Answer b 6 A ring of electronically triggered sampling bottles attached to a CTD or STD is called a a rosanna b a rosette c a rotunda d a remora e an array Answer b 8 The National Data Buoy Center provides a hourly composite observations of sea surface temperature b hourly composite observations of meteorological conditions c hourly composite observations of wave heights and periods d near realtime data e all of the above Answer e 9 The TAOTriton array spans a the entire world ocean b the equatorial Atlantic Ocean c the equatorial Indian Ocean d the equatorial Paci c Ocean e the Gulf of Mexico Answer d 10 The Argo system when completed will a include more than 3000 free oating oceanographic profilers b provide nearreal time data over the intemet c improve the spatial and temporal coverage of conditions in the world ocean d help oceanographers track ocean currents e all of the above Answer e l 1 No selfrespecting oceanographic vessel leaves home on an expedition to study physical oceanography without a an American Express card b a bathythermograph c a salinometer d a CTD e all of the above Answer d 12 One limitation of satellite measurements of ocean temperatures is a their inherent inaccuracy b their inability to provide global coverage c their inability to provide highresolution temporal data d their inability to determine temperatures other than at the very surface e all of the above Answer d 13 One of the rst global observations of sea surface temperatures was provided by a CTDs b STDs c XBTs d hullmounted thermistors e satellites Answer e 15 A change in the identity or composition of a substance is classi ed as a a physical process b a chemical process c a change of state d heat e work Answer b 16 Energy transferred from a high temperature system to a low temperature system is called a temperature b work c heat d thermal radiation e re Answer c 17 Heat ceases to exist when a two systems have identical temperatures b two systems are in thermal equilibrium c one system possesses the same amount of heat as the other d a and b are correct e all of the above Answer d 18 Temperature differences cause a temperature b work c heat d thermal radiation e re Answer c 19 Pumping air into a bicycle tire is an example of a temperature b work c heat d thermal radiation e re Answer b 20 Energy from the sun may be classi ed as a electromagnetic energy b radiant energy c light energy d solar energy e all of the above Answer e 21 The energy of random motion of molecules or objects that results in the exchange of heat between them is classi ed as a solar energy b thermal energy c chemical energy d potential energy e kinetic energy Answer b 22 The motion of molecules or objects is classi ed as a solar energy b thermal energy c chemical energy d potential energy e kinetic energy Answer e 23 An example of kinetic energy is a the wind blowing across the ocean b a person swimming c a whale breaching d the collision of water molecules in a glass e all of the above Answer e 24 An example of potential energy a Humpty Dumpty sitting on a wall b a rock on the edge of a cliff c books on a shelf d a gallon of gasoline e all of the above Answer e 25 The law of conservation of energy states that a matter cannot be created or destroyed b energy cannot be created or destroyed c intemal energy is always transformed into external energy d energy in a system is always conserved e all of the above Answer b 26 When the temperature of the sea surface and the overlying air are equal the two systems are said to be in a homeostasis b thermal equilibrium c chemical equilibrium d energy equilibrium e none of the above Answer b 27 The transfer of heat through an object is called a thermal conductivity b chemical conductivity c electrical conductivity d convection e none of the above Answer a 28 The quantity of heat required to change 1 gram of water by one degree Celsius is called a heat capacity b specific heat c specific temperature d thermal conductivity e sensible heat Answer b 29 Which equation best represents the amount of energy are required to raise the temperature of two grams of 10degree C water by 10 degrees C a 2 gm times 418 Jgmdegree times 10 degrees times 10 degrees b 1 gm times 418 Jgmdegree times 10 degrees c 2 gm times 418 Jgmdegree times 1 degree d 1 gm times 418 Jgmdegree times 20 degrees e 2 gm times 418 Jgmdegree times 10 degrees Answer e 30 The heat required to raise the temperature of a lliter glass of water is referred to as a the heat capacity of the glass of water b the specific heat of the glass of water c the sensible heat of the glass of water d the convection of the glass of water e the conduction of the glass of water Answer a 32 Which of the following has a high thermal conductivity a the leather seats in your car b the plastic in your CD case c the glass in your windshield d the hood of your car e your tires Answer d 34 Heat that does not change the temperature of a system is called a latent heat of vaporization b specific heat c thermal heat d latent heat of fusion e both a and d are correct Answer e 35 Mass per unit volume refers to a density b specific heat c temperature d thermal conductivity e latent heat Answer a 38 A traveling wave that consists of electrical and magnetic components that can move in a vacuum is called a an electromagnetic wave b a sound wave c an ocean wave d a stadium wave e an intemal wave Answer a 39 The full range of electromagnetic energy is described by a the electromagnetic spectrum b the solar constant c visible light d Beer s Law e the Periodic Table Answer a 40 Which of the following represents the correct order of colors from short wavelengths to long wavelengths a red orange yellow green blue Violet b orange yellow green blue Violet red c yellow green blue Violet red orange d green blue Violet red orange yellow e Violet blue green yellow orange red Answer e OCEANATMOSPHERE PROCESSES Geog 3a Winter Quarter 2012 Wave at sunset and an ominous storm in the Midwest so much physics in these pics Professor Dickey and his Great Pyrenees Theodore Nansen Teddy Mig Hot Rod Linkgl Office Ellison Hall 1629 Email tommydickeyoplucsbedu Website wwwop1ucsbedu Class FTP Site ftp orageogucsbedupubopltommyG3aW12 Office Hours Please email me for appointments good times are before and after class Class meets MWF 100150 pm Class location Embarcadero Hall in IV Discussion Sections Ellison Hall 3620 or 3621depending on which section you are in emphasizes the inquiry approach to education We have written the book from the perspectives of active research oceanographers and hope that you will find it to be a valuable learning resource in the future We will cover about 13 of the chapters of the book during this quarter Note that the Appendices of the book and inside covers provide useful information for you Copies of the book will be available in campus and offcampus bookstores as well as through outlets like Amazoncom You will learn more and do better on exams if you read each assigned chapter at least one time We also use a class ftp site which contains the lecture slides used for the class as well as the syllabus videos and practice questions for the exams You can access the ftp site as if it was a regular http site by exactly typing in ftp ora geogucsbedupuboptommvG3aW12 Once there you will see 1 A le called G3aSyllabusW12 this is the master syllabus for the course with all of the critical administrative information class objectives and schedule 2 A folder called PartlWl2 This folder has all powerpoint lectures for Chapters 6 and 7 and practice exam files preparing you for Exam 1 3 A folder called Part2Wl2 This folder has all powerpoint lectures for Chapters 8 9 and 10 and practice exam files preparing you for Exam 2 4 A folder called Part3Wl2 This folder has all powerpoint lectures for Chapters 10 and 11 and Polar Explorers Nansen and Amundsen and practice exam files preparing you for Exam 3 Final exam 5 A video clip folder leading you to videos explaining a variety of different topics relevant to the course 6 Errata file this file provides a list of errors found in the text to date with corrections wwwmhhecomchamberlinle Click on student edition in the left column Click on the Chapter you are studying Then you can select from the following choices News Articles and Links Web Links Quizzes Multiple Choice Quiz More Resources Animations Flash Cards Key Terms Matching Crossword Puzzles You will learn about the scientific method and how to ask good questions We will be studying the ocean and the atmosphere with more emphasis on the ocean However we will often compare and contrast the two and learn how each affects the other called air sea interaction The ocean and the atmosphere have many interesting similarities as well as differences For example we almost always see surface gravity waves in the ocean but we have to look a little more carefully on special days to see atmospheric waves called internal gravity waves manifest as cloud rows in the atmosphere or on the ocean surface as alternating slicks The density of air and seawater depend on temperature and pressure but salinity affects ocean water density whereas water vapor affects density of air The course focuses on physical phenomena such as heat transfer circulation winds and currents and waves However oceanic and atmospheric sciences are interdisciplinary in nature and are major elements of geosciences and biosciences which entail the physics chemistry geology and biology of the atmosphere the ocean and the solid earth We will discuss all of these using a systems approach and pose many questions several of which remain unanswered at present Some of you will have careers in science others in policymaking etc However all of you will be eligible to be voters and if you choose to vote you will have the responsibility of making informed decisions concerning environmental issues Many of these will focus on the ocean and the atmosphere which are in the news almost every day especially in Santa Barbara see the Santa Barbara NewsPress website newspresscom and California in general Many consider Santa Barbara to be the birthplace of The Environmental Movement do you know why There is increasing discussion in all news outlets about global climate change hurricanes tsunamis the greenhouse effect El Ni o La Ni a Arctic Oscillations loss of fisheries species extinction the demise of coral reefs rogue waves droughts red tides oil spills and offshore drilling acid rain tornadoes monsoons the ozone hole etc In this course we will explore many of these environmental phenomena and problems and discuss the modern methods and technologies which are allowing us to better understand and predict them Some of the course objectives are 1 To provide an introduction to the atmosphere and ocean so that you will have greater appreciation and understanding of both 2 To learn to pose meaningful questions and formulate hypotheses concerning contemporary problems in atmospheric sciences and oceanography 3 To draw upon common knowledge about the ocean to better understand the atmosphere and vice versa and to be able to compare and contrast the two 4 To develop an understanding of important atmospheric and ocean processes to be able to link these processes to fundamental physical principles and to be able to define their time and space scales 5 To learn about modern methodologies and technologies applied to monitoring studying and predicting the states of the atmosphere and the ocean 6 To be able to interpret presentations of data figures such as geographic maps time series depth profiles contour plots satellite images etc 7 To develop skills enabling critical evaluation of environmental information to form knowledgeable opinions applied to future professions vocations activism voting etc and to better enjoy the wonders of the ocean and the atmosphere 8 To provide an intellectual background sufficient to understand and begin to critically review recent articles in newspapers general interest magazines ie Time Newsweek The Economist The Wall Street Journal The Weekly Standard etc note that each of these has a political bias do you know which direction left or right and popular scientific magazines eg Scientific American Oceanus Oceanography Nature Science Hopefully you will be inspired to learn more about the ocean and atmosphere in future courses and activities I became interested in oceanography while serving in the US Coast Guard I later received my PhD from Princeton University in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics and taught at USC for 18 years before coming to UCSB 17 years ago over 11000 students have taken my courses My research involves many aspects of oceanography and atmospheric science My group s experiments have concerned hurricanes El Ni o La Ni a monsoons ocean waves light in the ocean climate change and pollution We have done nearly 200 ocean cruises taking us all over the world Our studies have taken place in the Atlantic near Bermuda off Iceland east coast US in the Pacific at the equator off Hawaii Japan Canada and California Baja the Arabian Sea and the Mediterranean Sea We recently completed an experiment called RaDyO in the Santa Barbara Channel and off the Big Island of Hawaii It involved waves and light we utilized the RIP FLIP the RV Kilo Moana 2 autonomous underwater vehicles and airplane and satellite observing platforms Scientists from 12 countries have participated in RaDyO Most of our work involves collaborations with scientists from around the US and the world We have also developed new technologies such as autonomous moorings often located far at sea These moorings along with robotic submarines called autonomous underwater vehicles AUVs and gliders will someday do the work of many research ships I will provide you with examples from my own research to highlight and emphasize points in our discussions We have included several examples of our research in our textbook Check out our website wwwoplucsbedu which has information on current and past research by our group since 1 we will discuss and highlight the more difficult concepts 2 contemporary material like what is presently going on with hurricanes tsunamis El Ni oLa Ni a pollution etc will be presented and 3 concepts will be reinforced using figures from the textbook and my research It will be useful to bring your textbook andor computer to class to take notes There is a VERY high correlation between class attendance and final grades Again your time in class will be most effectively used if you read the chapters before coming to class especially look over the figures of the chapter and lecture Powerpoint slides Time is your most important resource use it well come to class UCSB is one of the few campuses situated on the ocean so you are in a great environment to learn about the ocean firsthand This should be one of your favorite college classes This is a very large class over 200 students Some of you may feel over challenged while others may feel under challenged I try to teach at an optimal level but this is obviously difficult with such a large and diverse student population After a week or two objectively consider if this is the right level of class for you Please talk with your TAs and myself if you need some guidance Anyone who has special learning needs should contact me during the first week of classes so that I can work with you Much of the material requires understanding of figures involving graphs plots and images If you have trouble understanding these get help from your TA and myself Small study groups are powerful means to learn so start or get involved in one Your TA s will do reviews before each exam but do not depend entirely on these The quarter goes very fast so keep up with the readings and lectures You will see your TAs weekly in small groups during your discussion sections this is a good opportunity to get personal attention and have questions answered Don t hesitate to ask questions or communicate with me via email Class 1 Mon Jan 9 Introduction to classsyllabus etc Key Readings Review Syllabus Preface Introducing the World Ocean and Text Appendices Class 2 Wed Jan 11 Ocean Chemistry Key Readings Ocean Chemistry Ch 6 Class 3 Fri Jan 13 Ocean Chemistry Key Readings Ocean Chemistry Ch 6 Martin Luther King Holiday Mon Jan 16 No Class Class 4 Wed Jan 18 Ocean Chemistry and Ocean Physics Key Readings Ocean Chemistry Ch 6 and Ocean Physics Ch 7 Class 5 Fri Jan 20 Ocean Physics Key Readings Ocean Physics Ch 7 Class 6 Mon Jan 23 Ocean Physics Key Readings Ocean Physics Ch 7 Class 7 Wed Jan 25 Ocean Physics Ch 7 Key Readings Ocean Physics Ch 7 Class 8 Fri Jan 27 Review Day Class 10 Wed Feb 1 OceanAtmosphere System Key Readings Ocean Atmosphere System Ch 8 Class 11 Fri Feb 3 Ocean Atmosphere System Key Readings Ocean Atmosphere System Ch 8 Class 12 Mon Feb 6 Surface and Deep Circulation Key Readings Surface and Deep Circulation Ch 9 Class 13 Wed Feb 8 Surface and Deep Circulation Key Readings Surface and Deep Circulation Ch 9 Class 14 Fri Feb 10 Surface and Deep Circulation Key Readings Surface and Deep Circulation Ch 9 Class 15 Mon Feb 13 Surface and Deep Circulation Key Readings Surface and Deep Circulation Ch 9 Class 16 Wed Feb 15 Surface and Deep Circulation Key Readings Surface and Deep Circulation Ch 9 Class 17 Fri Feb 17 Waves Key Readings Waves Ch 10 Presidents Day Holiday Mon Feb 20 No Class Class 18 Wed Feb 22 Waves Key Readings Waves Ch 10 Class 19 Fri Feb 24 Waves Key Readings Waves Ch 10 Class 21 Wed Feb 29 Waves Key Readings Waves Ch 10 Class 22 Fri Mar 2 Waves Key Readings Waves Ch 10 Class 23 Mon Mar 5 Waves Key Readings Waves Ch 10 Class 24 Wed Mar 7 Tides and Sea Level or Waves depending on Timing Key Readings Tides Ch 11 Class 25 Fri Mar 9 Tides and Sea Level Key Readings Tides Ch 11 Class 26 Mon Mar 12 Tides and Sea Level Key Readings Tides Ch 11 Class 27 Wed Mar 14 Polar Explorers Fridj of Nansen Key Readings Tides Ch llftp site Polar Explorers Class 28 Fri Mar 16 Polar Explorers Raold Amundsen Key Readings Tides Ch llftp site Polar Explorers Course Survey Name email address The following questions are intended to help the TA s and Professor Dickey to determine the level of presentation of the course material 1 Highest level math course e g algebra trig calculus etc taken 2 I have had high school physics Yes or No 3 I have had college physics Yes or No 4 I have had high school chemistry Yes or No 5 I have had college chemistry Yes or No 6 Ihave had high school earth science geology atmospheric science oceanography etc Yes or No 7 I have had college earth science geology atmospheric science oceanography etc Yes or No 00 What is your year of study frosh soph and major or expected major D What is your primary motivation for taking this course 10 How often do you go to the beach or do ocean activities 11 What are your favorite ocean activities 12 What fascinates you most about the oceans 13 What puzzles you about the oceans 14 Do you occasionally observe the skies clouds stars etc 15 What fascinates you most about the atmosphere 16 What puzzles you about the atmosphere Practice Questions for Exam 2 Winter 2012 Chapter Nine Surface and Deep Circulation Multiple Choice 1 How do ocean currents differ from rivers d they may be vertical as well as horizontal e ocean currents are no different than rivers Answer d 2 Currents that move along the surface of the ocean belong to the while currents that move within the interior of the ocean belong to the a deep circulationsurface circulation b surface circulationdeep circulation Answer b 3 The sinking and rising of seawater in an ocean basin came to be known as c the overturning circulation Answer c 4 The strength of the rotation of winds is called e wind curl Answer e 5 The two most important factors for calculating mean surface ows in the ocean are d Coriolis effect and wind curl Answerd 6 Meridional transport moves water a northsouth b along meridians c eastwest d southnorth e all except c are correct Answer e 7 Though highly oversimpli ed the Global Conveyor Belt diagram is important because a it illustrates the linkages between the surface and deep circulation Answer a 8 In a twodimensional ocean circulation model a square represents a a symbol that represents salinity b a symbol that represents temperature c a volume of the ocean d an area of the ocean e none of the above Answer d 9 In a threedimensional ocean circulation model a cube represents a a symbol that represents salinity b a symbol that represents temperature c a volume of the ocean d an area of the ocean e none of the above Answer c 10 In the northem hemisphere Ekman transport is directed to the direction of the wind d 90 degrees to the right e 37 degrees to the left Answer d 11 Ekman transport results from a friction b wind stress c Earth s rotation d all of the above e none of the above Answer d 12 The depth to which currents speeds have decreased to 37 of their surface value is called b Ekman layer depth Answer b 13 Along the east coast of the United States which general wind direction is the most favorable for coastal upwelling d south Answer d 14 The ow of surface currents around a gyre is called a geostrophic ow Answer a 15 The ow of surface currents around a gyre in the northem hemisphere proceeds a primarily clockwise Answer a 16 A sloping sea surface generates a a horizontal pressure gradient b hydrostatic pressure directed from the region of high pressure towards the region of low pressure c a ow of surface waters from high pressure to low pressure d the ow of water from elevated central gyres outwards e all of the above Answer e 17 Compared to other forces on large space scales the horizontal pressure gradient force and the Coriolis effect are b quite small Answer b 18 Upwelling favors a the growth of phytoplankton b the growth of zooplankton c the growth of fishes d the growth of fisheating birds and mammals e all of the above Answer e 19 Subtropical gyres can be found b immediately north of the Tropic of Cancer d immediately south of the Tropic of Capricom e both b and d are correct Answer e 20 Which of the following is not a subtropical gyre e Gulf of Alaska gyre Answer e 21 Mesoscale eddies with a cold interior are sometimes called b coldcore rings Answer b 22 Which of the following is not a characteristic of a westem boundary current a transports heat from the tropics to higher latitudes b generates mesoscale eddies c in uences regional climate d generally supports productive fisheries e slow and sluggish current speeds Answer e 23 The interaction of currents with can create eddies and wakes a seamounts b islands c continental shelves d any submerged object e all of the above Answer e 24 Narrow bands of cold meandering laments of upwelled water are called d coastal jets Answer d 25 A shift of warm equatorial waters to the east and south in the South Atlantic Ocean is associated with c Benguela Nino Answer c 26 The interaction of the Benguela Current with the southem tip of Africa sheds large anticyclonic eddies called c Agulhas Retro ection Answer c 27 The equatorial currents respond quickly to c seasonal changes in winds Answer c 28 Equatorial countercurrents and undercurrents retum water a from west to east Answer a 29 A region that exerts ratelimiting effects on the transport of heat and mass in the world ocean is called a a choke point Answer a 30 Currents and wind pattems that reverse seasonally are associated with d a monsoon Answer d 31 Monsoons largely result from the seasonal changes in over land c atmospheric pressure Answer c 32 Heating of the Mohave Desert in summer gives rise to c the Arizona Monsoon Answer c 33 The most striking effect of the Summer Monsoon in the Indian Ocean is a a reversal of surface currents at the equator b a reversal in the direction of the Somali current along the coast c merging of the North Equatorial Current and the Equatorial Counter Current d formation of the Southwest Monsoon Current e all of the above Answer e 34 The average transit time for most deep water masses is c 6001000 years Answer c 35 The lower boundary of the deep circulation is formed by c the sea oor Answer c 36 The upper boundary of the deep circulation a may be at the surface in polar oceans b may be deepest in subtropical gyres with strong stratification c generally is de ned by the depth of the deep thermocline d varies seasonally e all of the above Answer e 37 TS diagrams are a tool used by oceanographers to identify a water masses b water types c isopycnals d water column stability e all of the above Answer e 38 Parcels of water with a narrow range of temperature and salinity are called a water masses Answer a 39 Water masses that occur between the surface of the ocean and the permanent thermocline or pycnocline are called a surface waters Answer a 40 Water masses found at the surface in the central gyres of regional oceans are called b central waters Answer b 41 Water masses that occur between surface waters and deep or bottom waters are called c intermediate waters Answer c 42 Water masses that occur near the bottom of the major ocean basins which may also extend from the surface to greater depths in polar and subpolar oceans during part of the year are called d deep waters Answer d 43 Water masses that occur at the bottom of the major ocean basins which may also extend from the surface to the bottom in polar and subpolar oceans during part of the year are called e bottom waters Answer e 44 A water mass found in both the Atlantic and Pacific basins that separates surface and bottom waters is a Antarctic lnterrnediate Water Answer a 45 In comparison to the North Atlantic there is interaction between surface waters and deep waters in the North Paci c Ocean a greater b little Answer b 46 A highly saline water mass occupying a narrow region of the Atlantic Ocean at depths around 1000 meters is d Mediterranean Out ow Water e Circumpolar Deep Water Answer d 47 Eddies formed from Mediterranean Out ow Water are called e meddies Answer e 48 Meddies may play an important role in a heat transport b salt transport c pollutant transport d climate change e all of the above Answer e 49 Water masses lacking chloro uorocarbons must be a younger than 5060 years old b older than 5060 years old Answer b 50 Which of the following processes drive the deep circulation a wind mixing b heating and cooling at the airsea interface c evaporation and precipitation d tidal mixing e all of the above Answer e Practice Questions for Exam 2 Winter 2012 Chapter Eight The Ocean and the Atmosphere Multiple Choice 1 The day to day uctuations in ocean conditions are called a ocean climate b ocean weather Answer b 2 The longterm weather that occurs at a particular location de nes a a climate region Answer a 3 Global climate change a refers to changes in climate that occur globally b encompasses the record of Earth s climate over geologic time c implies humaninduced alterations of Earth s climate d has always occurred on our planet e all of the above Answer e 4 The study of longterm weather and atmospheric patterns is called a meteorology b climatology c oceanography d weather forecasting e atmospheric physics Answer b 5 The analysis of weather patterns with the aim at establishing empirical and statistical relationships between observations is called a dynamical meteorology b descriptive meteorology Answer b 6 The application of physics and math with the goal of understanding atmospheric processes belongs to a dynamical meteorology Answer a 7 When gulls y high expect stormy weather is an example of c folk forecasting Answer c 8 The idea that the future state of a system is sensitive to initial conditions is described by a geophysical uid dynamics b dynamical meteorology c chaos theory d numerical weather prediction e weather forecasting Answer c 9 If a wallet is dropped at the top of a ski slope in slightly different places during successive experiments which of the following might be true about its location at the bottom of the slope a the wallet will always end up at the same place at the bottom of the ski slope b the wallet s location at the bottom of the slope will change in proportion to the difference in where it is dropped c the wallet s location at the bottom of the slope might differ substantially d for any given experiment it is nearly impossible to predict where the wallet will end up e c and d are true Answer e 10 The common boundary between the atmosphere and the ocean is called d the airsea interface e the mesosphere Answer d 11 The weight of a uid on an object is called d static uid pressure Answer d 12 The densest region of the atmosphere can be found d at the airsea or airland interface Answer d 13 Air pressure with increasing height d decreases exponentially Answer d 14 The relationship between water depth and water pressure is described by a the hydrostatic equation Answer a 15 Lowering the temperature of the surface layer of a water column can cause it to become a positively buoyant b negatively buoyant Answer b 16 Increasing the salinity of the surface layer of a water column can cause it to become a positively buoyant b negatively buoyant Answer b 17 The temperature of a water parcel at 1000 meters that originated at the surface and has not exchanged heat with its surroundings will be b warmer than its original temperature Answer b 18 The rise in temperature of a water parcel carried from the surface to depth is called b adiabatic heating Answer b 19 The decrease in temperature of a water parcel carried from depth to the surface is called a adiabatic cooling Answer a 20 The temperature of a water parcel with the effects of adiabatic heating and cooling removed is the c potential temperature Answer c 21 The temperature of a water parcel observed at the depth of the water parcel is called the b in situ temperature Answer b 22 The pressure caused by gas molecules other than air is called c vapor pressure Answer c 23 At equilibrium vapor pressure increasing the temperature of a liquid will a increase its rate of evaporation b increase its rate of condensation c have no effect d both a and b are correct Answer d 24 Above the equilibrium vapor pressure which is greater a the rate of evaporation b the rate of condensation c both are equal Answer b 25 Below the equilibrium vapor pressure which is greater a the rate of evaporation b the rate of condensation c both are equal Answer a 26 If the vapor pressure is less than the equilibrium vapor pressure a rates of evaporation will exceed rates of condensation b it may be difficult to sweat c puddles of water may disappear quickly d conditions are said to be undersaturated e all of the above Answer e 27 The equilibrium vapor pressure as temperature increases a increases exponentially Answer a 28 Why is hot humid air less comfortable to humans that hot dry air a evaporation of sweat which cools the body occurs faster in dry air Answer a 29 Which of the following may act as cloud condensation nuclei a dimethyl sulfides b aerosols c minute particles of dust d just about any particle in the 001 to 10 micron size e all of the above Answer e 30 Dimethyl sul des may be produced by a tropical rain forests b coccolithophorids c coral reefs d bacteria e b and c Answer e 31 The tangential force of the wind on the sea surface is known as b surface wind stress Answer b 32 The transfer of energy from the wind to the sea surface occurs as a result of a collisions between air and water molecules Answer a 33 The amount of energy transferred to the sea surface by the wind depends upon a sea surface roughness b wind speed c presence of waves d presence of oil or organic lms e all of the above Answer e 34 The depth to which wind energy is distributed in surface waters depends upon a presence of waves b degree of water column stratification c wind speed d turbulence e all of the above Answer e 35 The region of the upper ocean affected by windgenerated turbulence is called c turbulent boundary layer Answer c 36 Swirling parcels of water are known as a turbulent eddies Answer a 37 Which of the following represents the correct order of albedo from lowest to highest a black lava rocks yellow beach sand a calm ocean a windblown ocean sea ice Answer a 38 The seasonal uctuations of sea ice c cover an area approximately the size of the United States in the Antarctic d are opposite in the Arctic and Antarctic one expands while the other melts e c and d are correct Answer e 39 The apparent de ection of moving objects due to the rotation of the Earth was first mathematically described by a Coriolis Answer a 40 Differences in air pressure between two locations in the atmosphere give rise to a winds b currents c waves d wind generated turbulence e all of the above are possible Answer e 41 Air masses with higher pressure are called while air masses with lower pressures are called d highs lows e none of the above Answer d 42 The circulation of a high pressure center is b anticyclonic d divergent e both b and d are correct Answer e 43 The circulation pattern of hurricanes typhoons and tornadoes is a cyclonic d clockwise in the southern hemisphere e both a and d are correct Answer e 44 Cyclones rotate a counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere d clockwise in the southern hemisphere e both a and d are correct Answer e 45 Hurricane formation generally requires sea surface temperatures in excess of a 100 degrees F b 90 degrees F c 80 degrees F d 70 degrees F e 60 degrees F Answer c 46 The hurricane season officially begins on and ends on a November 30 June 1 b June lNovember 30 Answer b 47 The fuel for cumulonimbus convection is a the Coriolis effect b SSTs above 80 degrees F c latent heat d both b and c are correct e all of the above Answer d 48 Formation of rain b adds heat to the atmosphere c fuels cumulonimbus convection e b and c are correct Answer e 49 Convective updrafts are fueled by c latent heat d low humidity e none of the above Answer c 50 At the hurricane s upper levels winds rotate in a direction b anticylonic Answer b 51 Anticylconic winds aloft in a hurricane act like b an exhaust system Answer b 52 Spiral rain bands may extend b for hundreds of miles on either side of a hurricane eye Answer b 5 3 Hurricanes generally do not make landfall in southem California because c cold sea surface temperatures weaken hurricanes d hurricanes always move towards the west e all of the above Answer c 54 One factor that in uences whether hurricanes will make landfall in the United States is b the location of the Bermuda High e all of the above Answer b 55 One reason some meteorologists do not believe that global warming is increasing the number and intensity of hurricanes is because a high hurricane activity was observed from 19261969 b regime shifts in ocean conditions cause periods of high and low hurricane activity c there is no evidence for global warming d other factors like El NinoLa Nina play a role in hurricane development e all except c are correct Answer e 5 6 Negative temperature anomalies equal to or greater than 05 degrees C for a period of three consecutive months defines a La Nina Answer a 5 7 Instruments used to track the occurrence of El Nino and La Nina include a the TopexPoseidon satellite b the TAOTriton array c the Jason satellite d all of the above Answer d 58 One of the challenges in predicting El Nino for public welfare and safety is a knowing that it is happening b understanding factors that affect its intensity c knowing where its effects might be felt d changes in El Nino as a result of global warming e all except a are correct Answer e xEXam 3 Geog 3a OceansAtmospheres Practice 2 1 For waves near the shoreline waves for which the depth of the water column is less than 120quot of the wavelength which variable or variables is or are relevant for computing the phase speed a Wave amplitude A and wave height H b Water depth h c Wave eriod T and wavelength L 2 If the wavelength of a surface gravity wave is 100 m and the water depth is 100 m you can calculate the wave s phase speed using a the shallow water wave a roximation since hgtL2 3 Wave orbitals are observed to be circular Which of the following must be true b Water depth h is less than 120 X Wavelength L hltL20 c There is no way to know from the information given 4 A tsunami that is observed in open ocean well away from coasts in waters of depth greater than 4000 m satis es the deepwater wave approximation a True 5 When two identical surface waves come together meet amp are in phase their amplitudes b subtract called destructive interference c neither a nor b 6 Rogue waves are more commonly found off which of the following locations 7 The large waves near the jetty off Newport Harbor are primarily caused by a wave diffraction b wave refraction d tsunamis 8 Suppose that you are a big wave surfer and have just won a free trip to Oahu Hawaii You want to catch the biggest waves of the year You should make reservations for a the south shore in winter c the north shore in summer d the west shore in summer 9 You are sur ng and want to impress your friends by telling them when the waves will break Which of the following formulas would you use to explain a Wave heiiht greater than 10 m c wave speed less than 10 msec d None of the above 10 Which is the best estimate of the speed of a tsunami in the deep ocean ie 4000 m depth a 5000 m h c 50 mph d 5 mph 11 Which of the following is credited to Fridtjof Nansen a an early current meter b the Nansen Passport c a Nobel Peace prize d one of founders of neurobiology 12 Which of the following received the Nobel Peace Prize a Roald Amundsen b Emest Shackleton c Robert Fallcon Scott e None of the above 13 Who was the first person to reach the South Pole b Emest Shackleton c Robert Fallcon Scott d Fridtj of Nansen e None of the above 14 The phase speed of a simple deep water surface gravity wave can be computed as b wavelength times wave period c wave height divided by wave period d wavelength times group velocity e three times group velocity 15 If the period of an ideal surface gravity Wave is 10 sec then the Wave frequency is a 1 Hz c 10 Hz d 100 Hz e none of the above 16 Which of the following can cause surface gravity Waves a Wind b atmospheric low pressure system c meteor imiact e none of the above 17 Internal gravity Waves can be observed in a stratified waters b cloud rows c a bottle with lighter waters overlying heavier waters e none of the above 18 The primary restoring force for capillary Waves is b gravity c Coriolis effect d buoyancy e all of the above 19 A Wave has a height of 4 m and a Wavelength of 40 m what is the Wave steepness a 4 b 10 d 001 e 40 20 Wave orbitals for shallow water Waves are a circular c elliptical 21 A tsunami Wave is reported to be approaching a shoreline Where you are standing You may expect a Water level to rise and then fall b Water level to fall and then rise d none of the above 22 There is geological evidence that tsunamis have occurred near the UCSB campus b False 23 Longer period deep Water Water Waves travel slower than shorter period deep Water Waves a True 24 Surface gravity Wave crests approach coastlines with a tendency to line up a ieipendicular to contours of constant Water deith isobaths c none of the above 25 Polynesians knew how to use Wave patterns for navigation b False Practice Exam Chapter 10 Part I 1 Deep water waves are surface waves which travel in waters with a depth gt wavelength2 or d gt L2 b depth lt wavelength2 or d lt L2 c none of the above Answer a 2 Orbital motion of deep surface waves a is circular b decreases with depth c a and b d neither a nor b Answer a For Deep water waves wave speed is greater for greater depths shallower depths neither a nor b P P Answer c 4 The wave speed of Shallow water waves depends on water depth a True b False Answer a 5 Tsunamis are Shallow water waves a True b False Answer a 6 Orbitals of Shallow water waves are a circular b elliptical c square Answer b Two waves interact to create a higher amplitude wave This is called destructive interference constructive interference mixed interference d none of the above P Answer b 8 If wave height is 1 meters and wavelength is 7 meters wave steepness is a 7 b 12 c 17 e none of the above Answer c Swell on the north shore of Oahu Hawaii is greatest during spring summer fall d winter P Answer d 10 The Channel Islands off the Santa Barbara coast cause wave shadowing effects a True b False Answer a 1 1 Tsunamis can be caused by earthquakes submarine landslides meteor impacts all of the above e none of the above 29 9 Answer d 12 Tsunami waves can refract around islands a True b False Answer a 13 Santa Barbara is vulnerable to tsunamis a True b False Answer a 14 Tsunami waming systems include a seismometers b buoys c tide gauges d all of the above enone of the above Answer d 15 Surface wave amplitudes are usually greater than intemal gravity wave amplitudes a True b False Answer b 16 lntemal gravity waves have been observed from space a True b False Answer a 17 Atmospheric intemal gravity waves can be observed as cloud rows a True b False Answer a 18 The Sumatra tsunami of December 24 2004 was recorded all over the world ocean a True b False Answer a 19 Most people can outrun tsunamis a True b False Answer b 20 Tsunamis waves usually include multiple wavelets some a True c False Answer a Practice Exam Chapter 10 Part II 1 The forces that disturb the surface of the sea and generate waves are called a wavegenerating forces b disturbing forces c restoring forces d a and b only e all of the above Answer d 2 Which of the following is not a type of windcaused wave a swell b capillary waves c tsunami d chop e breaker Answer c 3 Waves caused by displacement of the sea oor are called a chop b intemal waves c tides d tsunami e ocean swell Answer d 4 Which of the following waves generally has the greatest wave height a intemal waves b tides c ocean swell d capillary waves e chop Answer a 5 A form of oceangoing navigation that does not rely on a compass or global positioning system is called a wayfinding b spelunking c spellbinding d wayfaring e skullduggery Answer d 6 Predictions of sea conditions as waves interact with beaches is called a surf forecasting b Airy theory c Stokes Law d surfing e wayfaring Answer a 7 For simplification ideal ocean waves are best described as a a sine curve b an exponential curve c a straight line d a vertical line e none of the above Answer a 8 The peak of a wave is called the a trough b sea level c sea surface height d crest e wave height Answer d 9 The low point or valley of a wave is called the a trough b crest c wave peak d sea level e amplitude Answer a 10 The horizontal distance between two successive wave crests is called a wave amplitude b wave height c wavelength d wave steepness e still water level Answer c 11 The resting state of the sea surface in the absence of any perturbations is called a the wave height b the wave amplitude c the wave state d still water level e none of the above Answer d 12 The vertical distance between the crest and the trough is called a wave amplitude b wave height c wavelength d wave steepness e still water level Answer b 13 The time between successive crests is called the a wave amplitude b wave period c wavelength d wave height e wave steepness Answer b 14 Waves that occur along the interface of two water masses with different densities are a intemal waves b chop c swell d tsunami e tides Answer a 15 Waves of unusual height intensity or origin are called a seiche b capillary waves c chop d extreme or rogue waves e bores Answer d 16 Waves with wavelengths less than a few millimeters are a seiche b capillary waves c chop d extreme waves e bores Answer b 17 The most abundant type of wave in the ocean a seiches b capillary waves c chop d extreme waves e bores Answer c 18 The restoring force for capillary waves is a gravity b wind c hydrostatic pressure d surface tension e none of the above Answer d 19 The restoring force for wind waves is a gravity b wind c hydrostatic pressure d surface tension e none of the above Answer a 20 Surface waves may be detected on the sea oor as a changes in ocean biology b motion of clouds c changes in hydrostatic pressure d movement of sharks e none of the above Answer c Polar explorer Nansen1861 Farthest North Greenland crossing Ststesman diplomat education sportsman 1 research cruise Viking Developed neuron theory founders of neurology Father of polar exploration Discovered Artic Ocean Basin amp Artic current North Pole Invented current meter and water sampler Observed intemal gravity waves dead water Discovered spiraling currents Early work on glacial rebound Climate change Sunspots and climate change Problems with navigation at that time Desalination for freshwater food with proper nutrition scurvy Wll insulated snow goggles proper heaters for food and water maps and water depths unexplored GPD coastal only Radar for navigation coast iceberg hazards Radio and satelilite communication Weather and tidal forecasts Greenland lessons Trek Westward not eastward no dog bad raised confidence for Norway NorthPole lessons Drift in ice toward N Pole with artic current Use of dogs planned for 5 years took 3 years to do the trip made it 225 nt miles from North Pole Things that happened during his lifetime 18611865 US Civil War 1880 s 2nd industrial revolution 19141918 WWI 1920 s rise of russian bolshevism lenin Roal Amundsen 1 winter in Antartica 1 to cross Canadian North West Passage in a small ship found that North Magnetic Pole is not stationary Tumed fram towards South Pole without telling Nunsen Beat Scott by 35 days Sailed North East Passage Attempted North Pole crossing in plane Gave his life June1928 searching for Umberto Nobile Measuring Waves Current meters Tide gauges and wave staffs Bottom pressure sensors Wave rider buoys Coastal radar Satellites Altimeters Microwave Scatterometers In apoalad Imo was waquanq I FIGURE 104 Parts of a typical ocean wave Ideal Wave or Sinusoid Form Crest Wavelength A a39pquott de I E I A H2 T S steepness SHL c wave speed cLT where T wave period Still Water hWa erde h Level TWWh t pt See Figure 1016 also U TFBl39Il DUdQlBpOl39QwXIym UD apeoauumooaatanoooouoamam oepenmtponmeltapaodandmedbtnncehouoenmem L TLc 1TcL 50W 50mquot WNW WW9quot lomteooueotlnevoctmuoeparnupau Tmmwoetotlatoaaatnpaeelngbyevotymnuoa merepaeoanatrueoastanoenameanmom uapenoazponmaarapaoaaumemamnconouoamam 4 PmM C I 4 I FIGURE 106 Concept of wave period and wave frequency FIGURE 105 Concept of wave period and wave frequency Long wavelengthslargd Periods hort Wavelengths aind Periods I f W Trans 1 O l Infra I 1 Ultra l W39 0 3V9 tidal l l Long per10d I gravity t Gravity l gravity l Capillary waves gtlte waves gt waves lt waves gt5 waves lt waves l i bai iqu es SEOITI1Sf39 l l l Disturbing Force 533 I I k Wimil gt I I I I I I I4 I Gravity I gtI Restoring Force I COI lOl1S force r I 1 Surface I I I I I I I tension I I See Table 101 What causes surface gravity waves Surface waves are caused by disturbances such as Winds and atmospheric pressure Earthquakes submarine landslides and volcanoes Ship movement Meteors J w J ugoa IL W lt9 W 0 M W W Q Z M 6 v H 1EV 39 f7v V 39quotT 39quot39E 3939393939393939 ii T f I nun v1 gt V H quot O an 4 391 4 39 Jquot quot 9 quotquot 3 4 Recall R w p Y j u 9 s at H 3 my jag 33 Eu z r A V A curFm 2 3quot J where L is wavelength and T is wave period ll 7 Deep water waves Deep water waves are surface waves that travel in waters with depth h gt Ll2 where L wavelength Note Wave speed depends on L and longer waves travel faster These waves have circular orbital motion decreasing rapidly with depth 1 3 395 3 Osum cl cm I39IIL u393 39 Hv Jud J g 9 O O O u o o o u o o o L o o J 39J39139z 639 crtglh L as as rt 39 s 9 L J L 5 o o o 3 to Co I Lgt2 2 lmatmaaato water wan 39Javotangtt I Os 1 are 9 L3 j L L ltgt 7 49 V 4 gt Toanddro muhon non bottom V C gt Sta34 water wow 3939Ja39miar39gll 6 FIGURE 109 Wave orbitals for a deep c intermediate and d shallowwater waves Deepwater waves are defined as waves traveling in water depths greater than A the wavelength Intermediate water waves are defined as waves traveling in water depths less than A the wavelength but greater than 1I20th the wavelength Shallow water waves are defined as waves traveling in depths less than 1l20th the wavelength Shallow water waves Shallow water waves are surface waves that travel in waters with depth h lt Ll20 Note Tsunamis are shallow waves even though they often travel in the deep ocean as their wavelengths are long Note Speed depends on depth and waves in deeper water travel faster Speed height only Tsunami Harbor wave in Japanese Colloquially Tidal wave Causes Earthquakes Submarine landslides MeteorAsteroid impact Fact Forward waves part moves faster than backpart runup Tsunami Facts Wavelengths 200 km or 125 mi In deep sea h lt Ll20 as 4km lt200kml2O 10km shallow wave Period T3045min Speed 700kmlh 400500mph Jet speed Height near shore can reach 100ft or more Most people cannot outrun a tsunami that travels 20mph near shore A 4minute mile run is world class and is only 15mph Tsunami warning centers are at Univ of Hawaii and Univ of Alaska Centers use seismometers tide gauges on coasts and buoy network at sea Come in waves 15 may be depressed sea level Objectives of Tsunami Warning Centers Provided by Bruce Turner Internal Gravity Waves dead water Slows boats down Found in atmosphere clouds What Factors Affect Surf 1 Location and strength of stormslhow far are you from source of waves Windsea or groundswell Direction of winds and fetch Season waves produced in NH or SH Tides Sea breeze effects steepen or flatten local waves Water depth or bathymetry changes with sand movement tides and storm surge and slope 7 Coastal shape points or bays 8 Angle of impingement of waves on shoreline 9 Refraction reflection diffraction shadowing 10 Wave interference constructive or destructive 11 Current O5Ul OON Good surf 12 Cutoff low good where hot air meets cold in N Hemisphere Major low cyclogenesis Hawaii N in the winter S in the Summer Wave Breaks for Different Tidal Conditions a l small difference Figure 71 a iiquot the ltlistiiiie bigtliiii i the seabecl and ti 39l39rll lll 611 the top oi the wave is mLiltli iiioie Llml llii dis tai iiegt lwlweeii llilt gt St cll l gmil Ll rll39ll3939tf all Hit llOl39ll Til iil iigt wave h7 l7 tile lquotF will l3l39C r lllt wil ll iii39lt viligti39 li39mi liy is If this liffc arerice is rrilailvcly small l iin flies wivlt will bl tlllt lllL39l39 slovvly LOW TIDE SHALLOW wmsn oven REEF REEF HIGH TIDE quotquotquot quot quot DEEP WATER oven REEF Factors affecting wave shape s g a oFF9horegt p gently breaking wave tubing wave Wave Groups Groupiness and Settiness Between storm center and coast waves organize into groups or sets Groups of waves travel at group velocity which is 2 of individual phase velocity for deep water waves From Surf Science Time er Having all started off out in front leaving the cm ntre all sorts of wave 2 to the storm centre we rapes and wavelengths orm centre the various the longer faster ones lagging behind By the the longer waves have mes have been left way n a radial direction not Figure 55 Each individual wave in a group propagates at twice the speed of the group resulting in a con stant flow of waves from the back of the group to the front Individual waves do not last very long they are born at the back of the group and die at the front Agulhae Current area of 239 giant wavee I Rogue waves along the wild coast off South Africa Wavecurrent interactions I eouth we5t ewelle from Southern Ocean From Surf Science Rogue wave North South 7 quot39 P h If 1 39 39 3939quotquot3939quots T r quot Agumas Stull water level current ow Antarctic storm wave movement Chapter 6 Ocean Chemistry Reading Chapter 6 ftp 0rage0gucsbedupubopltommyG3aW12 Class Objectives Gain knowledge of scienti c methods and theories Increase understanding and appreciation of ocean and atmosphere Appreciate historical perspectives of science and its evolution Learn of similarities and differences of ocean and atmosphere Obtain skills in reading maps and interpreting data presentations Develop ability to read and objectively evaluate science articles Chemistry Science of matter its composition structure properties and behavior Chemical Oceanography Involves physics biology and geology of the World ocean Interdisciplinary W Pa W W gt W W WW 1 W W 0 V W 7 P W quot quot 1 6 q 2 W W W W W W p x W W W W W W W W quot W W W W W W W p 7 H W W W H W W W Wm x k W b 8 W W W e W W W W W I W W W W u W W 1 W W W W W W c W W W W Hen W W W W W W W W f x W W 0 V v W N J W q W W A V W V W W pM W W W W W W Xi W W7 W 39 W W w W u W W W W x x W W x W x x W 2 W W x W x x 77 Wtxil WW r Viv V7V W K W 7 W KW Tg 3 775W W i N J W W 7 7 W i W 4 M i i i Matter is solid material with mass physics mass and energy Mixtures different types of matter separable by physical means Substances elements and compounds Elements atoms neutrons protons electrons eg H O Na Compounds atoms chemically united like H20 and NaCl Molecules two or more atoms united ie H20 Where H is hydrogen atom O is oxygen atom inorganic amp organic rum O E by Seqamlionby chomucdmothods Physics Physics Motivation Chemistry affects life in ocean and vice versa ie biochemistry Chemistry is important for climate Physical properties affected by chemistry ie salinity Atmosphere is affected by ocean chemistry and vice versa Pollution is often chemical issue B 3 4 D p 7 39 quot 39Q 2 39 71 23 My 4 7 39V gnnvIW K 1 g V 0 an o u I p6 39quotquot n 55 2 p Route of the HMS Challenger 713 days at sea out of port 1606 days 69000 nt miles or about 79000 statute miles Went near Antarctica 60 10 120 too so so 40 20 o I so lZ 39 quot390 quot W quot I O 39 39 g I 39 g 6O quot lrpIr1mr Ikx 8393939 quot 0 Rclurn Hay l8quot I 3 Hay 80 l8quot y A v HIumlsLuI1 A Aquot39 I ugl8quot5 Iarrh PACIFIC 18quot 0 1N ktrI39tquot A P Lquot E J Srpt Lnnu I8 Vicpt I8 S 39 rota cavL quot quot39 nu xquots I r39m da unha quot 6o A l39 Ilt39 39 2C 9 N NAN CM A 4111 1Mn kl 18quot Kl u3939 ll lmd janl8 4 um UPS 0 0 F3 A I I unn v n39 Ix I 20 39 Challenger Facts C Wyville Thomson led expedition John Murray led analyses Capt George Nares and 200 crew onboard Took place just after US Civil War and during early polar exploration through early 1900 s 492 soundings with depth using lead lines 144 miles of sounding rope and 125 miles of piano wire 263 water hydrographic stations 133 bottom dredges 151 open Water trawls for organisms 4700 new species Measured currents Did excellent chemical analyses ie relevant to carbon etc Discovered MidAtlantic Ridge and Mariana s Trench Found life in deep sea disproved azoic dead zone No primordial slime on sea oor postulated by Emest Haeckel Data stored in UK 50 volumes of reports still used Challenger Expedition Samplers Challenger Expedition Samplers and Labs British ship HMS Challenger 18721876 HMS Challenger 18721876 an uJ5w39uuou InubniDA 3939ooin739 2 jquot 39 a 7 HMS Challenger s contribution H IT T T T T AT Tn T J T 1 E AT T if 1 6 0n k 1 7 kir sin n nTinnUunT M Nun uu u 5 39 T 9 quot I 39 quot o A I u o 1 39 s 5 3911 P6 K 1 Pu P D 1 M D t 6 u 39 quot395 T T C rr T ampn r a ho T39a TT quot 7 n 39 u 0n5 39 t NF 39 I I K hquot 3quot 39 H mA T 39 apug 90 0 39 T uW Review HMS Challenger s contribution What were some of the advances I I v x39 259 What is in Seawater What is in Seawater Seawater is composed of H20 and many dissolved elements and compounds Fig 65 Periodic Table of Elements Maj or seawater elements purple and biologically important elements in red ie nutrients are highlighted Are all of these elements 1n the ocean Your faVor1te nut m1X 1 1 id n1l 1quot1r quot gr1 l p 39 393939 quotquot333939 39 1 Alan 2 r111rquott11 1 1 2 W W H oW 1A A 26 7 11 1 lm W n1 r rn1quotr 39w1 T Nmr T quotW 339 I14 139 E 1 4 9 3 2 r1lr1g 1ly quot1p1l391n n 1quot1nquot12 394 quot quotquot 39 V 390 3 4 quot 39nrn In1 5 s 3 1 2 LI Be 8 C O F Ne 6 941 9012 1081 9 1 13131 1 1 1 E11113 S5112 153 11 12 13 14 V 1 17 11 1 N8 M9 35 19 39 13 9 8 2 19 213 A1 S1 P S C1 N 3 2431 Q 1 1 1 18 11 I11 V 1 112 sQ P4 3U 53 32 1 3t 15 33933935 09P 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 714 17 5 31 O K can Sc Tl V Cr Mn Fe Co NI Cu Zn Ga Go A So Br Kr 1 39 10 40 O8 44 96 4788 50 94 52 00 54 94 5585 58 93 5869 63 55 BS 41 8972 7251 74 92 797 5 79 9397 917 7 739 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 46 49 50 51 52 5 Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Flu Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb To I Xe 6547 8762 8891 9122 9291 9594 98 1011 1029 1064 1079 1124 1148 1137 1218 1276 vI9 1313 55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 813 6 Ca Ba La IIt Ta W Fla Os Ir Pl Au Hg Tl Pb BI P0 M Rn 1329 1373 1389 1765 1609 1339 1862 1902 1922 1951 1970 2006 2044 2072 2090 209 210 xE 87 88 89 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 1396 Fr Ra Ac Rt Db Sg Bh H M D R9 223 226 227 263 I262 266 267 277 268 281 272 285 x 11191131 t13911 151t1 391 1f1n1111 1t 2 2 39 39 g 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 12 1 1 11 1 Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu 1401 1409 1442 145 1504 1520 1573 1589 1625 1649 1673 1689 1730 1750 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 Actinic 3 Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk CI Ea Fm Md No Lr 2320 231 238 0 I 237 242 243 247 247 251 252 257 258 259 260 L Water is an excellent solvent Element like Na with 11 electrons readily donates its extra outer shell electron while those like Cl with 17 electrons missing an outer shell electron readily accepts an electron Outer shell Aquot 39tr 31itJquotr39e 39 de quotd 39Ya39 of electrons wants to be stable U ie 2 electrons in 1st 8 electrons in 21quot and 3 shells etc mgi a ies Periodic Table 3 7D P E Na ion and Clquot ion together 0 4 make a stable molecule quot 9 Hydrated Hydrated When together they form chlorine ion sodium Ion NaCl via ionic bonding 8 Sodium chloride in solution Figure 610 Salt as a solute 33 a Undersaluralterj b Satutuleod Higher temps allow for more solute to be dissolved c Saturatcul Ill 39l39 l39E1l 51 Subillly Where do dissolved and particulate materials in ocean come from Hint Chemistry of ocean involves interactions of land ocean and atmosphere and biological organisms The land enriches the sea the sea nourishes the land The chemistry of the world ocean encom passes billions of veers of interactions between land and sea How does material enter oceans Volcanoes hot springs vents ie chloride Cl Weathering rock ie sodium chloride NaCl Rivers Rain and atmospheric deposition Biological processes recycling really Meteors from space Fig 61 What chemicals are in ocean Waters An internet ad I I Sea salt evaporated from a lagoon in Maio Island Cape Verde Africa Sea salt contains sodium chloride and trace con centrations of other elements Identi cation of the elements present in sea satts and their abundances represented a major advance in chemical oceanography f Sea salt evaporated from a lagoon in Maio Island Cape Verde Africa Sea salt contains sodium chloride and trace con centrations of other elements Identi cation of the elements present in sea salts and their abundances represented a major advance in chemical oceanography nb39C39 F quot39v 39z D 3 A quotquotK 1 n o to 139 u39IIquot I pi u 39 pill 1 N i It h a qf1iris f a mac r 39 1 quot 39 IL39t 1 f39 39J 1 I Ic A 1 39H j39 39 7quot7lt 7 0 L l K ix K 3 4 4 pun wmsr 39gt35 3 I 1 Cl 1910 Q 0 Y 39 1082 LJ o39cv 1 a39quot c 44 s q quot 23936 Ma 040 g 123 a K 0384 b ai The CTD the work horsequot of modem ocean ography The ring of sampling bottles is called a rosette They are shown here in their open position prior to lowering bi Once on board water samples for various chemical and biological analy ses and experiments are quickly taken Relative proportions of major constituents of dissolved elements in seawater Dittmar s Principle Based on HMS Challenger data Works for open ocean Major constituents of seawater and their origins S35000 Name as found Element Symbol In seawater lonlc state Concentration In seawater Sources UIIIIOIkg W U quot cu Chlorine Cl Chloride Cl 54588 19353 Volcanic gases Sodium Na Sodium N a 46896 10781 Cmst Magnesium Mg Magnesium Mg 5283 1284 Crust Sul tr S Sulphate SO 39 NaSO 2823 2712 Volcanic gases Calcium Ca Calcium Ca 1028 04119 Crust Potusium K Potaaium l 1021 0399 Crust Carbon C Bicarbonate IKI quot 206 0126 Volcanic gases crust sedimentary roclcs Bromine Br Bromide Br 0844 00673 Volcanic gases Boron B Borate HBO39 0416 00257 Volcanic gases Strontium Sr Strontium Sr 00906 000794 Crust Fluorine F Fluoride P 0068 000130 Crust AVogadro s number is number of C atoms in 12 gm of Carbon Avogadro s number is 6023 X1023 atomsmol A mole mol is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0012 kilogram or 12 grams of carbon12 Approximate Composition of Open Ocean Seawater Seawater by Weight percent Water 965 or 965 ppt Dissolved material 35 or 35 pm Total 1000 or 1000 ppt ppt parts per thousand like percent but using 1000 for reference base instead of 100 Aside 1 What percent by Weight is Water in the human body 2 What percent of human body is Na Cl Approximate Composition of Open Ocean Seawater Seawater by Weight percent Water 965 or 965 ppt Dissolved material 35 or 35 ppt Total 1000 or 1000 ppt ppt parts per thousand like percent but using 1000 for reference base instead of 100 Aside 1 What percent by Weight is Water in the human body 5060 ppt 2 What percent of human body is Na Cl 015 015 ppt What is formal de nition of Salinity De nition of Salinity Number of grams of dissolved material in 1 kilogram 1000 gm of seawater Units in parts per thousand ppt or practical salinity units psu Salinity Determination Given 70 gm of dissolved material in 2 kg or 2000 gm of seawater What is the salinity S 70 gm2000gm 35 gm1000gm 35 341000g 35 ppt or psu Fig 62 Concept of ocean Water column Properties usually vary with depth We Want to know how many of each molecule type is in the ocean per unit volume and how the concentrations vary with depth water column Dittmar s Principle In open ocean total amount of dissolved materials may change but ratios of the elements remain very nearly the same Table 61 applies in open ocean Thus We can calculate salinity from chlorinity using formula S18XCl Example Calculation Given C1 20 ppt What is salinity S 18X C1 18 X 20 ppt 36 ppt Where does this method fail Rivers estuaries bays near coasts Measurements of salinity using conductivity Devices for measurements CTD conductivity temp depth Salinometer Satellite sensors using microwave energy launched in October 2011 Salinity affects Water conductivity Fresh water Saltwater Conductwuty 7 Measuring salinity using a CTD Also collecting water samples Salinity versus conductivity at ditterent temperatures 55 54 59 Q3 I O I 0 I 5 T I O I O I 50 ll 9 49 0 I 0 I 43 u 9 I O I 47 4 u 0 I e 46 I 0 I e I 453 A I1 0 44 43 I O I O I 42 z i lji i llI O I Y I 2 Cl 9139 3 40 T I I I I I I I 25 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 35 Salinity pans per thousand al The CTD the work horse of modem ocean ography The ring of sampling bottles is called a rosette They are shown here in their open position prior to lowering lb Once on board water samples for various chemical and biological analy ses and experiments are quickly taken r r T utrlents for j M A Phytoplanton L 1 q Eu A drifting algag I t a H c0p1c V1ew ef ph toplan ton are L fundamental to 0 r a life on Earth a lH a Macronutrienls This map of global chlorophyll green in color concentrations proxy for phytoplankton microscopic drifting plants illustrates quite clearly the eutrophic high in macronutrients regions of the World ocean seen in red and green and the oligotrophic low in macronutrients regions seen in blue and purple Which areas are oligotrophic Eutrophic Which region is the lowest in phytoplankton concentration Fig 614 Colored dissolved material is brownish material in stream entering the Paci c Leeched from vegetation upstream colored dis soived organic matter is visible as the brownish tint in this stream flowing into the Pacific Ocean 9 62 r 39cr1gc qtlaiititics of common elements in continental crust and river water in union of their 1lmnclmcc in scm39itcr39 Name of element Continental crust form of River water form of element Symbol element concentration mol ton39 concentration mmol m3 Chloride Cl Cl 133 Cl 233 Sodium Na Na 1027 Na 313 Magnesium Mg Mg 905 Mgquot 150 Sulfur S S 217 SO 120 Calcium Ca Ca 961 Caquot 367 Potassium K K 547 K 36 Carbon Many forms 166 HCO3 869 Silica Si Si 10254 SiO2 173 Source Pdscn W98 Dittmar s Principle does not Work for rivers bays estuaries and nearshore ocean waters lt11 Fig 615 Oxygen minimum zones lt00 01 an an 39 I3 IIIIIII nun l p 3 amp Y 3 6 0 3 3 If 9 9 9 g 4 o 5 C mz 5 so Why important 10 quot4quot 4 a L 6 Distance from seamounl km Global Carbon Cycle Receding Glacier Vquot 39 u39I39gt 39 I quot A l 39 Ioa39 Fig 619 Exchange of organic Carbon among various reservoirs Note sources and sinks of organic Carbon 2Gtonsyr extra 21 zgt6 co u 395 3939 39gt16 Atmosphere 90 60 750 V gt Foeeil tools and H r cement ptoductlon I I 4000 I 0 W Vegetetlen 010 3 PZ p5 or A Ci 100 O i 916 50 6 Exchange Rates in Gtons Cyr 09 09quot P quott39 Gtons C stored in each reservoir 7quot 39 39 4 4 3 Note Gtons 109 tons C C 3 J Sediments 150 L39s Fig 620 Reservoirs residence times and exchange rates in Gtyr with arrows of all Carbon stored on Earth Which is smallest reservoir Note About 2 Gt of CO2 are accumulating in atmosphere per year now 9 Atmosphere quot00 Gt 3 eaisgt 4 6 gt1 13922 rec roe wet as i Alive Dead 0 g 6 70 Gt 1100 Gt Intermediate ocean 5 Years 20 years 7000 Gt 100 years Terrestrial biosphere 30 Years 011 031 Fossil fuels and shales Marine sediments 12000 Gt 1000 years 30 million 5 100 m years PARTS PER MILLION 380 360 340 320 Atmospheric CO2 at Mauna Loa Observatory j I 39 I I I Scripps Institution of Oceanography NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory quotValues reached 1500ppm 1 11 I YEAR h d 1 d 3 u 39 ome models predict W en mosaurs HM 39 that by end of this century W3 39 Values may reach 56ONppm A t 39rquotquot 1 1 0 1 960 1 970 1 980 1990 2000 201 0 January 2011 Mauna Loa Observatory Hawaii Monthly average carbon dioxide concentration 390 33 4 330 s 3 0 IVit5 300 35 Values reached 1500ppm 320 when dinosaurs lived 501116 I110d 1S 345 pI39 diCt 340 that by end Of this century 330 Values may reach 3 560 ppm 320 C Fe 9 L 2 W 2 9 395 v 9 u r C 2 IL 39nglent trend 3 5 rncnth y mean x rYrf39Trf39Yfr397quotquotquotquot39quot11quotW39Y739Y v39quotfv 1958 8 64 68 T 76 80 84 88 9 98 00 01 Year at v mmmmmmmmmmm P 5 eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee pv mmmmm eeeeeee tttttttt Sw tttttttttttttt P v Sea Level Rise from Satellite Altimeter Data 19932006 011 uovn pu 2 O 5 quot39 Iout 7 i vw Chowoo In Moon 00 low gnvrjz I 39r 39 I 915 39 0r Sinir 33931 moles m 2 Figure 6a Watercolumn integrated anthropogenic CO2 concentrations in the World ocean Source NOAA Where is biggest accumulation of CO2 occurring Environmental effects pH value Examples A Battery acid Suliunc acid Lemon juice vinegar Omnqe juice soda All fish die Am rain 424 2 42 and below Aaux lakei15 Frog eggs iacx ole s cray sh pH 5 Bananas 5053 and maylliis die 55 and below jg3 min 395 5 Rainbcm trout begin Pquot 6 H9339 hV 39339 9 553 hawk 8368 pH 7 Pure water pH 8 ISeawamrjegas Baking soda Milk oi magnesia Aminoma Soapi WCNGY Bleach Liquid drain cleaner 3Uquot quot to die 60 and beiow the acid threat As CO2 rises shelled animals may perish DAY 0 DAY 2 DAY 16 DAY 26 r 39 39 Not corrosive EQUATOR s s TBQPlC9E9 PR 3 i v a I is quot quot X l Z T39 n 4Tt 39p g 39 gt More corrosive No data If CO2 continues to rise unchecked computer models show that acidification will deplete carbonate ions in much of the ocean by 2100 turning the waters corrosive for many shellbuilding animals DAY Aerosol Sampler with IMET on BTM Ed Sholkovitz WHOI 4 lnlet for aerosol sample Housing for P Housing for F e aquot pump and aerosol lter 39 39 olders Total Aerosol Iron WHO BU 39MCquotlr el Ampt S39lmfe Bmrmda a Tr39lhre1 q 139vJUTlU Jdjy o5 I quot623 24373 kl i LF x3939lrlt quot3987 39 5 I L 139 2 Juno 3 Juno 36 h C4 T 39 Q 14 f go 1 I S 39 3 i P3 0 ll U Jul E4 1514 15 Ju O4 Ju r393 quotquot U May Jun Jul Aug Sampling Dates 2004 MITESS Fe Time Series from BTM Ed Boyle MIT MIT ESS Moored ln situ Trace Element Serial Sampler 0 Collects uncontaminated water samples under programmed control 0 Deployable on Moorings for gt6 months 0 Can be used by anyone to collect deepsea trace metal profiles Total Fe nmolkg Fe Duplicate Samples BTM 19981999 Out of 11 pairs of replicate samples 9 agree within expected error I Teflon bottle 0 Polyethylene bottle 5 A PMP Bottle ATE Sampler PE l0m ml 9 39393939393939393939wu 0 Q Load Pro oo new Benmuh 19791997 Pb and in quot 100 150 T Why the Decrease in Lead End Chapter 6 Water is a Polar Molecule Covalent bonds Sharing electron H d flquottquot9 tiand Figure 67 Hydration sheath gt 9 H20 Cl Na 9 Halite crystal Hydrated chlo de ion Smali water duster 9 Hydrated sodium Ion Figure 68 FIG I An educational approach is ad vocated here that draws together the three elements illustrated in the gure left Observations a view of the Earth over the North Pole with Arctic ice in the center The white swirls are clouds associated with atmospheric weather patterns right Laboratory models baroclinic eddies dynamically analo gous to weather systems seen in the satellite picture created by the insta bility of the thermal wind gradient in a dishpan induced by the presence of the ice bucket at the center of the rotat ing tank bottom Theory of rotating uids is used for example to identify key nondimensional numbers write down simple solutions and generally build the link between realworld phe nomena and laboratory abstractions Observations Theory V s2DADA 2 Dt Dt Dt Dt D A A in X Dt in y gt A in and the poleequator temperature gradient Such laboratory experiments have made a central contribution to our understanding of the uid mechan ics of natural fluids the field of geophysical fluid dynamics GFD lt lt a seemingly complex phenomenon so that its essential cause can be studied in isolation Through the study of this laboratory system in the context of and mo tivated by atmospheric observations and appropriate mathematical theory the third leg of the stool in Fig 1 students learn that weather systems are the result of two essential ingredients the Earth s rotation For example laboratory experiments were the first to demonstrate that rotating uids do not behave like uids at all Turner 2000 they become rigid parallel to the axis of rotation a result that has wide implica tions for phenomena ranging from Iupiter s Giant Red Spot to the circulation of the atmospheres and oceans Brenner and Stone 2000 Regime transitions in rotating annulus experiments led professor Edward Lorenz of Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT to ask fundamental questions that set the stage for his discovery of chaos and a new branch of science Gedzelman 1994 Laboratory experiments should be but are often quotnot at the center of teaching meteorology oceanogra phy and climate at undergraduate and graduate levels At a recent AMS education symposium for example Pandya et al 2004 called for a reform of geoscience Chapter 7 Ocean Physics Reading Chapter 7 ftpIIflorageogucsbedulpubloplItommyIG3aW12 A 2quot 1 39 4 A 39 I 2 Physics Physics is the study of matter forces motion Waves momentum heat radiation and all forms of energy and their transformations exchanges and propagation Physical Oceanography Involves exchanges of energy and matter between atmosphere and ocean and Within the ocean Form of energy Radiant or solar energy Kinetic energy Thermal energy or heat Chemical energy Potential energy Forms of Energy Important to Oceanographers The law of conservation of energy states that energy can be neither created not destroyed but it can change forms Thus one form of energy may in principle be oonverted to another For example when the Sun heats Earth solar energy is converted to thermal energy When a rock slide creates waves in a lake or the ocean potential energy is convened to kinetic energy De nition Energy in electromagnetic radiation that comes from the Sun important in heating of Earth the ocean and the atmosphere and essential to photosynthesis Energy of motion of moving objects 2 x mass x velocity Energy of random motion of molecules which results in the exchange of heat between objects Energy stored within the chemical bonds of substances Energy related to the position of objects or the position of atoms in molecules Example Sunlight Movement ofwind across the ocean surface or collisions of water molecules in a glass Ocmn warming the overlying air or vice versa Chemical reactions that occur within the cells of marine organisms A rock sitting on top of a ledge or the spacing between water molecules Applications of Physical Oceanography Ocean heating and cooling Currents Waves Light and sound propagation Movement and mixing of properties ie salinity various chemicals and organisms Weather ie hurricanes typhoons monsoons Climate Energy from ocean Pollution Military operations Temperature of the Ocean Kelvin Calcius Fahrenheit 1 Fig 71 Temperature Scales E quot4 4 37315 K 6 100 C i 212 Bomng quotquot pmL T point at water 4 4 3 3 T T Converslons 3 3 1 K C 273 3 1 F 18 0C 32 3 Q R C 056 quotF 32 31015 K 37 C quot 986 F Humen body 5 P Q 39 temperature 29815 K 25 C 77quot Room temperature 27315 K O 0 C 3932 F Freezing r point at water 0 K Z 27315quotC 45958 gt Absolute Zero ac cF b I FIGURE 73 a The CTD the work horsequot of modem ocean ongraphv The ring of sampling bottles is called a rosette They are shown here in their open position prior to lowering b Once on board water samples for various chemical and biological analy aea and experiments are quickly taken Deployment Cannister amp Drogue Expendable Bathythermograph XBT Measures temperature as function of depth launched from a ship Transmitter FIGURE 72 Deployment of an AXBT or aircraft expendable bathythermograph The AXBT allows for rapid assessment of the vertical distribution of seawater properties using aircraft like this one used for the US Coast Guard s International Ice Patrol Thermistor Probe I B 24 hr 139 1 0 f 3 t e39 3T 0 A 0 0 as float rises sensors record temperature and salinity 1000m float drifts at predetermined depth 7 39 ff if 0 e u PP 0 i f e V 39vquotquot FIGURE 75 The Japanese research vessel Takuyo deploys an Argo float This vessel and others like it are part of an international effort to measure salinity and temperature of the upper 2000 meters of the world ocean A major goal is to determine the effects of global warming on the upper ocean Source Note currents are measured by the floats drifts at depth also Bermuda Testbed Mooring has provided time series Meteorology Currents Temp Salinity Light Biology Figure 74 4 5f ennuda NASA 32 W H 39 fo 39 air ggfriggand quot39 5quot 9 f39 e7 N98 quot a399 d b 39 W P ucse 39 39 quot h 39I3 s t 39 31 423988quot N 64 103932quot W j3quotl39 I quot1 quot39 quot I 39 65 64a 39If 1 I K UCSB spectral radiometer 38ei39919399m6W UCS8 Acoustic Telemetry AT surt 139 quotI Time Series Locations for ceanSITES Moorings and Argo Floats 80N I A Observatory funded A Observatory planned 60 O Airsea flux funded I O Airsea flux planned K J 40 I 01 AA Aog gl 00 oAoo 201 S 9 g A 40 i i A V s I lt9 O 60 i I Transportfunded W 1 Transport planned e 53933 in TAOHRWQN and PIRATA o Design by cEeg1Ier mm men R 2Dquot39E V21quot 50quot so moo 1230 143039 webquot webquot 15 o39 140quot 120 1070 ad ed andquot 2o39 039 ZOE RP FLIP During ODEX Study in Paci c 1982 RaDyO SB Channel 2008 1 Buoyancy and Stability illustrated with RP FLIP 3fauar quot 39 Q lg1y 9 4 soquot quot2 u a Satellite Measurements of Sea Surface Temperature I FIGURE 76 Satellite determinations of sea surface tempera ture and other properties rely upon very precise high resolution measurements of visible nearinfrared and thermal radiation passively emitted from the surface of the ocean land and clouds They provide information on weather ocean conditions re detection landuse and other Earth properties Sea Surface Temperature from Satellite over Gulf of Mexico I FIGURE 77 Sea surface temperature on February 28 2006 in the Gulf of Mexico from the MODIS instrument aboard Terra Note that the image is a daily composite a combination of a few to several measurements taken by the satellite Images are often combined to remove the affects of clouds which block measure ments of SST Even so clouds remain visible in this image as black patches of missing data The black rectangles represent a swath of missing data possibly indicating an area not covered by the satellite on this day This image is a good remind er of the many steps involved in the acquisition processing and veri ca tion of satellite measurements of SST Time Scales CLIMATE Observational amp Modeling Issues Resuspension 100 years Timespace resolution and ranges Decadal Oscillationsl Fish Regime Shifts Suff1c1entvar1ables to represent processes E 10 Years Mesoscale Phenomena Synoptic sampling is critical seasonal MLDamp 1 Year Biomass Cycles This figure is on Fronts Eddies 1m th amp Filaments inside cover of text fer reference C0aStgVPPed iweek throughout v the course 3 lday Diurnal Surfaoe Tides 1 hour Langmuir Cells Turbulent Patch Size 1 min Dickey 1991 2003 1mm 10m ldm 1m 10 m 100 quot1 1km 10 km 100 km 1000 km 10000 km Horizontal Spatial Scales 1 sec Time Scales 100 Moorings Bottom Tripods Shore and Offshore CLIMATE years Based Platforms Decadal Oscillations HF Radars Fish Regime Shifts 10 Years M soscale F no In na Satelhtes 1 year Fronts Eddies 1m t amp Filments Coastall Trapoed W es 1 week ynop c St rms Rive utflo s Sediment Rusp nsion 1 day gt 1 h 7 P AUV 5 Ghder 1 min Shlps Dnfter 1 Floats 89 I I I I I I I mm 10m ldm 1m 10 m 100 quot1 1km 10 km 100 km 1000 km 10000 km Horizontal Spatial Scales Heat and the Ocean 6 Heat Capacity and Speci c Heat quotT j 1v y a Fi 2IJquoti 7 Specific heat versus heat capacity Heat capacity refers to the heat need to raise the entire mass or volume of an object or svstem Speci c heat refers a specific mass or volume Though often interchanged these two terms do not mean the same thing For example consider a sea lion wanning itself on a rock The heat need to raise the temperature of the entire sea lion bv one degree is the heat capacity ofthis particular sea lion The heat need ed to raise speci c parts of the sea lion like agram of flippertissue is the speci c heat The specific heat of various parts of the sea lion is different allowing it to better regulate its body uemperature Why is heat capacity important for the ocean 9quot Heat Capacity and Speci c Heat Z u my 2 a 1 ilt l quot 39 Specific heat versus heat capacity Heat capacity refers to the heat need to raise the entire mass or volume of an object or system Speci c heat refers a specific mass or volume Though often interchanged these two terms do not mean the same thing For example consider a sea lion warming itself on a rock The heat need to raise the temperature of the entire sea lion by one degree is the heat capacity ofthis particular sea lion The heat need ed to raise speci c parts of the sea lion like agram of flippertissue is the speci c heat The specific heat of various parts of the sea lion g is different allowing it to better regulate its body temperature r 1 I Why is heat capacity important for the ocean L Thermal inertia flywheel effect 1 for heating and cooling water 5 y Stop a spinning bike wheel Concept of Heat Transfer High Temperature Low Terrperature IV gtlt quotat quot 4 5 cy 4 Themmal Equilibrium Heat transfer gt t39 Net heat transfer has ceased FIGURE 78 Heat transfer occurs when two systems have different temperatures When the two systems reach thermal equilibrium heat transfer stops Conduction 7 0 Convection 39 l 3 39 2 Radiation FIGURE 710 Heating by conduction convection and radiation Heat may be transferred through conduction between two objects if they are not in thermal equilibrium and if they are in physical contact Convection transfers heat through the movements of molecules Radiation not considered a part of sensible heat by oceanographers transfers heat through radiation of electromagnetic energy which may travel through a vacuum see section below Heat Conduction and Convection Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display An example of conduction and convection The water at the bottom of a pot on a stove is heated by conduction However as the water rises in the pot it transfers heat by convection Convective movements of heat are very important in the atmosphere which is heated from below However convection is more difficult in the ocean which is generally heated from above These principles become very important when we consider ocean circulation Changes of State and Latent Heat of Water J Heating steem pl 100 C gumquot 9 i Vmouhitgvdot i 2 uoduua 9 x l 8 i g l 540 i g 030quot g EnotwaddoddoonctantnIo 9 g 3 C2 or 1Latent heat ol tusson 80caL gn or33J39g 2 Latent heat ol vaporization 540 callgn or 2250 Jig 3 Energy recured to heatlcoot 1 9n liquid water between 0 and 100 C 100 calxgn or 418 Jig FIGURE 711 Changes of state and latent heat in water Note that state changes or phase transitions require an input of heat that is not expressed as a change in temperature The latent heat is the heat required to change the physical state of a substance Latent heat changes the potential energy of a system even though its kinetic energy may remain the same Change of states requires extra energy to rearrange water molecules in their new form Review of Properties of Seawater 72 Physical Properties of Seawater Etplanation Effect on world ocean High speci c heat High heat conductivity High latent hat of vaporization Highest latent heat of fusion Exists in all three physiml states Maximum density at 4 C High surface tension Hot water may freeze more quickly than cold water Purewater boils at 100 C Ifit behaved lilceother molecules of similar size it should boil at 60 C Pure water freezes at 0 C This is a higher than predicted temperature based on its molecular properties The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a given mass of water by 1 C Except for liquid ammonia NH water has the highest speci c heat of all liquids and solids Water conducts heat faster than any other liquid The amount of heat input required to transform water from a liquid to a gas For liquids water has the highest latent heat of vaporization The amount of heat removal required to transfomr water from a liquid state to a solid state Btcept for liquid ammonia NH3 water has the highest latent heat of fusion The physical states of matter are gas liquid and solid Pure water reaches its maximum density above its freezingpoint Dissolved salts remove thiseffect Sur cial water molecules exhibit the strongest cohesive forces of any liquid Known as the Mpemba effect its cause is Lmlcnown but may relate to supercooling This propertywhich has been observed in the laboratory serves as a reminder that water pg simple exhibits many complex and yet unknown behaviors Water exists primarily in a liquid state on our planet Water forms ice gladers and other forms of solid water within the range of temperatures that exist on our planet Ice not only acts as a reservoir of stored water but also reflects heat back into space by increasing Earth39s albedo Water tends to resist temperature changes Where large water bodies are present fewer temperature extremes exist Heat is distributed rapidly within the cells of organisms Evaporation transports tremendous quantities of heat from the ocmn to the atmosphere This property also enables mammals to cool via sweating Ice forms and melts slowly on the ocean thereby moderating temperatures in polar rqions While most of the world ocean is liquid a large percentage of sea ice forms and melts annually Water vapor at the airsm bound ary and in the form ofclouds plays a large role in many ocan processes Icebergs oat and sea ice forms a layer at the surface Some marine organisms live within this boundary layer What effects this may have or if ever observed in nature is unknown Density Pressure Buoyancy De nition of Seawater Density Consider a Density p of small cube this mass m Of seawater of seawater With mass 1 kg of volume V mass m z is defined as and volume V m3 P mV volume V Units of p are Where Y kgm3 VXyz X What affects density of seawater Pressure p increase gives p increase p decrease gives p decrease Salinity S increase gives p increase S decrease gives p decrease Temperature T increase gives p decrease T decrease gives p increase What processes affect seawater density in the ocean r Atmospheric Precipitation 0 heating Atmospheric P Evaporation cooling a Solar heating Wind cooling A K 0 quot I CD 39 I dr Q Q p e C l 391 Processes that Processes that hcreeee density decreeee density P WeightArea P m g A P p V g A Ppgz as VAzxyz Z m pV g 98 msec2 Note 1 atmos 10 m A 100 m depth equiv to 10 atmos of pressure Force mass X acceleration F m a Newtons kg X msecz Pressure ForceArea P FA Newtons Newtonsm2 m2 Note CTD measures pressure Pressure is converted to depth 1 decibar 1 meter What is pressure at 100 m 1000 m For every 10 m 33 feet a diver descends an add i tional atmosphere of pressure is added If strict procedures are not followed to compensate for the buildup of blood and tissue gases Hydrostatic Pressure at depth the effects of hydrostaticpressure on humans can be fatal Fortunately wellnested New dwe tables and drve computers P p g h make Scuba a safe and enjoyable way to explore the world ooean p density massVol g acceler of gravity h water depth Note 10 m of water depth 39 is equiv of 1 atmos of pressure 4000 m 11000 m How did Trieste manage to get back to the the surface Russian Finnish sub mersibles Mir 1 and 2 Capable of 6000 m or 20000ft dives How much atmospheric pressure What percent of ocean can Hreach Planted a Russian flag at North Pole in 2007 Mir has been used for movies like Titanic cerlml CIIIPHNH OOIIOOC Figure 714 Concept of Buoyancy positive oats negative sinks neutral stays at same depth Archimede s Principle Buoyant force Weight of uid displaced by the object If object is more dense than water it sinks less dense rises same density stays put Iatmosphoro IL100Ocm3 1cm31ml 10cm 1 4 P 31 gal IIII 29 1 1 1 I 39 4Aj 3 l 10cm Figure 715 Argo Floats use of buoyancy to collect CTD data Principle used for submarines pro ling moorings gliders AUVs Gear motor Slngestroke PUHP Battery Hydraulic uid Satellite Circuit boards and antenna satellite transmitter Bladder Temperatures salinity probe Hydraulic pump a piston Argo deployed by ship or arrcrall Satellite sends data to weather and climate torecasting centers around the world Up to 12 hours at surtace to transmit data to satellite 1 sande enoaooom mm I BIKIISJIOGIVO r c Pressure db Salinity 338 340 342 344 346 348 I L 1 1 L 1 I A L A 1 Temperature Ci 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 0 1 L 1 A 1 1 I A L L 400 800 1200 1600 2000 Figure 719 The Electromagnetic Energy Spectrum including Light Note 1 nanometer 1 nm 10399 meters I l39 A 39 39 g 5 1 m T P7 u39 I 2 0 Sources 39 39739 39 p F39 Radioactive Xray lube UV lamp Light bulb Stove Radio Transmitter material telescope lt Increasing energy Increasang wavelength Wavelengths 00001nm 001 nm 10 nm l000nm 001 cm 1cm 1 m 100m 1 1 1 1 1 1 Gamma rays Xrays Ullra lnlrared Radio waves Names vlolol Radar IV FM AM Visible llghl 400 nm 500 nm 600 nm 700 nm Wein s Law is represented as Blackbody Radiation StefanBoltzmann km 2890T EoT4 Where T is in quotK With quotK quotC 273 15000 K Star 103 the Sun 5800 K 3 105 3000 K star 79 Z 3955 104 quot39 c 9 P E 9 O quot 310 K human b 39IIlaX 100 1 1 T 1 1 1 1039 107 103 10 105 Earth is cooler than Sun so wavemngm nm Wavelengths of Earth radiation IR Note Visible radiation is are longer than those of Sun Visible in band of 400700 nm We call these Earth s emitted longwave and Sun s emitted shortwave radiation FIGURE 721 Wien s Law expressed graphically Stefan Botzmann Law states black body radiation E 0 T4 where 0 567 X 10398 W m392 K394 Note T4 T X T X T X T Using Wein s Law Where is the hottest part of the Volcano s lava Recall kmax 2890 T Note kmax and T are inversely proportional Yellow has shorter Wavelength than red And rearranging Wein s Law equation T 2890 Am So I FIGUIE 720 Hot lava exhibits a range of colors in accordance with Wien39a Law The hottest parts of the lava glow yellow while the cooler parts take on shades of red Cooled lava is black 15000 K Slar 8 q 10g p K Star E gt U 10 C gt E 9 10 3 l0Khuman 103 1 101 10 103 10 105 wavelength nm What happens to light that enters the ocean Figure 726 Light is re ected scattered and absorbed Wavelength is important Light energy is critical for photosynthesis life incl phytoplankton and heating of the upper ocean RaDyO Experiment in SBC and Hawaii Satelllty Re ectance 0q quot 39 39 quotN w 39 39 Scat1eting p 0 g If iquot39Tf39quotquota quotl D8 iUS w 39quot 39 it 39 Iquot39l393 quot 39 mgaterl Z Bactoda and suspended particles 39 0 I I I4quot 0 I FIGURE 727 A Secchi disk measurement through the ice This simple device was invented around 1 by the ltali an Astronomer Pietro Angelo Seochi a Jesuit priest Seochi worked forthe Vatican aboard the papal ship 38 Immaculate Conception studying the transparency ofthe Mediterranean sea with the original seochi disk a 16inch allwh ite china pateA few decadeslater George Whipple a professor of Sanitary Engineering at Harvard University made the plate smaller and added altemating blackandwhite quad rants Interestingly both types of 39Secchiquot disks are in use today Oceanographers use the papal one while limnologists use Whippe39s Many classrooms use Secchi or Whipple disks as a tool for understanding water transparency and underwater optics 9231999 Figure 729 How different colors of light new range of I 400700 nm m n penetrate into the open ocean different for 0 turbid coastal Waters 888 20 Why does open ocean 30 appear blue but coastal ocean estuaries and bays 4 131 brownish or almost reddish at times 50 164 60 197 70 230 400 445 475 510 70 90 650 Waveo 91Mnm Figure 728 Attenuation of Light With Depth Light Intensity iUE nquot39u 0 200 400 600 N0 1C00 1200 1400 1600 04 I I I I I 1 1 High lg gh egiuenon shallow phwc Zone 20 2 40 5 5 LOW Kd ION 81Dl39IJ8iKN39 deep X1053 E09 Figure 122 Major types of phytoplankton a Diatoms include pill boxedshape rm addi Go io to rodlike sha esa he 39 39ns wn in Figure 1 Biophoto Associ Science Source Photo Resea rs b Dino agellates are about 39 rometers long David M Phillips Population CouncilScience Source Photo Researchers Inc c This cocco 8O lithophore measures about 10 micro meters in di ter Calcareous plates form i hel Courtesy Susumu Honjo WHOI Silico agellates a bout 30 micrometers in diameter 39n udi the spines Courtesy J M Sieburth b University Park Press Baltimore I FIGURE 728 Predicted profiles of visible light intensity versus depth for two oceanic environments Each of the profiles repre sents water columns with differing amounts of attenuation Phytoplankton are major absorbers and scatterers of light in the ocean Light intensity decreases exponentially With depth in the ocean Beer s Law IZ 10 eXpKdz Eq 74 Most of life in ocean exists down to depth Where light is at least 1 of surface Value De nition of euphotic zone Radiation Fluxes in the Atmosphere and Ocean 15000 K star Figure 731 Earth s radiation energy budget A 52 g 3 I 4 g 395 Note greenhouse gases Ra actod hcoming Outgoing solar radiation solar radiation Iongwavo radiation 107 W mquot 342 W Inquot 235 W mquot quotquotiI 39 Z ne ecteo by suriace g 1 Watt 1 Joulesec 39 C t Eva named Smace by surface transpiration by surface racialion Figure 729 How different colors of light new range of I 400700 nm m n penetrate into the open ocean different for 0 turbid coastal Waters 888 20 Why does open ocean 30 appear blue but coastal ocean estuaries and bays 4 131 brownish or almost reddish at times 50 164 60 197 70 230 400 445 475 510 70 90 650 Waveo 91Mnm Conceptual Model of Greenhouse Effect E 15030 K W Greenhouse Gases 10 1 quotcSLnS8CO K Carbon dioxide C02 3 SW 7 3CCOKmr Methane CH4 395 1039 fro if Water Vapor H20 g 1 S n Nitrous oxide N20 g Q is Q Dimethylsulfide DMS E 10 310 K hm m gtx Halocarbons CFC s 1 Oi 3 15 15 chlorofluorocarbons quot39 39aVwg h MW from Earth IR Shortwave Radiation Vis LW trapped Greenhouse Glass or Greenhguse Gas SW makes it through leading to heating Longwave Radiation IR Seasons What are seasons Why do we care Why are there seasons What is the tilt of Earth s axis of rotation Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required lor reproduction or display Rotation oounterciockwise N to Polaris Least insolation LA N Hem 2310 N Earth closest to sun Greatest insolation Q 2 W early January N Hem 9 m Hem Inze 147 million kilometers 50 1 D 231 8 R Vo quote A 2 39 39 j U O Vernal equinox March 21 Se N to Polaris N to Polaris 0 North Pole 23 N 23 N Tropic of 39f3 l 39 fin 73 of Caprioom N 23 s 7 4 Axis g South Pole t 0 Summer Solstice Winter solstice June 21 N t P 393quotS December 21 Earth farthest from S4 P aelt 39 sun early July mmer N Hem Equator Autum N 152 million kilometers 39 Autumnal equinox Where are the ArCtiC 3 39quot 3933 and Antarctic circles FIGURE 722 The annual orbit of the Earth around the Sun The 235 tilt of the Earth on its axis relative to its plane of orbit around the Sun is responsible for the seasons Changes in the overhead position of the Sun cause variations in the amount of solar radiation incident on a unit area of the Earth s surface Thus on a seasonal basis the area of Earth s surface heated most directly changes day to day in fact Copyright m The McGrawHlll Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display E m it Midnight Sun effect A Near north pole The apparent solar path across the sky as viewed by observers at different latitudes Note how the height of the sun in the sky decreases as an observer moves towards the poles The seasonal changes in solar path are less than regional differences but their effects are 8 Mmamudes pronounced nonetheless The sun remains below the visible horizon for observers at the poles during winter months All of these patterns result solely from the orbit of a tilted Earth around the sun Note tilt of solar panels on signs and buildings Why tilted C Equatorial June j September March December How does the amount of solar radiation per unit area change with latitude and season How does length of day vary with season Copyright 1 The McGrawHlll Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display f Sun is low U in the sky FIGURE 723 Solar radiation at an angle Sunlight striking the Earth at high latitudes has its energy spread over a greater surface area thereby reducing the intensity of solar energy per unit area On the other hand sunlight striking directly on the surface of the Earth is focused in a smaller area so that the intensity of solar energy is higher per unit area This differential heating of the Earth causes differences in the climate experienced by different regions of the Earth and plays a key role in the seasonal cycle of heating Sun is overhead Water Depth m Water Depth m 20 40 60 80 I00 Temperature C 2 4 6 8 I O I 2 I 4 I I I I I T I Mixed Laye May June August quot39 N heurlnocline L I quot aJ p Aquot iquotuh pL quotV l i 3939q r 39 v l V v ffquot ar n K rs V 1 7quot 5 I r 39 o I I C r I 7 39 I 39 i quot I y 1 GROWTH OF SEASONAL THERMOCLINE Temperature C 397 39g 2 4 6 8 I0 I2 I4 0 I I I I August 20 2 September 40 q 0 we T I PWe 1 s 60 80 I00 b DECAY or SEASONAL THERMOCLINE FIGURE 724 Idealized view of stratification and destratification of a mid latitude water column over the seasonal cycle Episodic events like storms hurricanes eddies and similar factors will disrupt the cycle at any time By the same token unseasonable warming may produce the onset of stratification during winter Typically the weaker the stratification the more easily it may be disrupted What causes the mixed layer Why is temperature usually decreasing with depth Why does lighter water usually reside over heavier water What is the concept of stratification In the open ocean does temperature or salinity usually affect density more Figure 7a Decline 8 per year of minimum ice extent Sept in Arctic region since 1979 Sea ice is growing offAntarctica Note that over 70 of Earth s fresh water exists as polar ice Arctic ice may be gone by 2040 and European Alps glaciers may be gone by 2050 Refl blankets in Alps Recent model simulations suggest that all Arctic ice will be gone by 2040 Q 0 Aps Glaciers may be gone by 2050 Why All humancaused Implications CarGustav Rossby 1959 wrote mankind now is performing a unique 3 L experiment of impressive dimensions by now consuming during a few E 8 O hundred years all of the fossil fuel deposited during one million years X 5239 I 5 39 E t I quot E v 5 6 5 quot If 6 o 5 5 Data from polar orbiting satellites 2005 5 0 19 8 1 983 1988 1 953 1 9548 2003 Year Anomaly it St Dev from 19681996 Mean 5 39quot u u Recent Arctic Ice Cover Data EOS Jan 8 2008 Arctic Sea Ice Extent Standardized Anomalies Jan 1953 Sep 2010 Montny Anornaty T12 NOquot1h RUN 399 Mean t t39wquotH ix I Y I tquot391quotquotr l 1953 1956 959 1962 1965 1968 1971 1974 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 Year 1953 2000 Sept Median 10 September Sea Ice Extent 9 s 8 E s 7 5 5 4 2 3960 390 390 390 K 3 9 9 39 99 LQ q9 Fig 1 Sea ice concentration for September 200 7 along with Arctic Ocean median extent from 1953 to 2000 red curve from I 979 to 2000 orange curve and for September 2005 green curve September ice extent time series from 1953 to 2007 is shown at the bottom 39 L Fig 2 March sea ice thickness for I 987 and 2007 from Maslanik et al 200 7b icetracking algorithm and for March 2007 from lCESat data provided by D Y1 and J Zwally NASA II The inked image cannot be displayed The le may have been moved renamed or deleted Verify that the link points to the correct le and location because of melting ice 500 quot 5quot 39 quot quotquotquotquot39 amp I9002003 250 Ix thermal expanslon 0 39 39quot Sea level rise in several US cities based no on tide gauge data Est of 1020 cm mi n or 48 inches in Last 100 years CA Models suggest Z0 inch rise in next 100 yr W scan Scab mm Note 500 mm 49 59 9 45gt 3 if 50 CHI y about 20 inches as full scale 39 r Recent Sea Level Ruse 39 30 23 Annual Tide Gauge Reccllrds 25 E Three Year Average ll I 3 Satellite Altimetry l 1 quotl 20 cu lquot 1 W Wall 9 39r l E n tquotl 39QI 39li 2391quot A H N Mnl 39 39lllWllllW al 391 155 amp ll l1lW1lUM VJrmmm llW 1 39 l39V lll1Wl VNhHJlW 39 I I l IlvIquotlH V lllil 0 III r F I J I l U l Jlxll P1 I 1 gtll 1l 1 I II I U l W I Lulu U l gt llll k p l 1quot all ll 1 v 1 1 5 w Ir J Wnl I n 0 391 5 39 39 Ll39u 3939lla quot I I ll rquot39quot39l 1 F quot l 139 ll uquotlllll llquotll 39 ll 391 1 u 395 1 re 1 391 i911439l11 lw A J 2 0 cu n 1 1 1 ll 1 1 m I Um39d amp quot39l 39 ull I quotI Ill 39 5 l u l 1 1 If I 1 1 n 1 1 40 0 TOPEX 3 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 quot quot quot 30 60aaysmoomlng Inverse b4rometerrI1otappIled 9 n on o 20 O 0 O 8 A o E 10 O O O 5 o u E P E 3 0 10 0 0 20 O 30 v o Rate31t04mmyr Univ of Colorado 2010re5 193994 1996 15593 2000 2oo2 2004 2005 2008 2010 See Wikepedia Website on sea level rise Note 20 cm 8 inches Geological record from ice cores showing time series of atmospheric CO2 Why are there oscillations See next slides Why is recent value so high When did rapid increase begin Why How has temperature varied with CO2 concentration Chicken and egg 350 E 300 I 0 W A quotr J aim W if gg W R k l 439 N1 39l P U4 Pe I 3 200 4w39 Wl SW 1 I M g i IV V Ice Ages occurred when curve fell below in Present 650 320 5 lo 330 210 30 2 Age years at 103 I FIGURE 622 Concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide over the pest 350000 years as detennined from measurements of gases in ice cores These uctuetions represent the longten39n inorganic carbon cycle it t i rai e vi f iHr Jiiilg Q i Hg thesis Solar radiation reaching Earth varies due to orbital and Earth orientation changes in time Key scales are 100000 years 41000 years and 23000 years See Fig 53 and pp 7476 in textbook Northem Hemisphere tilted away trom Sun at aphellon Northem Hemisphere tited toward the Sun at aphellon CO2 Time series way back when Carbon Dioxide Variations 400 350 The lndostrial Revolution Has Caused A Dramatic Rise in C02 300 I I 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Year AD 3 400 300 200 100 0 Thousands of Years Ago B O CD 03 01 CD 03 O C l O O 200 C02 Concentration ppmv C02 Time series way back when Phanerozoic Carbon Dioxide Models Measurements GEOCARB Ill Royer Compilation COPSE 30 Myr Filter Ro vnan T 0 O I IO U I f C Dinosaurs 230 mya to 65 mya Cause of extinction 39 u 3 E Q 3 5000 D O 39gtquot39lt 4000 9 D Carbo N O O O C 1 O 01 Trmes Quaternary Average av LS 9 NPgK JTrP D O 100 200 300 400 500 Millions of Years Ago Some argue that 1930 s were Warmer than last decade Physics Today Temperature sensors in growing urban areas with heat island effects Artifact errors biasing temps CO2 was much greater in past and life survived Hurricanes are not necessarily getting more frequent and intense Milankovich orbital effects outweigh greenhouse gas effect and Earth will eventually cool again CO2 lags temp What is so bad about Warmer climates Rates of change Not all reputable scientists are in agreement fundingpublication issues Others End of Chapter 7 I I The Ii nnnn d i aaaaaaaaaaaa di sssss ed The eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ed rrrrr ed eeeeeee ed Veri ttttttttt Ii nnnn oi tttttttttttttt t aaaaaaaaa tion Sea Level Rise from Satellite Altimeter Data 19932006 AMSL mm 3 O 333 O o TOPEX 393 o Juon l soaay smoomnng I I I 9 1 Inverse barometer not applied o 0 o 8 O lt9 O O o 6 o 8 0 I O O o T o v Io Rmeamp1iQ4mmNr Uqlv of Colorado 2010reI5 I l I 1994 1 996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Figure 725 Seasonal Cycle of Mixed Layer Depths and Seasonal Thermocline Mid Latitudes High Latitudes Tropical Latitudes Average daily light input Surface water T temperature H Summer I Winter Spring Summer 0 Fall Vertical Profile Nl39D 6 i 5 3f temperature 1 p MLD Mixed Layer Depth Thermocline FIGURE 725 Idealized seasonal cycle of daily light input surface Water temperatures and subsurface temperature profiles for Winter spring summer and fall in midlatitudes high latitudes and tropical latitudes MLD refers to the mixed layer depth 73 Absorption Coefficients for Light o quot 3395quot 3395 m 11111 Table 73 Absorptlon in pure water of light by pure Water Aboorpuon Aboorotnon nm 010 um 09 l1ke red absorb more 330 0023 500 0245 390 0020 610 0290 hght energy than 400 0013 620 031 shorter Wavelengths 112 0 gig like blue Thus 430 0015 650 035 440 0015 660 041 In Open Ocean COIOF 450 oo15 570 043 460 0016 630 045 1s generally blulsh m 0016 690 050 430 0013 700 065 490 0020 710 0339 500 0026 720 1169 510 0036 730 1799 520 0043 740 233 530 0051 750 247 540 0056 760 255 550 0064 770 251 560 0071 730 236 570 0030 790 216 530 0103 300 207 590 0157 Scum K391139k199439 band on Smith uad Baker 1981 TUESDAY OCT 6 2009 L vaaewivaw INABRIEF Cover planned for toxic deposit in sea LOS ANGELES The US Environmental Protection Agency has chosen a 50 million strategy to place a cap of clean material on a vast p deposit of DDT and PCBS on the ocean floor off Southern California Keith Takata EPA s Superfund director for the region said Monday the cap will be placed over the most contami nated sediment on what s known as the Palos Verdes Shelf S DDT from a manu facturer and PCBs from other industrial op erations owed through Los Angeles County s39 sanitation system and collected along nine miles of sea oor off the Palos Verdes Peninsula able to 100 feet 39 TL Ivlulv uuvnnbu 1 He worked with a team of specialists to make the device for free ivers Invention helps stop blackouts underwater By Zeke Barlow zbarlowVCStarcom Terry Maas knows that what makes free diving so ap pealing also makes it danger ous i Divers are drawn to the sport for the freedom of being with little more than a mask quot ippers and lungs full of air In the water they can spear monstrous fish interact with sea life and see some of the most beautiful places on earth with a few simple tools But the freedom can be deadly Accidents in the sport are not uncommon for either new comers or veterans They can black out during a dive or im mediately after surfacing of l tentimes leading to death In his 50 years as one of the most prominent free divers in the world Maas a Ventura resident has had about 20 friends and acquaintances die including his 19yearold son in 2001 39 quot Now Maas 65 is inventing a contraption to save lives in the sport he lovesso much Along with a team of other freediving enthusiasts he has designed the free diver s re covery vest a life jacket that in ates when a diver has been 1 pan lasoarfna not 111111quot IIngmar 3 o A 39 v 39f39 gg 39 1 lt 39 39 P L 39 quot E r 0E 39 54 T 7 A W 7 47 ftplIforageogucsbeduIpubloplltommyIG3aW12 Labrador Current as seen from a satellite I t TOQICS vii V Po 1 l 39 j to a 1 V w 395 quot quot 1 o39 L quot 6 J b a L L D L W 39139 If I F V V me Flow g 5 Gyr irculation Fig 916 SST image showing warm temperatures in quotHurricane Alley of tropical Atlantic Ocean B av Epics c0nt2 N S V I g39 a H quot39 1 P 39 1 quot g I A mndary u quotm 39 72quot r 39 7 7 7 I c 2 V39 n L 39 5 A A H N e quot v 0o fm w 39 quotst 51quot V 11 2 C 4 j T j quotillation 0x 0x rulation circulation 7 5 R 5 Fig 916 SST image showing warm temperatures in quotHurricane Alley of tropical Atlantic Ocean Figure 91 FranklinFolger Chart 1769 Mapped using temperature measurements some by Ben Also invented an ocean drifter S nutupu aura u4uutuoUJ V 2 y 1 Q v W st 4 1 1 1 Csm1x1 39 m s 39 Al Iun391n rnsnuuo i rb ltnpxf a r i 7 lt4 quot i av M M I 3 H HT 39 Hz 39 A 7 397 9 H 5 s c 1 0 I o on d39 an Lisa on an n 1 I an 1 an an t u 5 BN 4 an In A an Um In an an 4 o Fig 92 Longterm Averaged Upper Ocean Currents and General Circulation Patterns hElttun r 0 1 Bcngu I 93910 Auumhn r All I K 5 quot39 quot3 isfmhlnaan A 9 C Arcardic cennquotpax Figure 92 Deep Ocean Currents as Modeled by Henry Stommel in 1958 Count Rumford forwarded idea of deep convection in 1798 In I P 42 1 4 039 Why Are Currents Important Transport of nutrients organisms pollutants sheries and sediment Affect weather Cimatetransportof heat Navi ation and shipping routes Searc and rescue Track pollution trajectories Energy from currents Methods of Measuring Currents Directly Direct Methods Spinning propeller type Acoustics Doppler effect High Frequency Radar Backscatter from Surface Waves Doppler effect Drifters Floats Ocean Platforms I Airplane utonomcius Communication Airnlane 3 awiw Observational 12 Positioning N39 Satellite 39 Satellite 39 owu5 Dnfler 39 39 ShipofOpportunity Special I5 WW 1 Ship Platform TOWING x Vi Moonng quot We 111 58 Pa 1 Acousl Pro le E EMOO 1 a AIUUSL quot Il I III Ix I 2 i M I Float 39539quot E3 era 1 I i I I 1 1 I Pro ler er 3 3i393939 l 1 umarine J cf oust ermuda Testbed Mooring AHG C6 and RF Data Ttansmission cImocf Bermuda Testbed Mooring U CSB OPL J U08 B SP EOT FIAL FIADIOM ET ER UOSB METS Air and watet temp winds humidity bill prasimdian ce 4 ucse MURS 9 UIZSBBIUPS 2 mum TSSID I214 35m UIZSB MEIRS 4 UIISB MUMS 52 MIT LUFITER SHMPLEFI ssm MIT LIJFITER SFIMPLER 2 I UIISB MUMS sq I MBHRI NITFIHTE HNFILVZEH zaz MBHRI NITRHTE HNHLHPZEH 211m ucse HDIZP l39il B ll BENTHOS Illl l IICOIISTIC BELEHSES IINCIIIJB Vector Measuring Current Meters and OPL Engineers Pro ling Current Meter 9 15 2000 High Frequency HF C 3 5quot 339 R a d a quot5 s 0 HF Radars are also at Coal Oil Point Sands Beach Eventually all along California F A and US p coastlines I Mon te rey p Latitude 36quot sow 122quot 30 W 122 20 W 122 l0 W Paan Longitude u no a g 24 hr 0 at surface f rl39 al SfeSa S ll3ll 39 Pro ling oat operation 39 Argo oats Slmllar floats Invented fl0a clriftsatdd th by John Swallow in 1955 See Figures 75 9399 39 e 99 and 715 also Methods of Measuring Currents Indirectly Take some data and insert into formulastheory Indirect Methods Ekman currentstransport Need wind data from buoys ships and satellites Geostroph Baance between pressure and Coriolis forces Need sate ite altimetry or shipbased CTD data Satellite altimeter measurements of ocean surface and bottom features Like atmos barom soun pressure 39 maps J to see High and Low pressure systems and inferred air currents S I In this case it is changes in sea surface height Need meas accuracy to a few cm s or inches 120 z 80 Ocean Dynamic Topography cm D No Valid Data I Fllt3IIPE 98 a Satellite altimetry from Jason launched in 2001 FIGURE 97 The hills and valleys of the sea surface Measurements of ocean dynamic topography SSH across the world ocean contribute to a wide range of scientific activities including determination of sea level calculation of Earth s geoid estimation of geostrophic currents measurements of tides and waves and many others Wntroduction to surface currents and circulation Longterm Upper Ocean Currents and General Circulation Patterns 3 Ana a r gt J 39 VJ lom 2 9quot Kuoahto C4lquotgtm0 quot Equnnnol Counter r 39 39 quotquot39 e0 I fW C V x r 80ngu M J 0 quot quotquot kt l n Aunuian D d I 9 p Z V 0 ml mu south Puanc J 439 i 9 quot T 9 a FIGURE 912 The major subtropical gyres comprising the surface circulation in the world ocean What are some of the notable patterns What are some similarities and differences for the NH and SH Some Average Current Speeds 1 knot 115 mph o5 msec 1 msec 2 knots Gulf StreamKuroshio 2o25ms45kts California Current o4mso8kts Antarctic Circumpolar Current 15ms3kts Equatorial Undercurrent Paci c 15ms3kts Somali Current SW Monsoon 2oms3kts Ave Open Ocean Currents Low lt1ms2kts Eddies and Rings 1o15ms 23kts Hurricane Inertial Currents 1o15ms 23kts Facts about Currents Currents de ect to right in NH left in SH Why Upper ocean currents driven by winds Deep currents forced by density and buoyancy effects Western Boundary Currents faster than Eastern Boundary Currents Example of each What Causes Currents of Upper Ocean Atmospheric circulation and wind belts of the world LOW quot7 K Low quot9 5i2 Z i2 l393 39 quot 1ggo NE Trade wands quot39 39 Suns W quotquotL O39W39Eql l i1gl a l quot quot quotquot a i Lor SE Yrado wands ll l l Fig 95 Gyre surface circulation pattern winds drive currents What causes gyre circulation patterns Figure 93 Subtropical gyre surface circulation patterns winds drive currents Wind force Direction of motion X Average flow Northern Hemisphete T Wind FIGURE 94 Concept of 39 w Q p w I eberq quot70 8711801 Ekman spiral and 45 rom X Ekman transport in NH quot quot quotquot 39 P v Ne transport quotdIr C1l0 90 u u from wnnd 100 meters iv v mg Nansen with lead sled dog Kvik in quest for North Pole 189396 Nansen with repatriated orphans near Alexandropol Armenia Mt Ararat 1925 Nobel Peace Prize 1922 Vagn Walfrid Ekman I874 I954 Bom in Sweden V W Ekman spent his formative years under the tutelage of Vilhelm Bjerknes and Fridtjof Nansen in Norway One day Nansen asked Bjerknes to let one of his students make a theoretical study of the in uence of the earth s rotation on winddriven currents on the basis of Nansen s observations during his polar expedi ion that ice drifts with ocean currents to the right of the wind Ekman was chosen and later presented a solution in his doctoral thesis of 1902 As professor of mechanics and mathematical physics at the University of Lund in Sweden Ekman became the most famous oceanographer of his generation The distinguished theoretician also proved to be a skilled experimentalist He designed a current meter and a reversing water bottle which bear his name and which have been used extensively Ekman was also the one who explained the phenomenon of dead waters by a celebrated laboratory experiment see Figure 13 Photo courtesy of Pierre Welander Fig 95 The Ekman spiral and Ekman transport Theory by VW Ekman Key to upper ocean circulation patterns Wnd site5 Cquotquot quot39 and durochon N V cmls 100 39199oo 0 Northern Hemisphere Case S rf C tData from BTM off Bermuda U ace uquoten During Hurricane Fabian Dlrectln i J t an 39 quot3 Wind L Vector Ekman Transport Direction Ekman Surface Currents 45 to right of wind vector Ekman Transport 90 to right of wind vector 1 100 U icmlsi Current Response of Hurricane Fabian Using BTM s ADCP September 3 19 2003 20 R 1hour ave 3m vert bins E 60 h 0 K F m A 80 39 39 V i A 100 5 3 120 E R 5 0 B 3 140 C 150 SeaW1nds 50 100 0 e 09 50 Dickey er al 91 Summary of Ekman39s Theory Ideally under no other influences surface currents are directed 46 to the right of the direction of the wind in the Northern Hemisphere and 45 to the left of the direction of the wind in the Southem Hemisphere The speed of windd riven currents decreases with depth Deeper currents move sequentially toward the right Think of a stack of note cards with each successive card moving farther to the right Plots of cunent vectors on a graph results in a spiral patte m called the Ekman spiel Note that the spiral is the pattern obtained when velocity and direction are graphed as vectors the Ekman spiral is not a whirlpool or eddy a common misconception The Etna layer depth is defined as the depth where the speed hm decreased to a value of about 37 of its surface value The is the depth where a wnent vector is pointing in the opposite direction nets to that of the surface cunent vector The depth of the Elcman layer depends on the Coriolis parameter Fora given wind stress higher latitudes have shal lower Elcrnan layer depths while lower latitudes have deeper Ekman layer depths except for the equator Ekrnan transport de ned as the summation of the flow direction and velocity from the surface to the Elcman layer depth is directed 90 to the right of the su rfaoe wind straw in the Northem Hemisphere and 90 to the left of the su r face wind stress in the Southem Hemisphere The magnitude of the Ekman transport is proportional to the wind stress and inve rsely proportional to the Coriolis effect and seawater density Wind force Direction of motion X Average flow Northern Hemisphete T Wind FIGURE 94 Concept of 39 VG N ppG I eberq quot70 8711801 Ekman spiral and L 45 rom X Ekman transport in NH N quot quot quotquot 39 P F Ne transport quotdIr C1l0 90 dE dE from wnnd 100 meters iv F mg K Figure 911 Convergence of Waters in center of subtropical gyre Note convergence and elevation of surface toward center of gyre and downwelling of water Convergence O L Amncrdontc wind Ventura man returns from visit to garbage p 39 r 393 39 p EL I F r quot 39 courtesy photo Jeff Ernst of Ventura spent more than a month as first mate aboard the ocean research vessel Aiguita His voyage was part of a study to determine how much plastic is floating in the sea and harming wildlife Rubbish from all around World inPacific Vortex A 1nnnnvnk runways atI3A 39 atch at sea O we CU m jE DaafMC Henry Stommel and Walter Munk Henry Melson Stommel I920 I992 At an early age Hemy Melson Stommel considered a career in astronomy but tumed to oceanography as a way to make a peaceful living during World War II Having been denied admission to graduate school at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography by H U Sverdrup then its director Stommel never obtained a doctorate This did not deter him having soon realized that in those years oceanography was largely a descriptive science almost devoid of physical principles he set out to develop dynamic hypotheses and to test them against observations To him we owe the first correct theory of the Gulf Stream 1948 theories of the abyssal circulation early 1960s and a great number of signi cant contributions on virtually all aspects of oceanography Unassuming and avoiding the limelight Stommel relied on a keen physical insight and plain common sense to develop simple models that clarify the roles and implications of physical processes He was generally wary of numerical models Particularly inspiring to young scientists Stommel continuously radiated enthusiasm for his chosen eld which as he was the rst to acknowledge is still in its infancy Photo by George Knapp 150 Walter Heinrich Munk Born in Austria and educated in the United States Walter Heinrich Munk became interested in oceanography during a summer project under Harald Sverdrup at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and quickly developed a fascination for ocean waves This interest in waves arose partly because of the wartime need to predict sea and swell and also because Munk found wave research a challenge of intermediate complexity between simple periodic oscillations and hopeless chaos As years went by Munk eventually investigated all wavelengths from the small capillary waves respon sible for sun glitter to the oceanwide tides His studies of internal waves in collabor ation with Christopher Garrett led him to propose a universal spectrum for the distribu tion of internalwave energy in the deep ocean now called the Garrett Munk spectrum More recently pursuing an interest in acoustic waves Munk initiated ocean tomography a method for determining the largescale temperature structure in the ocean from the measure of acoustic travel times Photo by Jeff Cordia Review 4 Steps to Explain Gyre Circulation and Gulf Stream I Wind Forces I Ekman Transport I Geostrophic Currents I Variation of Coriolis effect with latitude Gulf Stream Kuroshio and other western boundary currents Figure 911 Convergence of Waters in center of subtropical gyre Note convergence and elevation of surface toward center of gyre and downwelling of water Convergence O L Amncrdontc wind Figure 96 Center of gyre is elevated kind of like an upside down bowl so pressure gradient forces water away from center But Coriolis force enters and is directed in opposite direction The balance of forces is called geostrophic balance The resulting flow is called geostrophic flow These balances and flows occur for large scale flows in both the atmosphere and the ocean Geostrophic means Earth turning Rnloodseasudnco Red Arrows indicate Ekman Transport The combined effects of Ekman transport geostrophic flow and wind curl generate the flow pattern illustrated at right when summed over the entire depth of the water column Why are currents faster on the western sides of ocean basins The Coriolis effect s variation with latitude is key along with conservation of angular momentum I FIGURE 915 Stommel s model of western imaensifica ldalllled NONI Amo n 880quot tion Building on Sverdrup39s model which reproduced omokm gyre circulation in the presence of an eastern boundary 4 39 such as the European continent Stommel was able to satisfaaorily reproduce the major features of a Northern factor that accounted for variations in the Coriolis effect with latitude Z Hemisphere gyre The key for Stommel was to include a Vllmstr iillr in H M WV 2rtx10IlTI Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Ocean circulation Sqaeec yN C1 1S CC 0M abut pN J Figure 912 Name the western boundary currents Name some eastern boundary currents First observed with Swallow floats like Argo floats and later with satellites FIGURE 914 Formation of cold and warmcore rings or eddies L btldot CUNOM Gui 7980 Sargasso Sea COM W wwm Cope Hatteras Eddy pinches o landward Eddy punches on seaward Coldcore ting T39u39rnrrirc2 ccprccws quot 17 N w 3 393 quot39cquotroinc rot Lpa39ar1 F Copyright The McGrawHill companies inc Permission required tor reproduction or display r 7 u U 439 quot u O 39 P Another depiction of the formation of cold and warmcore rings through Gulf Stream meanders E i 1 P in jinn is in in Cirw i 1 mi in E ami j W v m Li39i inir H M Y i LH Fig 913 Satellite SST image Ocean color image I FIGURE 913 The Gutf Stream and asso b P P Temparatm3 39 C ciated mesoscale features imaged bv the NOAA12 satellite Eddies off Hawaiian Islands wind speed amp direction msec wind speed msec 10 6 65 7 75 8 85 9 95 Latitude N 22 265 22 0 3 GOES temperature SeaWiFS chlorophylla 215 215 26 025 21 21 255 02 205 A 39 1 2 205 L 3 en 20 25 g 20 015 392 5 H 9 l awan 195 quot 195 245 01 19 19 24 005 185 185 18 5 4 4 23 5 18 0 201 20 202 2035 203 2035 204 2045 205 39 201 2015 202 2025 203 2035 204 2045 205 Longitude ow Longitude W Coldcore eddy Loretta observed in September 1999 in the Hawaiian Islands w 5w 2 Iuo Tradewinds Veri cation of trade Wind spinup hypothesis Cold Ring Cool waters rise upwell toward surface Nutrient rich waters rise toward surface With nutrients and light phytoplankton grow Other organisms graze phytoplankton More productive waters toward center More carbon flux to deep sea Temperature C 0 0 50 50 Temperature Sectlons 150 39 150 Transect 5 E 2 200 y 37 E 250 3 250 a Transect 4 8 Transect 3 0 4 5 300 300 13 Run 350 350 400 400 30 30 0 50 100 150 I cTD cast I Transect 2 I I 200 g I I I S I 250 E E IN Statons Statlons 10l2l83l42 96 3 N 039 300 206 Transect 1 to 6 35o 204 40 m ADCP current w 202 I I I I I I I I I I 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 20 40 60 80 196 The Big Island 0 0 E 196 of Hawaii 50quot 194 1oo39 1399 E 39 150 188 E 200 B L 18215 202 2025 203 2035 204 2045 8 g Note Isotherm doming ssof and outcropping of isotherms 30 60 4390 2390 0 20 40 6390 80 80 6390 4390 50 0 20 40 6390 80 Also there Was dlurnal Distance from the center Km Distancefromthe center Km cycle of SST 1 quotC ChlFluorescence Sections Transect 5 Transect 3 Transect 6 3 104 103 102 101 100 99 98 Transect 2 Q CTD Cast Stations l0l2l83l42 96 IN Stations Transect 1 to 6 40 m ADCP current 204 202 20 The Big Island of Hawaii E 196 194 192 186 203 2045 Lon 2015 202 2025 2035 204 Note doming amp outcropping of chl isopleths peak chl Within O39t241 and 243 kgm3 Depth In Depth m Depth m Flourescence shading vs Density contour 1o 10 60 40 20 0 20 40 80 Distance from the center Km 60 O9Sl2l Z IO9SLIBl Q IO9SIlBJ I 60 40 Distance from the cenlser Km I I 40 20 0 20 60 80 r O9Sl2l 9 IO9SLIBl 9 I0OSIlBJ Coastal Upwellin NH Coastal Upwelling WIND STRESS VECTOR Cool nutrient rich waters upwelled Phytoplankton grow well in upper welllit layer with the input of nutrients Zooplankton eat phytoplankton Fish eat zooplankton Thus coastal areas are often very biologically productive NO ANESDIS EDGE IMAGE DISPLAY SST TO 1 AMLYSIS F RNL5 156000 TO 9 1 2005 22 9 3 2005 22 48 HOURS b0 L l 122 147 12 197 248 275 298 323 Satellite images of coastal upwelling upper show patches of cold water see color scale extending from the coast of California Cool coastal waters and mesoscale features associated with the California Current are visible in this satellite image of sea surface temperature Red warm Blue green cold What wind condtions lead to strong upwelling along our coast 1 1 35 quotN J O FLIP 34 ll6 N ll9 365 W l6825m Kib Moana NDBCbmy 3424 N ll985 W 417 m I L39I39ER moorirgs 12 m L CODAR sites I PnB statims S39tat39In4 at 34 150 l N 119 5438 W 514m gt2 34o 30 N L 50 Cont epti on Santa Barbara Carpinteria 34 I N 35 Il N 34 30 N 34 I N n O FLIP 3439ll6 N ll9 36S W l6825m Kib Moana NDBClnny 342439N ll985 W 4139 m I L39I39ER mountings 12 m A CODAR sites I PnB statims at39Im4 at 34 150 l N 119 5438 W 514m 2 Santa Barbara Carpinteria Ventura 120 30 VV 120 00 W39 l19 30 VV 3539w N 343930 N 3439m39N gt2 I I 0 FLIP ruu639N m3cs39W 15325 Kih lb 1 Nnncby 3424N 1195w 411 I LTEI muting I2 n A commas I ma mam smsum n 34 1suN no saw 514 NH Coastal Upwelling WIND STRESS VECTOR Cool nutrient rich waters upwelled Phytoplankton grow well in upper welllit layer with the input of nutrients Zooplankton eat phytoplankton Fish eat zooplankton Thus coastal areas are often very biologically productive ftplIforageogucsbeduIpubloplltommyIG3aW12 Labrador Current as seen from a satellite Coastal Upwelling NH Coastal Upwelling Cool nutrient rich waters upwelled Phytoplankton grow well in upper welllit layer with the input of nutrients Zooplankton eat phytoplankton Fish eat zooplankton Thus coastal areas are often very biologically productive NO ANESDIS EDGE IMAGE DISPLAY SST TO 1 AMLYSIS F RNL5 156000 TO 9 1 2005 22 9 3 2005 22 48 HOURS L l 122 147 12 197 248 275 298 323 Satellite images of coastal upwelling upper show patches of cold water see color scale extending from the coast of California Cool coastal waters and mesoscale features associated with the California Current are visible in this satellite image of sea surface temperature Red warm Blue green cold Equatorial Upwelling and Currents Equatorial Upwelling East X I V I 1 39 39 l 39 I Equat Ekman transport of water away from the equator Water from depth upwells into the upper welllit layer Upweuing Brings cool nutrient rich H20 Biologically productive 1 Equatorial Upwelling WindforcingEkman Transport 392 39 E nu 39l ap I Top view 3 ogtJs qr fr 4 4 N 4 4 1 58 E E 139 T SH Side View 5Ao3939If ua UpUI 39vuj sn E N n quot Jr quotV 3 a K42 J Equatorial Undercurrent EUC Wind forcing Top view 114411444 53 Sea surface elevation Side view an on G0 I 39 39 39 EUC 7 quot39 quot bN 3939r S39t J Y Why is there an Equatorial Undercurrent West Wind Undetcunem d Ce 0 WW mnxed surface layer thermoclnne East The Southern Oscillation El Nino La Nina La Nada OPINION YOUR LETTERS pW 31t r quotquotquot 39 quot 39 EL NIFIO Southern Oscillation Index SCI and Walker Circulation 1orlt V639cr39J 1r 0 R cool dry air sinks V Indonesia South Amenca 1 1 1 b 90 E 1304 90 w Figure 832 Walker Circulation with positive Southern Oscillation Index I FIGURE 832 la The Walker circulation pattern consists of descending air over the South Pacific and ascending air over Indonesia and Australia The Southern Oscillation Index rates the strength of the Walker circulation cell on the basis of di erences in atmospheric pressure between Tahiti and Darwin Australia The greater the pressure difference the greater the strength ofthe southeasteriy trade winch b If the pressure difference is excep tionally great then the scutheastaerlv trade winds produce La Nina conditions 2 When the pressure difference weakens or reverses El Nino conditions are produced I FIGURE 832 0 The Walker circulation pattern consists of descending air over the South Paci c and ascending air over F u 399 Wal ke f C fc u O n Indonesia and AustraiaThe Southern Oscillation lndeg rates the strength of the Walker arculation cell on the basis M differences stro 1 9 Iv loos tve S 0 uth e m 086 I Iatl 0 n 39Tquotquot393939 I39393939 E39 39 In d ex southeesteriy trade winds b If the pressure difference is excep tionally great then the southessteriv trade winds produce La Nina conditions to When the pressure difference weakens or reverses El Nino conditions are produced lltfnrmoclnc 0 son strongly positive Figure 833 Temperature structure of equatorial Pacific during normal conditions N043NEDIS EDGE IMAGE DISPLAY ssrr 350000 TO 200000 LAT 50 u rm E EQUAT Pm NC14A 18 opsnmou DAYXNITE 150000 T0 700000 LON a 0 2005 0 93 2005 0 95 HOURS l quotquotquotquotquot39quot 39 I I 129 151 173 195 218 240 A262 284 306 Equatorial upwelling appears as a tongue of colder water bisecting warmer water 1 N Ml r39H39lU I Figure 832 Walker Circulation with negative Southern Oscillation Index ocococ Equtorinl thenmcine c80l nogmvo I FIG um 832 la The Walker circulation pattern consists of descending air over the South Pacific and ascending air over Indonesia and Australia The Southern Oscillation Index rates the strength of the Walker circulation cell on the basis of differences in atmospheric pressure between Tahiti and Ehrwin Australia The greater the premure difference the greater the strength of the southeasterly trade winch b If the pressure difference is excep tionally great then the southeasterlv trade winds produce La Nina conditions to When the pressure difference weakens or reverses El Nino conditions are produced st Figure833 an eIatuT 7 ructure of equatorial Pacific during 4 rmal conditions top and ENSObor 077 1 300 THOTRITON Hinds Temps and Currents March 2006 THO PMEL NOHH Vi 5D El Ni o I La Ni a TOPEXIPOSEIDON and Jason1 9 Feb 3999 R f C httpmtopaxwwwjplnasa9ov 5 7 39 f 1 I8 14 10 6 2 2 6 14 cm TOPIXPOSHOON maps 0 Ma Iurflco taught rolatlvo lo notma JCPN wI 339N I V020 Measurements in the Equatorial Pacific Using Moorings TT008 T1012 TAOfTri1on may gt 0 Y 53 J 4 39lt a v Q a nu cue 3 391 I Mas I Smeunaco ADCP 139339N 10393 20 S 3039s T T Vjfj T T T 1 0039 E 1 80 1 4C3939 1 00 fl 60W Figure 831 El Ninos occur at intervals of roughly 27 years Last really strong one was in 1997 1982 was also a major El Nino year ENSO is a largescale phenomenon That involves interactions of the atmosphere and ocean Southern Ooclauon Index 1880 1900 190 19f0 1990 1990 20 1 1 Goo 1nNiMJ Wnn39nElN o 1880 1900 1920 1940 1900 1900 2W0 Smoothod1yoatrunn39ngmoan SST ANOMALIES C ENSO Data Standardized Departure httpwvvwcdcnoaagovmapclimsstorsstanimshtm OCT 22 2006 WW I O 3 MULTIVARIATE ENSO INDEX I j l I 0 1 NOAAESRLPhysical Science Division University oi Colorado at BoulderCIRESCDC Mvie 19395o 1955 19160 1939s5 19397o 193975 who 1939a5 1 93990 193995 2o39oo 2o39o5 2o391o THOTRITON Hinds Temps and Currents March 2006 THO PMEL NOHH Vi 5D Global ENSO SST tvopics minus cxtratnopics C 1850 2 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 06 0L 02 02 06quot I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 60 08090COl02030l05060708090C010 Mean 2ON 2OS mi nus 209ON 20905 195079 mean Anomalies Fl ltclvod with 11 and 9month running means Global ENSO SST tropics minus cxtratiopics C 1950 November 2008 1IllIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 08 06 04 02 0 02 Ol 06 08 1IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 C0 05 10 Anomalies with lcspcci to 195079 Average SST Anomalies 6 SEP 2009 3 OCT 2009 TAOTRITON SST c and Winds rn squot1 140 E 160 E 180 160 Wf 149W 120 W 1 00 W 10 N 31 5 quot 27 ob 1o s v u 19 Means gt 10 ms1 IOON 1 1 1 1 1 n 1 1 6 5 N 3 0 0 5 s 3 1o s 6 Anom lie FiveDay Mean Ending on August 18 2009 Depth m TAOTRITON 5Day Temperature C End Date August 18 2009 14U E 160 E 180 16U W 140 W 2 S to 2 N Average l20 W 100 W o 32 23 100 24 200 20 16 300 13 3 400 500 0 0 12 100 l 3 T 4 200 T 0 300 4 400 r 8 500 1 12 Anomalies SS1 Anomalies 1 0 N1 N0 4 1 1 02 0 O 0 g 0 Q 1 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 4 2 N0J D EC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN J UL eU G 3 EP 2008 2009 L000 0004 M O O W O DJ CD 30 N ha E003huhJOlMGC039I4 N0u m39c JAN F1329 uiuz AF3R uiw JUN JUL we SEP 2008 2009 N N9 i 3 1 I I N73J Ifc JEN FEB we APR ulv JON JYJL Aura SEP 2008 2009 1339FHNCf1F2 m2 139a0w7 E quot 2 4 g NOS 0 EC JIquotbN FEB MJHR hPR HAY JUN J UL I39tU G 5 EP 2008 2009 Recent Equatorial Activity El Nino La Nina or La Nada Current Conditions As of midJanuary 2011 SSTs continue to indicate moderate to strong La Nina conditions in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific For December the SST anomaly in the NNO34 region was 153 C indicative of moderate to strong La Nina conditions and for the OctoberDecember season the anomaly was 152 C Currently the R39s definition of El Nino conditions rests on an index of SST anomalies averaged over the NNO34 region 5S5N 170W120W exceeding the warmest 25ile of the historical distribution and similarly for La Nina relative to the 25ile coldest conditions in the historical distribution The NNO34 anomaly necessary to qualify as La Nina or El Nino conditions for the JanFebMar and the FebMar Apr seasons are approximately 055C 050 and 045 040 respectively Expected Conditions The most recent weekly SST anomaly in the NNO34 region is 17 C indicating moderate to strong La Nina conditions in the tropical Pacific this is just slightly cooler than the 153 C level observed in December What is the outlook for the ENSO status going forward January is a time of the year during which the observed ENSO state is often beginning to move toward weaker anomaly values particularly if an ENSO episode has been occurring One might ask whether the current La Nina condition should therefore be expected to weaken and if so at what rate In the current case negative subsurface sea temperature anomalies have continued to occupy the central and eastern equatorial Pacific and have shown little tendency to weaken even in the last one to two months as the event has been in the process of discharging at the surface Sea Sudoce temperature Anomot SJ Bose Period 19712000 Wear of 7 J 2009 NNO34 SST Anomay C Model Forecasts of ENSO from Sep 2009 31121 25 r I I I I I I I 05 1 15 39 2 OBS FORECAST 2395 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 MJJ Jul ASO SON OND NDJ DJF JFM FMA MAM AMJ MJJ 2009 2010 OOOO Dynamical Model NASA GMAO NCEP CFS JMA SCRIPPS LDEO AUSJPOAMA ECMWF UKMO KMA SNU ESSIC ICM EC HAM KM OM COLA AN OM MetFRAN CE JPNFRCGC Statistical Model CPC MRKOV CDC Ll M CPC CA CPC CCA CSU CU PR UBC NNET FSU REGR UCLATCD EOSTRANSACTIClNS AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION quot quot39 quot l39339llll39l39l IN THIS ISSUE News Gulf Oil Spill Report Calls for Major Drilling Safety Reforms p 30 Meeting Detachments in Oceanic Lithosphere p 31 Meeting Spin Wobble and Nutation p 31 About AGU Peltier Receives Charles A Whitten Medal p 32 Don39t miss an issue Renew your AGU membership for 2011 today at httpwwwaguorgrenew VOLUME 92 NUMBER 4 25 JANUARY 2011 The Florida Current A Clean but Challenging Energy Resource The patterns and overall magnitude of energy usage worldwide seem to preclude a single renewable alternative to traditional fossil fuel sources Still putting renewable resources to work where they exist and thereby implementing a widely diversi ed portfolio of renewable energy recovery offers the possibility of signi cantly reducing fossil fuel use on a regional basis One such resource is the Florida Current an oceano graphic feature that has been the focus of intense study for many decades Understand ing its behavior on the time and space scales required to realize its energy potential how ever is still a work in progress one that is challenged by a paucity of relevant data and by a range of sensitive environmental considerations Harnessing the power of the Florida Cur rent is hardly a new idea see Hanson et al 2010 for a brief history With the increased emphasis on renewable alternatives to fossil fuels in recent years and the success of the wind power industry this decadesold vision has been dusted off and is now considered along with waves and tides to be a prom ising marine hydrokinetic MHK energy Sep 2009 Jul 2009 resemble wind turbines without the towers Ma Further alternative designs for example 20 the verticalaxis turbines known as Savonius 65035 rotor systems and horizontalaxis cross ow Jan systems are also being proposed An exten 2009 sive database of technologies for all three 0 Nov MHK energy resources currents waves 5 2008 and tides can be found at httpwwwl 8 333 eereenergygovwindandhydro E 2 The power density the power per unit Ezo lg crosssectional area of a owing uid is Ma proportional to the cube of the flow speed quotquot 20 and the uid39s density An important consid Ma eration about this relationship is that energy 2008 generating systems all require a minimum Jan flow speed to operate the socalled cutinquot 2008 speed the flow speed that is strong enough 3 to turn the system s rotor against frictional S effects and the generators electrical load A 290 second relevant point is that ocean currents Jm offer about the same power density as the 2007 wind This is because while ocean currents Y X Y are about an order of magnitude slower 00 than the wind the density of water is about 05 u 10 15 velocity meters per second 3 orders of magnitude greater than air Con sequently a 2meterpersecond flow in the Florida Current has about the power density Fig 1 Time series vertical axis of power available in gigawatts according to the color scale at right in the Florida Current as a fuI7 lior1 of cutin speed horizontal axis This result is inferred from the universal curve in Figure S2 in the online supplement to this Eos issue and from total Graphics error on I FIGURE 95 A simplified representation of the trade winds and the westerlies and their relationship to gyre circulation Geostrophic Flow The Hill in the Gym As we learned in Chapter 8 the two most wellknown atmospheric surface patterns are the trade winds blowing in a westerly direc tion toward the equator and the westerlies blowing in an easterly direction away from the equator Figure 95 If Ekrnan transport is directed 90 to the direction of the trade winds and westerlies which way will the water go Let s address this question step by step Ekman transport directs water toward the middle of the oifean basins Of course water does not pile up in the middle of the ocean but this is a first step Now imagine that the pile of water creates a sloping sea surface Like water poured on a table the sloping sea sur face will generate a horizontal pressure gradient directed away from the pile see Chapter 7 The piling up of water in the middle of gyres causes water to ow from the high pressure region in the middle Chapter 9 Surface and Deep Circulation 169 Raised sea surface Horizontalquotpressure 39 f gradient force TI I FIGURE 96 A threedimensional representation of a geo strophic current in a Northern Hemisphere subtropical gyres such as the North Atlantic gyre Water directed toward the middle of the gyres by anticyclonic or clockwise winds is balanced by the Coriolis effect resulting in a clockwise circulation Winds drive currents indirectly by setting up the horizontal pressure gradient Otherwise geostrophic currents dominate the circulation patterns that we observe in ocean gyres 07H 7 to the low pressure region away from the center However this mov ing water is subject to the Coriolis effect A parcel of water moved by a horizontal pressure gradient toward the north will tend toward the right and be moved eastward by the Coriolis effect A tug of war exists between the horizontal pressure gradient and the acceleration of the mass due to the Coriolis effect At some point the pressure gradient force will exactly balance the Coriolis acceleration techni cally mass times Coriolis parameter times velocity and the current will maintain a steady ow This balance maintains current ows along lines of constant pressure ie isobars and generates the large scale motions of the atmosphere and ocean that is the ocean gyres These currents called geostrophic currents result from a balance between the horizontal pressure gradient created by Ekman transport or similar forces and the Coriolis acceleration Figure 96 The term geostropsic means earth turning and refers to a ow under the in uence of the Coriolis effect ie a rotating Earth An interesting consequence of geostrophic currents is an elevated sea surface in the center of the oceanic gyres Detailed views of sea surface topography using satellite altimeters such as TOPEDU Poseidon revealed a sea surface marked by hills and valleys albeit modest ones Figure 97 Across a given expanse of the ocean the Graphic Error p 171 A quot quotA quotSea surface Ekman transport causes 0 Slopes upwards offshore H water to move offshore w k quot Nquot M 4 upwelling ffuhw pwelled water from depths between 100300 m Ekman transport causes h 563 SUrfaCe water to move onshore slopes upwards onshore 39 hA e N v N LA My OQDUpi fr HGUHE i ll l 39 a Generalized features of coastal upwelling and downwelling in the Northern Hemisphere Coastal upwelling occurs when Ekman transport is directed away from the coast Fluctuations in wind stress and seafloor bathymetry influence the intensity and duration of upwelling Downwelling occurs along coastlines when Ekman transport is directed toward the coast b Coastal upwelling L LJ C I AL C f IC39 rF vuuvrlps rsyxyr urn rt ysrslAIAAA AC s llJ Note on p 172 right hand side Kuroshio speeds exceed 5 knots about 25 msec not misec p 185 Ekman was Swede studying in NonNay not Nonvegian Nansen and Amundsen were Nonvegian Effects of ENSO Global teleconnections and disasters related to ENSO 39 acooooocn m 39 QM QM 33 quotta Focus Fiat Tmpocalslamn Ocean Models Use data theories computers to aid in understanding and making predictions about the ocean Princeton Alumni who ch anged America and Z 2 IC 5 PV 1 r M a 1771 I 0 also considered Princeton39s rst graduate student An astonishing ratio of mind to mass f By George E UWI quot68 I AM WRITING THIS WEE TRIBUTE to the greatest Princetonian on a morning that began as most of my mornings do with a predawn walk accompanied by my dog His name is Madison I am wearing my favorite necktie It is blue with I 1 silver profiles ofjames Madison Later this morning I shall 391 work on a hook I am writing It is to be titled TJ1 Mrrzlritorriarr Pmmzsiorr I am not one who needs to be per 3 I suaded that Madison merits being ranked as Princeton39s greatest gift to the nation Before I turned to journalism or before I sunk to jour nalism as my father a professor of philosophy put it l was briefly a professor of political philosophy I cheerfully accepted that I never would be nearly as original and conse quential as the philosophic Madison had been Then I became a newspaper columnist a role in which I always have known that I could never be nearly as original and conse quential as was Madison America s foremost columnist The Federalist Papers of which Madison wrote the two most important were of course columns written to advance the ratification of the Constitution in whose drafting Madison was the most subtle participant If a student of American thought fully unpacks the premises and implica tions of Federalist I0 and 51 that student comprehcnds not only this nation s political regime but also the Madisonian revolution in democratic theory Before Madison almost all political philosophers who thought about democracy thought that if a huge i for most of them democracy were to be feasible it would be so only in a small faceto face society such as Pericles Athens or Rousseau39s Geneva This was supposedly true because the bane of democracies was thought to be selfinter ested factions and only a small society could be sufficiently homogeneous to avoid ruinous factions But America in the second half of the 18th century although small compared with what it would become was in size already a far cry from a Greek pairs Besides Americans had spacious aspirations A small nation They were having none of that At a time when 80 percent of them lived on a thin sliver ofthc eastern fringe of the conti nent within 20 miles of Atlantic tidewater what did they call their political assembly The Continental Congress They knew more or less where they were going California Madison understood the need for philosophic underpin nings for an extensive republic a phrase that seemed oxy moronic to others He can be said to have had a political catechism which went approximately like this Innuary 23 2003 Princeton Alumni Vdeeuy vvu rrr1IE39klIl Lllk L39u 1 l 0 k L lllllkll Htlt iI 1l1c i39t is no monument to Madison compara ble to the gllc39lllI1g marble temples honoringJefferson and I iiimlri I here is l1oe39cr391 splendid Madison Buildirw high is part of the librquot1ry of Congress it was said of the 5 l i t l ladison that he contained an astonishing ratio of mind to mass 50 it is altogether right that Madison physi cally the smallest ofrhe Fnumlmc ic l1nnnrprl in kn 2 Alan Turing 38 A father of computing his life was an enigma By Teresa Rz390ra mz AS A CHILD IN ENGLAND Alan Mathison Turing was cheeky and tantrumprone Often inksmudged and reeking of chemical experi ments he was not so much disobcdient as perpetually bewil dered that he was expected to conform to society s expecta tions Turing born in 1912 would turn out to be one of the most brilliant minds of the century conceiving as he did of the modern computer decades 4 P 1 39 P A before it came into existence But his independent character was a source of endless exasperation for his teachers He was impatient his work wg slooov and since he would Pstnenrl the world 7 yo 3 Woodrow Wilson 1879 AFTER SERWNG AS PRlNCEl0N395 13TH PRESIDENT merica39s 28th president ichie39ed a host oftloruextic relorrns including the erenion of the Iuderal Reserve Systeni the incorne t1 and the l lL39l ill Trade Commissionwhich usherctl in 1 new era nfuovertirriern t egulitinn He lctl the United States through 21quotorld Vquot39ar l his fourteen Points remain an out st111tlingibcril t presion ofinttr39natior1il relaiionstliougl1 he tliiled to gain LES entn39 into the le1gue ol Nations 4 John Rawls 3943 50 THE AUTHOR or quotA THEORY or JUSTICEquot and other 39l llt3 R139l has been called one of thc most impor39i1nt political pliilosophers ol the lllth ceniur 39 and the n105ti11llllt39mi39lt1l proponent ofliberalixm sincelohn Stuart Mill in an essav written sl1I39l 39dlCl l1l5 tS K lL39llll in 20112 is L c 39 PFi quot lquotquot p1wquotIra39lri39e r1ew l vVquot0203c l8 Il9v39teatL1res3html1 former l 139inceton provost mv utm1nna student of Rawls 1 H391n trd tlescribetl how Rawls devoted much of his life to sttrtlyirig one urgent question Vquotl1at he ll39L l tlc iusnte require oi intli39itlLris and institutions and h039c1n we ruli l39llt39 itquot His work 391s1n lIllluL lllll force in llL UlIl of 39 C civil rights educ1tion1 0pptr tunil and other km ll INJU U lquot 19 5 John Bardeen 36 B THE ONLY PERSON EVER TO HAVE won two Nobel ivms in pli39s39icsl1e coinvented the trinistor39 which tri1rsfor39n1eLl tht t39l1ctronics ir1tltisti3939rr1tl 1le39el oped with tt1colle1gL1esthe lint stictts illl cpl1n1i0n nl irpurcltrI1tlL1cI I hull llI5 hL1pLI mulcc possible llRls l sca11smtl Turing conceived idea of computers and computer programs One of first computers was developed at Princeton for weather prediction Most largescale atmospheric and oceanographic models are based on Princeton GFDL models mobile phones among many other tlnngs 6 George Kennan 3925 AMERICAN DIPLUMAT AND AMBASSADOR to lie Soviet Union he quot1 l11 gel39 responsi blc for llS policy during the Cold quot rr Kennin lrainctl the quotLJIll1lnlilCIlquot polity intended to clieclt Soviet expan slut in Europe and Jsir From that pol icy xtenrnred the Truman Doctrine which marked the beginning ot rneri can intervention to prt39et1tcourm39ie 0 W I mm bung J vn mm ht 5orttsplrttt1nd tht l us ll Plan which lielpcd rebuild Furope alter irlxl M39 ii Princeton Alumni Weekly January 2008 Supercomputers are used to model ocean currents r amp K r r 39 x A I Ir J i This image of the Gulf Stream illustrates the state of the art in modeling of ocean currents To create a ten month series of these images scientists spent ten days on a CRAYT3D Supercomputer at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center The model run required half of the supercomputers processors to complete the task Compare this modelproduced image to the sateite derived images of the Gulf Stream above Though missing much of the fine structure this model successfullly reproduces the separation of the Gulf Stream from the coast of North America at Cape Hatteras NRL UCLAJ PL Harvard H 98 99 U0 U1 U2 U3 U4 Monsoons of the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea Monsoons of the Arabian Sea 77 Monsoon word IS derived from Arable word mausim meaning season Northeast Monsoon Southwest Monsoon Biogeoohemioal Responses Northeast Monsoon Winter Winds G gt d Initx Southwest Monsoon Summer Winds S plt39Jo39AJ3 tang Trausport AJ J4 Qua u w39395 a3 fad N9 e QQ 393 0 Q quotV s 9 ME fo 5 W u4 u K Figure 511 Monthly positions of the core of the atmospheric Findlater Jet JGOFS Moorings O Sea Surface Height Data and JGOFS Arabian Sea Mooring 48 E 5239E SUE 60 E 6439E 68E 4 N 24N 2039N 2039N 16 N Mooring 12 N Array 2 H N AN 4N 4839E 525 555 6039E 6439E 8 E I II Scu ui i39ucc height mumu cm 30 25 20 15 IO 5 O S 10 15 PO 95 30 3939 m 5 VMCM cwnon 10 Mvmsaoeog 15 vmcm WIl0l 20 won WI0I 25 vmcm WHO 35 I MVMSIIUCSB 40 Acoustic Zoopiankton Counter 8 TPOD Tracor 45 IVMCM WIl0I 50 39 woo cwnon 55 iwlcm WHOI so gt woo WHO 65 MVMSLDEO 725 TPOD WIIOI so MvMsucsB gg woo wnon 100 PSEACAT WIIOI 125 r woo cwnon 159 1 sencm iwnon 15 gt woo cwnon 200 i SEACAT WHOI 225 39 woo mmon 250 P sencm WHO 300 39 TPOD WHOIJ IN A 4032 nnchor Depth CENTRAL MOORING Duration October 151 994 to October 20 1995 15 3039 N 61 3039 E Anchor Position 888 EEIEOR PA HE R UIICM ORTHOOOIAI CU RR EIT ROTOR Fl LIOROM ET ER 4 IRA I330 M51 00 D lC l 39II39lT n MVMS MULTI VARIABLE MOORE S FSZEM DIIIOIVED OXYOEI o5NIm2 Wind Vectors windstressat wm Northeast Monsoon Monsoon o PZ wW7W sgtIIII w39 7 quotIu WWI2 WwI R R S g I I I I I I I I I I I I Nov 1 Dec 1 Jan 1 Feb 1 Mar 1 Apr 1 May 1 Jun 1 Jul 1 Aug 1 Sep 1 Oct1 EB1 NEB EB2 SWB 0 10 20 30 40 II I39ll IEH IquotIUquot39 quot 39 50 60 70 80 Nov 1 Dec 1 Jan 1 Feb 1 Mar 1 Apr 1 May 1 Jun 1 Jul 1 Aug 1 Sep 1 Oct 1 50 crnsec Current Vectors at 35m vH AIixm 7 A I Iv quot quotquot quot I I I I I I I I I I I I Nov 1 Dec 1 Jan 1 Feb 1 Mar 1 Apr 1 May 1 Jun 1 Jul 1 Aug 1 Sep 1 Oct1 Chl ugll 4334 v O 5 E r 3 4 r n 0 1 H N 3 e 390 m y m 9 3 w m m U 3 I B M 9 mr M Q 1 H m M m x um M W A 2 TV m M W 0 l I 1 H 7 1 O M u u u u uW znnnuuunnnnn 1 0 film IArInu0 mW 2 1 n I 0 W n e L n lI p m E 6 o E E J l 0 y I 1 J c m n m m m w w m m 1 w r E m w W m 6 d O 6 0 6 1 n P 9 V ul 9 r 1 I V W V 1 D N D N W NH Mm M d H W 5 n mw A a H o d O o A 0 o A A 0 D m 5 E p 5 p 5 A l 0 n U B U E 4 U 1 P 200 150 100 O 5039 J GOFS Arabian Sea cn xultau hclgln munIn urn S George Philander Professor Princeton University 1971present BS University of Capetown 1962 PhD Harvard 1970 NCAA Environmental Research Laboratories Distinguished Authorship Award 1979 1983 Sverdrup Gold Meda1985 Department of Commerce Gold Medal 1985 Fellow of the America Meteorological Society 1986 Fellow of the American Geophysical Union 1991 Symons Memorial Lecturer of the Royal Meteorological Society UK 1994 Fellow of the American Academy ofArts and Sciences 2003 Member of the National Academy of Sciences USA 2004 President s Lecture CSR Pretoria South Africa 2007 Victor Starr Memorial Lecture MlT Cambridge Mass USA 2007 Doctor of Science Honoris causa Univ of Cape Town 2007 E1 Nif 1o La Nifia and the Southern Oscillation o K peV 5 W09 Philander 39 3 J TEgtRLGE PHItADER 1 439 fa The prospect of an altered El Ni o is alarming because we are having more and more trouble coping with familiar El Ni o Our difficulties increase steadily because of a paradox as we grow in wealth and in population so does our Vulnerability to natural hazards Insurance companies are concerned about a steep rise in claims related to damage in icted by natural hazards but there is no evidence of an increase in the number and intensity of severe storms hurricanes oods earthquakes Scientists are trying to assist us by predicting some of these hazards During the summer of 1997 scientists alerted Californians on television and in newspapers of a high probability for excep tionally heavy rains during the winter of 19971998 because of a very intense El Ni o Scientists also advised the people of Zim babwe in Africa that rainfall there would probably be below nor mal Californians did indeed experience floods and were prepared but Zimbabweans had normal rainfall and were unprepared Be cause of the expectation that crops would be poor and that farmers would be unable to pay back any loans banks in Zim babwe declined loans to farmers The consequences were dire crop production was 20 percent below normal in the impov erished country The prediction of a drought in effect caused a drought The tragedy in Zimbabwe raises many questions Why did the policy makers in Zimbabwe assign too much weight to the scien ti c predictions Did they fail to appreciate the signi cance of a probabilistic forecast Or did they cynically welcome the forecast of a mysterious threat from the remote Paci c Ocean as an effec tive means for diverting attention from serious local political problems What motivated scientists to make forecasts for Zim babwe in 1997 Concern for the people of Zimbabwe was of course a major factor but to what extent were the scientists re sponding to pressure from their sponsors to demonstrate that their results could be useful During the Cold War scientists study ing El Ni o enjoyed remarkable freedom to do science mainly for the sake of understanding an intriguing natural phenomenon but since the 19805 the sponsors of scienti c research have insisted that the focus be on research with practical bene ts For science to ourish scientists must have a skeptical attitude toward their own results constantly questioning and testing apparent solu tions to problems They have to adopt a very different attitude when trying to persuade potential clients that their results are useful How are scientists coping with this predicament To what 1 I 139t39f I 391 39 Antarctic Circumpolar Current What is unique about this current system mar cgt ozxf94 f2 w x gt239 ub antarctic Weddell Gyfe Front Q PO I 339 C 9quot Xxlt x Peru K 7lt c gtx cum A rtarctica F 3 Sea Gvr 1 V Sozx2 Pgtlt7Jamp 7 I II Zealand The Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Southern Ocean Figure 919 Antarctic Circumpolar Current tit 39fi gt a V E 1 cm Currant l I 1 fa 5 M3 e 0i csan om orw r or or an3 Currents encircle Antarctica like a race track Fast moving over 150 cmlsec Many eddies Mixmaster region of the world ocean where different waters merge Important for global climate change and life of the ocean Some of biggest waves occur here Hazardous for ships Deep Sea Circulation Thermohaline Circulation hat D rive 7 x u rr n ts f e c n Convection in a room quotcold f A V windovxf 9 5 Warm air rising 3 Convection Q P quotA Cell Hot 39 radiator Cool air falling p p HEATING COOLING 111111 11111 SURFACE FLOW z39 39 quot quot quot THERMOCLINE 9 4 1 quot39 39 J 1 39 n K I I x I 1 39 SlNKNG DEEP senenome 1 K x K 1 LOW Latitude High Latitude An early concept of convection in the world ocean by Henry Stommel of Woods Hole Figure 921 Meridional section of temperature through the Atlantic Ocean This view shows how temperature and salinity vary depth and latitude We can see deep water locations by tracing origins of waters which are given water mass names like NADW and AABW and AAIW What controls depth of water masses Temperature and salinity are good tracers Today other chemical and manmade and natural tracers are used as well to give more information including time scales Tritium CFCs C C14 Antarctic lnoorrrodimo Watm 8onrxn39A39at r 4 C quot r 39 I C I 397 2 E wtbop oomovgtnap induct atwqoooo Figure 92 Deep Ocean Currents as Modeled by Henry Stommel in 1958 Count Rumford forwarded idea of deep convection in 1798 Figure 924 The Great Ocean Conveyor Belt model of ocean circulation While highly oversimplified Broeoker s illustration identifies the surface and deep circulation and the general linkages between them t sudacollowl 2 dooo ow Figure 925 The world ocean circulation showing the coupled surface and deep circulation Note that waters from all three major basins the Atlantic Pacific and ndian interminge in the Southern Ocean This model by Ray Schmitz is more detailed and likely accurate than Broecker s Both are valuable tools Ana 39 Cit unpolar An 6 Inbmtoci We Indian Ocean M uquotfquot W C an I DXP ml 1 v 39 39 quot39 3 j39 T397 L 393 F 3 x C 5 North Paci c Deep Water Cicunpolu Deep Want iotma on ckww w 30 WW Red indicates formation Deep Water quot quot mg waters lormaton D9 399 What is the importance of deep circulation and the Great Ocean Conveyor Belt Deep circulation is slower than upper ocean circulation 2 It may take roughly 25 years for a water parcel to go around the North Atlantic gyre but several hundred to a thousand years or more for a parcel to track thought the deep ocean 3 Formation of deep water in North Atlantic may stop because of global warming with high latitude fresh ice melt waters capping off upper layer and causing stoppage of deep circulation This occurred about 8200 years ago 4 If this happens extreme weather and an ice age could be triggered This was the storyline of the movie The Day After Tomorrow which way speeded up the time scale 5 Southern Ocean deep waters are thought to be very important also Labra ior Current as seenfmm a satellite fmm a satellite 39 0 39 MK MK E O Mechanisms of Solar Cycle s Climate Influence Uncovered Subtle connections between the 11 year solar cycle the stratosphere and the tropical Pacific Ocean work in sync to generate periodic weather pat terns that affect much of the globe according to research recently appear ing in the journal Science The study can help scientists get an edge on eventually predicting the intensity of certain climate phenome na such as the Indian monsoon and tropical Pacific rainfall the researchers said An international team of scientists led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research said they used more than a century of weather obser vations and three powerful computer models to tackle one of the more diffi cult questions in meteorology If the total energy that reaches Earth from the sun varies by only 01 percent across the approximately 1 1year solar cycle how can such a small variation drive major changes in weather patterns on Earth The answer according to the new study has to do with the sun39s impact lognj Oc l r Z on two seemingly unrelated regions Chemicals in the stratosphere and sea surface temperatures in the Pacific respond during solar maximum in a way that amplifies the sun39s influence on some aspects of air movement according to the study s authors This can intensify winds and rainfall change sea surface temperatures and cloud cover over certain tropical and subtropical regions and ultimately influence global weather they contin ued Climate Sensitivity Estimates Heading Down Way Down Richard Lindzen39s New Pape by Chip Knappenberger August 26 2009 MIT climate scientists Richard Lindzen and collaborator YongSang Choi soontobe published paper Geophysical Research Letters American Geophysical Union pegs the earth s climate sensitivity the degree the earth s temperature responds to various forces of change at a value that is about six times less than the best estimate put forth by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC The smaller the climate sensitivity the less the impact that rising carbon dioxide levels will have on the earth s climate The less the impact that CO2 emissions will have on the earth s climate the less the problem and ability to reverse the problem Lindzen and Choi s findings should come as a solace to those folks who are alarmed about future climate and as a bulwark to those folks fighting to limit Congress negative impact on US energy supplies and our economy Indeed climate sensitivity to GHGs is the multibillion dollar question in climate science If climate sensitivity is low then the earth s temperature doesn t react very much to variations in processes which impact it such things as solar variations volcanic eruptions cloud cover fluctuations or changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases Negative Feedbacks Underestimated Climate Sensitivity Estimates Heading Down Way Down Richard Lindzen39s New Paper by Chip Knappenberger August 26 2009 MIT climate scientists Richard Lindzen and collaborator YongSang Choi soontobe published paper Geophysical Research Letters American Geophysical Union pegs the earth s climate sensitivity the degree the earth s temperature responds to various forces of change at a value that is about six times less than the best estimate put forth by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC The smaller the climate sensitivity the less the impact that rising carbon dioxide levels will have on the earth s climate The less the impact that CO2 emissions will have on the earth s climate the less the problem and ability to reverse the problem Lindzen and Choi s findinos should come Climate Sensitivity Estimates Heading Down Way Down Richard Lindzen39s New Paper by Chip Knappenberger August 26 2009 MIT climate scientists Richard Lindzen and collaborator Yong Sang Choi soon tobe published paper Geophysical Research Letters American Geophysical Union pegs the earth s climate sensitivity the degree the earth s EQ UpperOcean Heat Anoms deg C for 1ao 1oow 001 Min 0amp0 JAN FEB win M59 uiv aim dL39IL AUG s p 2000 2009 50 1ID 5 150 200 250 E0 Subsurface Temperature Anomalies deg C Penna eenuened on 25 SEP 2009 0 141 150 1she do 1amp0 nbw 1s39ow 15iJw 1439uw 1339aw 12bw 1 few mbuu Mm 8fll39 metersec Time Series Averaged Over Region 1119E 39739W 55S 55N Ocean Surface Zonal Currents 03940 llllllllllillllllllull lllll llull ullIIIIllIllllllllllllllllllIlllllllllllIl lllllquotll1ll39lllllllIlllIIIIIIIIIIIIIIllllllllllllnllillllll ll llIIIIIIlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll ll 11 llllllllllll 000 II II IIVIIIIIIIIYUIIllIIIIIIIIIIIIIUIIIIIIIIIllIIUIIIIIYIIIIIYYIIIIIVIIVUIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIINIIIIIIIVIIYIIVIIYIIIIII VI II II lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllilll II II llllllllilll 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Ocean Surface Zonal Currents Anomaly lAll1ll IALIIJIILIIAlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllltll lI ll IIAllllllllllllllllllllllllIIIIIIIIIIIAIIHII ll 1 llllllllull Illlllllllllllllll lllll IIILIIAIIllIllIlllllllllIllllllllllllllllllllll 040 000 1 ll IIHIIIIHIIIIIlllllllllIllllllllllillillllllllllIIYIIIII IIIIYIIIIIIIIlllllllllllllIIINIIIIIIIYIIYIIIIllllllll II II II 1992 1994 1996 39IIIU39IIlIIIlIlIlIIlllllllilllillilll II II IIIIIIIIUIII 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 gt 4 f E9 M J x pk 2 d V r Today s Toplcs it E u1x 1 H g h ern Osmil l T g 2 F 5 39 I 5quot I g I econnect 0 Y V V 0 T L i V E cg A w E w I C 39 p D A pk9 Lu 0 n J 39 9 6 1 VI 0 539 M ml 6 7 C W V W rnts Air 7 8 More on 1 Climate Change K 1 9quot 2 Today sT0p1cs A 9 p U h ern Osmll A c 39aquot p6 ff 1 V M L Pc ati V A if Figure 918 Monsoonal Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation quot l quot39 39 p k N E 39 P 39 V39f r 39 quot I O I t I o I 39 H V 39 i 39fi V q SW Summer rg T Squot quot The Ocean and the Atmosphere Chapter 8 ftp orageogucsbedupubopltommyG3aW12 Hurricane Katrina Sunset at Big Bear Lake by Arsine Khayoyan Topics Weather and Climate History of Meteorology Earth s Geophysical Fluids AirSea Interaction Coriolis Effect Global Atmospheric Circulation Physical Structure of World Ocean Temporal and Spatial Variability in Ocean Atmosphere System Hurricanes and Typhoons El Nino Southern Oscillation ENSO with next chapter Today s Themes Introduce Chapter 8 Airsea interactions Compare and contrast atmos and ocean as geophysical fluids Define weather and climate Introduce atmos measurements Describe heat momentum mass flux budgets Define albedo De nitions Fluids Substances that ow air amp seawater Weather For both the atmosphere and ocean Weather describes the physical conditions at a particular time and place Study Meteorology Climate For both geophysical uids climate is the average Weather for speci ed time periods and geographic areas or locations Study Climatology Note We have both atmospheric and oceanic Weather and climate Global climate change re ects evolution of Weather conditions over longer time scales Motivation Weather affects daily lives politics agriculture P Extreme Weather and climate change take lives and affect national and World economies Atmosphere drives ocean s currents Waves and thermodynamics heating and cooling Goal Prediction of future oceanic and atmospheric conditions Using data and models Earth39s Geophysical Fluids Atmosphere Ocean Comments 3 as Liquid Both vital to life 781 N 209 0 965 HO35 salts Srnall amounts delements and 09 Argon 000353 oompounds exert large e ects eg CD atmospheric CO as greenhouse 338 NaCl as densitydriver in ocean circulation Relative density Low High Water is about 800 times more dense Conrpressibility High Low Water is nearly incompressible but can support sound waves Factors affecting density Temperature water Temperature Major difference water vapor versus vapor pressure salinity pressure salinity as compliating factor Responds to gravity Yes Yes Causes stratification surface and inter nal gravity waves convection Internal gravity waves Yes Yes Seen as rows of douds and slicks on ocean surface Source of heat Mostly from below Mostly from above Sun energy causes heating of Earth and ocean surface Ibramples of convection Plumes of smoloe Formation of deep Convection causes upward motion and douds ocean waters in atmosphere downward motion in ocean Vertical boundaries and sea and ice Surface winds Creates boundary layer effects seafloor lateral boundaries No Continents islands Ocean circulation constrained Affected by Earth39s Yes Yes Critical to understanding largescale rotation flows Tides Yes Yes Most visible near landsea boundary Factors affecting density Responds to gravity Internal gravity waves Source of heat Examples of convection E7 Temperature water vapor pressure Yes Yes Mostly from below Plumes of smoke and douds Temperature salinity pressure Yes Yes Mostly from above Formation of deep ocean waters can support sound waves Major difference water vapor versus salinity as complimting factor Causes strati cation surface and inter nal gravity waves convection Seen as rows of douds and slicks on ocean surface Sun energy causes heating of Earth and ocean surface Convection causes upward motion in atmosphere downward motion in ocean Vertical boundaries Land sea and ice Surface winds Creates boundary layer effects sea oor lateral boundaries No Continents islands Ocean circulation constrained Affected by Earth39s Yes Yes Critical to understanding largescale rotation Atmosphere Ocean ow Tides Yes Yes Most visible near landsea boundary for ocean Turbulent Mostly Mostly Causes eff rcient mixing and chaotic motion Molecular viscosity Very near boundaries Very near boundaries Important for flows around small effects quiescent waters organisms Particles Dust and aerosols Organisms and Causes very interesting light effects sedimems Light propagation Excellent unless douds Poor in open ocean Important for heating and Sound propagation and dust present Poor and worse in coastal waters Excellent photosynthesis Used by marine organisms and oceanographers Figure 81 World climate regions Each region is characterized by a predominant climate condition re ecting average regional weather v9 d 39I lrtmo nu 0quott rt quotu rrrr 1 at cI rquotlt139u n I n Oceanographers have always done meteorological measurements as Well as oceanic measurements Why Housing for air pump and ow meters Inlet for aerosol sampler Housing for aerosol lter holders Meteorological Measurements Meteorological Instrumentation V A J A 1 J J P 39 j J J Jfgt j39J 07 j J 0 x quot J 39 J 9 x i P J J 0 Jquot J J J J J J 2 J J J J J J J 0 J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J 4 J x x lt J5J3 J J J r V J r P JPJ 1 3 J3939 J 397quot J J A A V Q P A A A l J J J J 5 J A 1J X J J J J A 14J J P x J 3 39J JJ J J J L n 7 J J xv lt7 J lt J J jJ J 057 JJ 0 f393939 w P J J J J J J I W gtJJJ J1 JquotJ 7 J J J J J Va rious irstruments for mea P P J x suring weather a modem rain gauge b E A anemometer and weather station in the 0 pI 7 w p Antarcti c unk J J i J i JltLM J J AirSea Studies from RP FLIP Heat Momentum and Mass Fluxes Figure 85 Exchanges of Energy Momentum and Materials at the AirSea Interface and in the Ocean Interior Smaible 39 quot d quotwt musk rndtahon Ptecipitntion M 5 VIQUO and D S U Oust l 1 f UVrndiauon wind v 1539 etupgmum P l it n Neatsutfaoa 39 Ppi o gn mn sham and ma bgcug g rrictobtoah39rg U Figure 88 Formation of clouds requires condensation nuclei and oversaturated or supersaturated air Rmrdrcpca 2 mm I1 t4J n LI 0at 39oh3939H 39Ici quot 39 I C Ij397 391 1 Figure 89 Wind stress at sea surface causes exchange of momentum energy and mass Winds cause Waves and currents as well as turbulent mixing Cooling at ocean surface causes convective mixing and vertical currents Eovizcgt c1 CI I IJ 3 U P J U V TratI o1br39attc C 7 energy so momentum ux Windwave Comocuw sutmg nstnbilny Ice and Its Effects Figure 810 Sea Ice Sea ice plays a number of important roles in the oceanatmosphere system 39e rage Anvedo Values for Various Iquotlrt of Ealrtlfs Surface Part of Earth39s surface Albedo range No Fresh snow 6090 Old snow 1070 Clouds average 5055 Clouds ltlS0 m thick 2S63 Clouds 150300 m thick 4575 Clouds 300600 m thick S 81 Beach sand 30S0 Forest S20 Ocean S10 Sruxtcs Rnidinun 3031 and umM39cn jru f rl1gctd quotc u39cquotIf39I 1 9 HAsiaquot 39ejr1thtrn Which of the objects in the picture have the highest albedo Lowest albedo N m Figure 811 Conceptual model showing icealbedo feedbacks Climate warming decreases ice which decreases albedo and leads to even more warming pos feedback Climate cooling causes more ice which causes greater albedo which causes even more cooling pos feedback lc c 39Albodo posirivc feedback Need other factors to get r raj1 back to equilibrium 9 mmmo c rzpsr AMu Thanhc one 39391l39hH393 5 53 D lco o 5 H 39c r ptrmt33939 3 r1rz39un 1bcto lCD ZquotI quot39f Lg033 5HcrJ by 5395lquot39T D i739JVH nvHr 3 V0tn Mix Coriolis Effect Occurs because Earth is spherical and rotates Angular momentum is conserved Need a component of velocity toward or away from axis of rotation Seen at large scale Launching a rocket to pass over the North Pole using 3 different rotation rates of the Earth No rotation 1 rotation per day 2 rotations per day ourtesy of Wil Black A TV commercial shows golfer Tiger Woods analyzing nearly all conceivable factors that he figures can affect his putt He strokes the ball but bearly misses the cup He then says I forgot to account for the Earth s rotation A baseball thrown toward home plate from the pitcher s mound at Dodger Stadium deflects about 4 inch to the right because of the Coriolis effect The difference between a strike and a ball a World Series victory or defeat Figure 813 Note the different speeds of a person standing still at the North Pole at 40 quotN and one at the equator As a cloud moves northward in the NH it moves to a location which has slower tangential velocity than where it came from resulting in a de ection rightward from its path Try for southward cloud movement Satellite launches at equator Why Earth 1000 mph at equator Vi vwx HM C l s s F 7 J V y J Accounts for rotation of Earth when We study motions of the Atmosphere and the Ocean from Earth reference frame Newton s 2quot Law F ma applies for inertial reference frame Thus need to account for rotational effects on Earth Baseballtrain problem Figure 812 Du ocion to In tidwt in th Notlntn Hemhphoto 39hMquot vJ 83 Summary of the Coriolis Effect and Its Mathematics l139lhe Cotiolis ampct accounts for the motion ofa rotating qinae ie the notational e ectsandspheridty ofthe Earth toexplainandquantifythemotionofobieds fromthepenpectiveofa medframeofreferenoe Le onthemrhoeof theliuth 2 From ourfinedftameofre erenoe movingobjectssuchanwindsand cnrrentsdeflecttotherhhtoftheirtrajectories in the Nonhem Hernisphereandto theleft ofthdr trajectories in the Southern Hemisphere gure 812 31heOou39ioline 39ectir1a39aseswtthlatimdel39b139maly itispropottianaltotheCodolhparametaf whlchiagivenby f20sin whetegtstherotationrateoftheliuthandoislatitnde dflhecotiolh e 39ectforhorizontal motionilzeroattheequatot Attheequatot Oandthusain andfO 5 The Ootiolh e ect is ptoportional to the velocity of the parcel of aawater at air fastermoving objects experience grater de ectiona due to the Coriolis effect 639I139teCotiolise 39ec1iunoItimpottamforlargescalemotlonsthatisoverIcaleagraterthantemofldlometerItens of miles Inch as the drculation of the ocean and atmoqahere General Circulation of the Atmosphere Horizontal Pressure Gradients A key to understanding atmospheric and oceanic motions in the forms of Winds and currents Hociaomal ud maoon SteakI pronoun o39 I39f S C I we C10 rquotuln 3939 Figure 815 LCMC press Assuming no Earth rotation for p39cc39no 3iC will 31 m 8 1 6 Northern Hemisphere IAL r4 Vaquot In M Ii TAL 39 vv VoquotquotI 39II 0 I5 c 39ct c kct 39 0 m m m 0 l h P l m 9 V Pressure Systems l pdj l l k 39 in the NH and j W quot l39 f quot l M quot i 39iif I ii i Coriolis effect 39quotquotquot quot gt39 To cm 39nquot391 Cc39icis T3 c39 aquot391 Cc39icis ct quot tcctr Which direction is i i at de ection f r P r 0q C o39uc Co1r tcts39roo mm Hao mm Hue S1 39 u39 519 3939u I quot e 39 rt gjvx L Miquot What would atmospheric circulation look like if the Earth stopped rotating and the Earth were only water covered Halley s Theory would Work Figure 67 A ctional nonspinning Eart Cool or 39o391tr 1 r quotu h P lo Figure 817 Ferrel s 3cell model of atmospheric circulation Models and theories simplify and conceptualize but they are not perfect Why are there 3 cells of meridional circulation in each hemisphere How many cells for faster a rotating planet assume same heating For a slower rotating or nonrotating planet Note Waves in these ow fields Figure 72 Flow patterns of a uid in a rotating annulus when the inner and outer cylinders are at different temperatures The lines correspond to iso therms at middepth The transition from laminar to turbulent ow in this sequence of figures starting at the top left is a consequence of an increase in the rate of rotation from one figure to the next The results are similar if the temperature difference is Varied From Buzyna et al 1984 0 M L39IJct 3i cm J39u 39 E cc39w wczca A V A 2 n39 I 9 Rossby Waves are planetary waves as they have very long wavelengths and wrap around the Earth in the atmosphere There are also Rossby Waves in the ocean which propagate West Rossby Waves result from variation in the Coriolis effect with latitude and conservation of angular momentum From the book Is the Temperature Rising by SGH Philander Why more extreme Weather in NH winter Figure 73 A schematic diagram of meanders of the Jet Stream that brings cold air to the central United States warm air to the eastern seaboard thus effecting a poleward transport of heat Figure 818 A more realistic model of atmospheric circulation that includes the subtropical jet streams and the polar jet streams The 3cell model can break don and ets can mere 0 One need only think of the Weather in which case the prediction for a few days ahead is impossible Who said this One need only think of the Weather in which case the prediction for a few days ahead is impossible Albert Einstein Actual weather patterns are more complicated than simple theories depict Why I 1 08 300 1014 1020 H 0 U 1 V 60 s 39 996 I 39 I I 1 I 7 90 13 180quot 9o w 0 90115 130quot Figure 67 The presence of continents and of mountain ranges modifies the circulation of a watercovered globe shown in figure 66 by introducing longi tudinal variations In surface pressure measured in millibars mb on the maps they take the form of prominent centers of low pressure and high pressure over different parts of the globe a Conditions in July b Condi tions in January when Iceland and the Aleutian Islands have foul weather associated with centers of low pressure that persist during winter In summer the eastern parts of the subtropical oceans have fair weather associated with centers of high pressure How does airsea interaction impact the physical structure of the World ocean Figure 821 Global distributions of sea surface temperature SST in NH summer top and NH winter False color images with a SST scale What causes these temperature distributions Figure 822 SW radiation distributions for NH Winter top and NH summer bottom 8 WIN 0 S0 mrner 0 40 9J12O1602VI340293 33 0410 L 1223 Wm2 Average of shortwave radiation Iwatts per square meter absorbed at the Ea rth39s surface for 31 Decem berFebruary 19861986 and bi JuneAugust 119863 Compare this fig ure to gure 821 What affects sea surface salinity SSS 30 6039 90 12039 60 180 150 12090 60 30 O 30 tr 6 S 75 I39 quot K D G II 15 45 L quot fi 3 0 C r a With 30 6039 9039 120 6Cf 16039150 120 49O 6039lt30 O 3039 94 370 366 362 368364 360 346342 338334 330 I I I I I I I I saPior MoansainPyPSS inoshor Global distribution of surface salinity averaged for Caquot JanMarch and bi Julv September Global distribution of R6 in a December and b June Com pa re this gure with Figure 823 Figure 825 P E and SSS distributions as functions of latitude How are they related Meridional sec tions of potential temperature and salinity for the 3b Atiantic Distributions of temperature and salinity across Sguth the Atlantic Ocean TNO h t tK K8 aasmgaaaaassss garyvarvetcom L 139 Pat Roque I AP Aquot man pushes a cart rigged with empty bottles as floats through floodwaters Saturday in suburban Pasig City east of Manila Philippines Two earlier storms have inundated wide areas and Typhoon Lupit could hit on Tuesday Filipinos urged to ee as new typhoon takesaim at islands By Oliver Tove The Associated Press MANILA Philippines Police went door to door urging residents to leave quotlandslideravaged areas of the northern Philippines on Saturday in a preemptive evacuation as a new typhoon loomed after recent backtoback storms killed more than 750 people officials said Forecasters said Typhoon Lupit the Filipino word for cruel had intensified quotovernight and by late Saturday had winds of 87 mph and gusts of up to 106 mph The Philippines is still recovering from Trnniml Storm Ketsana in late September Evacuating early might be a much eas ier endeavor now he told reporters in Manila 39 Lupit could still spare the saturated northern Philippines and veer north toward Taiwan or it could track the same devastat ing path as Typhoon Parma which lingered for a week and dumped more rain after making landfall in the north on Oct 3 chief government forecaster Nathaniel Cruz said He said Lupit was slowing down over the sea east of Luzon where it could gain fur ther strength It wasabout 625 miles east of Manila at 4 pm Saturday Two residents walk through oodwater aft dence Jan 13 in the suburb of New Farm in bracing for Cyclone Yasi prompting evacuations an 7 39 ASSOCIATED PRESS FILE er getting ice and food to take to their ooded resi Brisbane Australia The alreadyswamped region is d warnings from officials Yasi forces Australians to e I Category 5 cyclone called catastrophic By Kristen Gellneau Associated Press CAIRNS Australia Tens of thousands of people ed the path of a monster storm bearing down on northeastern Australia as o icials warned that the lifethreatening cyclone had increased in strength overnight Queensland Premier Anna Bligh urged resi dents of lowlying areas to evacuate quickly as gusts up to 174 h were expected ahe ad oi Cyclone Yasi forecast to hit Cairns late today We are facing a storm of catastrophic propor tions in a highly populated area Bligh told reporters What it all adds up to is a very frightening time We re looking at 24 hours of quite terrifying winds torrential rain likely loss of electricity and mobile phones People really need to be preparing them selves mentally if nothing else Cyclone Yasi was fore cast to hit the coast today the Bureau of Meteorology I r 9 said Yasi v poses an ex tremely serious threat to life and property the bureau warned adding that the storm is likely to be more lifethreatening than any experienced in recent generations Bligh said the storm forecast to arrive at high tide could result in a dev astating surge along a vast stretch of the north Queensland coast This is the most se vere most catastrophic storm that has ever hit our coast she told the Austra lian Broadcasting Corp We ve seen a number of worst case scenarios come together Hospitals in the tourist gateway of Cairns emp tied as military evacua tion ights ferried the ill and elderly to safety far south from a long stretch of Queensland state s trop ical coast Residents packed onto extra commercial ights added to allow them to leave We re in the process of packing up boxes the dogs and the pet snake and getting out of here Cairns resident Melissa Lovejoy told the ABC She said the family decided to leave their home near the 1399 Z quotZ0 1 coast for a friend39s place that was sturdier and fur ther inland after getting a phone call and a text mes sage warning residents to evacuate by Tuesday night Forecasters said up to three feet of r 39 could fall on some coastal com munities Many parts of Queensland state are already saturated from months of flooding though the worst oods hit areas hundreds of miles farther south of the towns in the immediate path of Yasi Still Bligh said resi dents up and down the coast needed to prepare It s such a big storm it s a monster killer storm that it s not just about where this crosses the coast that is at risk Bligh said The storm is expected to make landfall between Cairns a city of some 164000 people and a gateway for visitors to the Great Barrier Reef and Innisfail a rural community about 60 miles south which was devastated by Cyclone Larry in 2006 Larry destroyed thou sands of homes and ba nana and sugar cane plan tations No one was killed Hurricanes Typhoons Cyclones WillyWilly s Hurricane season June 1 Nov 30 4 39b Hurricane Katrina in the Gutf of Mexico on August 28 2CD6 at 1237 UTC A hurricane is the ultimate expression ofthe interaction between the ocean and atmosphere Warm sea surface temperatures fuel the updraft of air and generate circulation pattems that trans form atmospheric disturbances into hurricanes 2008 Atlantic Hurricane Season See National Hurricane Center website The National Hurricane Center39s Tropical Cyclone Reports formerly known as Preliminary Reports contain comprehensive information on each tropical cyclone including synoptic history meteorological statistics casualties and damages and the post anaysis best track six houry positions and intensities Tropical cyclones include depressions storms and hurricanes Tropical depressions listed below are those that did not reach tropical storm strength To view the PDF versions you may need to install the free Acrobat Reader The Microsoft Word format may require a free viewer Tropical Storm Arthur Q MSWord Hurricane Bertha PDF MSWord Tropical Storm Cristobal PDF MSWord Hurricane Dolly Tropical Storm Edouard Tropical Storm Fay Hurricane Gustav Hurricane Hanna Hurricane Ike Tropical Storm Josephine Hurricane Kyle Subropical Storm Laura Tropical Storm Marco Tropical Storm Nana The SaffirSimpson Hurricane Scale is a 15 rating based on the hurricane39s present intensity This is used to give an estimate of the potential property damage and flooding expected along the coast from a hurricane landfall Wind speed is the determining factor in the scale as storm surge values are highly dependent on the slope of the continental shelf and the shape of the coastline in the landfall region Note that all winds are using the US 1minute average Category One Hurricane Winds 7495 mph 6482 kt or 119153 kmhr Storm surge generally 45 ft above normal No real damage to building structures Damage primarily to unanchored mobile homes shrubbery and trees Some damage to poorly constructed signs Also some coastal road flooding and minor pier damage O of 2002 made landfall on the Louisiana coast as a Category One hurricane urrgania tQn of 2004 was a Category One hurricane that made landfall along the central South Carolina coast Category Two Hurricane Winds 96110 mph 8395 kt or 154177 kmhr Storm surge generally 68 feet above normal Some roofing material door and window damage of buildings Considerable damage to shrubbery and trees with some trees blown down Considerable damage to mobile homes poorly constructed signs and piers Coastal and lowlying escape routes flood 24 hours before arrival of the hurricane center Small craft in unprotected anchorages break moorings nm of 2004 made landfall over the southern end of Hutchinson Island Florida as a Category Two hurricane IurLaneLsaI1el of 2003 made landfall near Drum Inlet on the Outer Banks of North Carolina as a Category 2 hurricane Category Three Hurricane Winds 111130 mph 96113 kt or 178209 kmhr Storm surge generally 912 ft above normal Some structural damage to small residences and utility buildings with a minor amount of curtainwall failures Damage to shrubbery and trees with foliage blown off trees and large trees blown down Mobile homes and poorly constructed signs are destroyed Lowlying escape routes are cut by rising water 35 hours before arrival of the center of the hurricane Flooding near the coast destroys smaller structures with larger structures damaged by battering from floating debris Terrain continuously lower than 5 ft above mean sea level may be flooded inland 8 miles 13 km or more Evacuation of lowlying residences with several blocks of the shoreline may be required Hurricanes Jeanne and man of 2004 were Category Three hurricanes when they made landfall in Florida and in Alabama respectively Category Four Hurricane Winds 131155 mph 114135 kt or 210249 kmhr Storm surge generally 1318 ft above normal More extensive curtainwall failures with some complete roof structure failures on small residences Shrubs trees and all signs are blown down Complete destruction of mobile homes Extensive damage to doors and windows Lowlying escape routes may be cut by rising water 35 hours before arrival of the center of the hurricane Major damage to lower floors of structures near the shore Terrain lower than 10 ft above sea level may be flooded requiring massive evacuation of residential areas as far inland as 6 miles 10 km of 2004 was a Category Four hurricane made landfall in Charlotte County Florida with winds of 150 mph of 2005 struck the island of Cuba as a Category Four hurricane Category Five Hurricane Winds greater than 155 mph 135 kt or 249 kmhr Storm surge generally greater than 18 ft above normal Complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings Some complete building failures with small utility buildings blown over or away All shrubs trees and signs blown down Complete destruction of mobile homes Severe and extensive window and door damage Lowlying escape routes are cut by rising water 35 hours before arrival of the center of the hurricane Major damage to lower floors of all structures located less than 15 ft above sea level and within 500 yards of the shoreline Massive evacuation of residential areas on low ground within 510 miles 816 km of the shoreline may be required Only 3 Category Five Hurricanes have made landfall in the United States since records began The Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 Hurricane Camille 1969 and urri5an An5r34u in August 1992 The 1935 Labor Day Hurricane struck the Florida Keys with a minimum pressure of 892 mbthe lowest pressure ever observed in the United States Hurricane Camille struck the Mississippi Gulf Coast causing a 25foot storm surge which inundated Pass Christian a category 5 storm over the Gulf of Mexico was still responsible for at least 81 billion dollars of property damage when it struck the US Gulf Coast as a category 3 It is by far the costliest hurricane to ever strike the United States In addition of 2005 was a Category Five hurricane at peak intensity and is the strongest Atlantic tropical cyclone on record with a minimum pressure of 882 mb Recipe for a Hurricane X Hurncane Note 80 quotF 265 quotC S Homer Nature 1 Hoax 300 nofoooanwntarabtrvnao 39Pmqu1md for enough water to evapomw 2 Javagn wind near 3 Male mrunsmble allow to nae 4Humd13nbouL l8000 onLraayou pull unto storm Exam water vapor suppuns mom Lawn T 6 beat eueturl 5 Avood rapping rattn apar39rnun39un pm A 3 ex1s1n3w1ndalhovaenoccraaLadbystorm 4Kquot quot aLanx1edmouo1ugtd5eo1aLn1lalwudaa quot39 quot 6 Pump away air rising In the storm mm a mgr 3 pmamuwe area 1 Lbs upper atmosphere e M Nate Thaw zngndtanu are tu39o 39I39Ut than 392 39 10 of tropical weather d1sm39banoea beoomc zmpuzal worms Koep tryuzg 1 39 11 LF 12SEP03 1315 1024 x 1024 20N 58hJ v V F LJEQTHER FIGENCY T g 2 lt 4 0 V quotW J 3 N rim 1 i V v39 395 quot5 R I 1 4 A e 2 vs x 4 v 39 T N ml P T H Y 39 1amp3 V 7quot K amp p ane Refearch j 0 r 45 V E Mesoscale Vorticesz dicted amp Observed DMSP image of Isabel on 12 September C Hurricane a x S 0 Vorquotrici ry and wind vectors from the 39 12 14 16 numerical experimenf 9 Kossin and Schubert 2004 l39I7I39 uuoa I ClllDUIJll VUIIII U39 VIII f39quotT39U J J amp EUJCBTDH Aoousllc Modem Subsurface Telemetry From depths surfa 7m 14m m UCSB 7 wavelength Ed SPECTRAL RADIOMETER l J 7 lo 2 sk quotox Composite Deployment Schematic 31quot425439 N 64quot088039 W Temperature Measurments TIdBit 1m TSKA 3m TSKA 8m SeeBlrd 14m SaeBivd 20m MtMS 34m TSKA 45m m TSKA 55m MVMS 71m TSKA Wm TSKA 150m ADCP 2mm TSKA 250m TSKA 750m 4567 UCSB MET81Ar and water temp winds humicly bar press 0 TUFTS OCDS CO SENSOR ucse moss 7 Wavelength Lu Specttal Radiometer UCSB 3 Wavelength Radiance UCSB MOSS 7 Wavelength Lu Specltal Radiometer UCSB MORS 7 Wavelength Ed amp Lu Spectral Radiometeg UCSB BIOPS WETLABS AC9 UCSB MORS 7 Wavelength Ed 8 Lu Spectral dlomem WHO ITSSIQJC UMT CO System ucsezee6 UCSB MVMS UCSB WETLABS SAFIRE V 39 MITESS I TB SmtPLElt M 39rnTaa wtTR 3tswLR t Ros WETLABS IIISTAR FSI ACOUSTIC CURRENT METER UCSB MVM8 MBARI NITRATE ANALYZER UCSB ADCP MBARI NITRATE ANALYZER GLASS BALLS E0 8 G DUAL PICOUSTIC RELEASES MICO V 85quot Dan UDA Processing Dually Control a X quot 39Ar n r39 l 39 n o SeaWiFS Groundtruthing I 64 HYDROSTATION S o32 1039 N 64 3039 W BERMUDA TESTBED 3 MOORING sure 31 4239N 84 939 w 653939 I swpuue AREA BATS 64quot 32quot l 00 I I CD I l J I Temperature C M l l O I IIWI quot p A t V It UWIIII quot IW lkquotNIi VI rquot45 quot 1 R r i V Q II Il lIIJ M l 18 t quot 170 180 190 200 10 20 230 quot 19 ug23 26 24 39 1 2 I w wIquotIIIIIIIIILII 20 18 Temperature C l 40 20 Winds ms 100 U IwI II 39IIIIWX IIIIIIIIWII 25 m depth Currents cms O Be m Attenuation 660 nm 45 m depth quot220 225 230 235 Hurricane Fabian Hit Bermuda as T Category 3 hurricane 1 on Sept 5 2003 0 Worst hurricane to strike Berrnuda since 1926 Winds 100 kts 50 ms 8 people died 300 M damage to Berrnuda Winds Speed ms Day UTC 248 24hrs Hours 42 40 I I I 39 I 39 I I I H II II I I I 6 I I I I I I 39 39 40 H I r I I H 35 38 PI I P I I II 391 36 I 39 II Ir 39 I IIquot 34 quot39 39 25 39 b 33 32 20 3 L 30 I 15 28 10 26 24 I 39 5 1 1 I 290 295 360 Long ude Winds Spee 42 Latitude on I ijii 24 ii i 139 I I I I I F I I I I in 391 f I I I I I I I I F F I I I I I I I 39 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 5 391 LI I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I u I 391 N I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I H I I I I I I I I I I I d ms Day UTC 248144hrs Hours 2 0 2 5 360 365 Long ude 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 Winds Speed ms Day UTC 249Ohrs Hours 42 7 5 V 1 I I rquot I I quotII 3 r I I IIIj 40 5 quot II I I IquotN I 38 f5 J 1 E I 1 quot39 H3939 36 I I e 34 Ii Inn 0 II II 3 532 395 I I 39 I l 39 2 39 1s j 39 10 26 i 39 5 E0 290 2 5 360 365 Long ude Current Response of Hurricane Fabian Using BTM s ADCP September 3 19 2003 20 R 1hour ave 3m vert bins 5 32 0 772 pW S 9 80 39 I 39 415 E 100 an I C 6 Y W 29 i294 5 297 e 8 140 S W d 150 H ea In S 50 100 0 r 09 50 Dickey er al 40 35 Latitude 3 20 A 0 m 3939I39ATER SURFACE TEMPERATURE derived frern NDAA A quotHRH 3 dd39 rneen est ending 1815 UT 2 AUG 1998 Lu ngitude 20 22 COPYRIGHT ID 1998 I339 Steve Eelin 3 Rd Sterner JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY APPLIED PHYSICS LAEID Babin Carton Dickey and Wiggert 2004 Upper Ocean Response to Hurricane Bonnie 1998 Latitude degrees A A I I A x if 6 I J quot I I 5 T T PKw quot quot Q ang e an 4 3quot 39 E RACK 4 3 rIE 13R LK 20 l I I I I l l l39 lIIITIh 35 30 75 70 05 60 55 Longitude degrees chDr phquota 19n3 8 day mean chlorophylla concentration mgm3 derived from Sea39W IFS 21 Aug to 28 Aug 1998 000 010 020 050 040 050 050 COPYRIGHT ID 1998 by Steve EIabin Sc Roy Sterner JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY CO2 Ef ux Events in Wakes of Bermuda Hurricanes 1995 i 39I F iax 4 04 701 2 w I w 5 04 Fellx 239 mun E 3 Event quot Mari1yn O A 10 N r I I I I I Increase of summertime CO2 ef ux by 55 o for region Signi cant globally Still large uncertainty due to measmodels at high Wind speeds Bates et al 1998 W N5 W39muzm 0 awning O O 9 ENVIR CAST Envirocast Website 4060 Waves at sea 6 zuscs 9 i ii USGS 0738023321 Industrial Canal at I10 at New Orleans LA EN VI RCAS T39 4 1 0Q C 59 Hind gust speed air niles per hour 49 3 29 0 0 10 Wlnds 1n New Orleans 0r t 0 P umn mm EEE39quotquot Equot quotquotquotquot quot 39ILZ39 e Force Hinds Provisional Data Subject to Revision k 1 C t I 1 w 39 0 I Q Mandovnlla O I k v v D Laka Pontchartrain V0 s 21 aw Orleans 39 5 3393 O d O Q 39 a 0 quot quot Emrocastf H Wgbsite a 39 Q 0 39 re y 39 N W 7quot 1 2 1 I 39h 1 o F I I I Q I i 42 I h N Clalborno Ava gt To iiaulghippi run I X quot I P 39 1 QuickBird Satellite Images 60 cm res 3 U c a P 0 2 Katrina s Storm Surge ioiis Mississippi USGS 0738023321 Industrial Canal at I10 at New Orleans LA River Pontchartrain u u 0 Q N 0 1 on 1 U OJ on to 5 88188 8688 1288 1888 B8288 86288 1288 1888 8888 Provisional Data Subject to Revision 3 we 39 is 399 x9 V 1 A 39 fa is 7quot j39 3939 quot 23 3 p R L 8 gt 3 6 ggi 2 quot7 amp39 8 Yo LIn Ponichutuin 4 0J 8 s s i i i 8 P 8 l 393 I o 1 V r 1 V 39 In t 39 39 1 sin 39 V 1 I r I s 393 I 39 39 U 1 i 39 o 6 6 i 39 I M at b 39 i Pd K i 39 39 393939 7Z X r39 W6 3 5 5 39 7 through breach 39 s Minis 39r i In 39 as a unw RN 4 39 xi 9 i Floodod ji 3 PR Area is quot E is 3 I O4 V i u 3 in 0A4 3 p I 4 2 quotr es quot Jae 39 39 3 0 0 39 N 9 DIGITALG Lose i E Dslig lsl LGLOBE39 i39 39i 39 i393iGiTALGLO3E pKV 393 quot ll 9 s39quot 39Fi 39 f 3 i P x X O i 23 T H quot3 L39 J A39 2 39 Envirocast Website Katrina s Fury 145 mph 27 surge 1400 killed 40B Andrew 27B P o 1 6 ra1n Basin MSGulf Coast N on 0p ltbixgt lstnrm Gzfbixfgbtrex 4 U 2 5 15 b pK 0 k mi k P2q L PEARL RIVER BALDW 39 B 09I27I391998 MOBILE 39 100lJl UTI l HARRIS IA N 31 quotquotie la cuquot m 395 39 0 mi 25 R d 1 If K 39 1 LL I 39 Stm Surge THE STAR A7 quot fam 0 0 f 9 Questlons remaln a ter a I O O Obama s Blg Easy V1s1t s By Becky Bollrer But that39s only a dent in g The Associated Press the state39s lengthy backlog NEW ORLEANS A of complaints and projects 3 R day after an enthusiastic and rules limit the federal 2 almostgushing crowd met govemment s obligation and 1 President Barack Obama on how money can be spent 10 Isle fieof uieif fn lTauy Xlzmnc Tn rnennncn in n nnncfinn Are hurricanes and typhoons becoming more frequent and more intense because of global Warming See Spotlight 81 El Nino La Nina and the Southern Oscillation will be covered with Chapter 9 End Chapter 8 l I 102803 110203 2 Weeks Before the Storm 0quotv lt 110203 110803 1 Week Before the Storm 110803 111703 During the Storm 40 50 60 Distance Offshore km Bottom MODIS Visible image was taken 3 hours later than the top one Est 1B losses Amount of polluting material or 87 million tons of CO2 roughly equal to State s Vehicles and power plants How bad is the car pollution problem then About 30 of greenhouse Gases produced by So Calif cars in a year Wild res contribute 322 million tons of CO2 or 5 of CO2 in US Figure 828 Anatomy of a Hurricane 31tcdnr av o A 1 39 ac arm 3939 Jm guru ur ccc 39 at z 3 an mu u39f rlvc in 39 39 ru Aml rah nlfa nquot 45 Cc39uvt39iquotg V low II3939Vf amp 4 Risng as n eytml totaling around eye Hurrieane Videos in Discussion Secti 0 0 if P Concepts of Vapor Pressure Condensation and Evaporation Ptuauros123mllaats 39 Prcasutos424mIbars Figure 86 Relationship between temperature evaporation condensation and vapor pressure Warmer air temperatures cause increased evaporation and vice versa Vapor pressure increases as temperature increases W rx i 0 4 b 7 0 P 0 V V 39 A A A pQ S x x A x i V x i x V 3 3 H i i HliVJi M HH 4 1 K L A Z 1 1 L 5 L V J L X a Relative humidity i 0 am t H20 Vapor X 100 am t at saturation If Rel hum 100 P Can it rain iflt 100 EVaP mt Ununuuhd Mustytasting tap water safe officials say Lake Casitasalgae is cause quality should improve soon By Kevin Clerici kcleric239 VenturaC0untyStarc0m Mustytasting water spilling from faucets in west Ventura is safe to drink and the taste should improve in coming days city water and Lake Ca sitas officials said The water comes from Lake Casitas which is undergoing an annual change that can make the water that customers drink have a musty or earthy taste and smell The seasonal occurrence which involves algae in the lake is natural and customers should not be alarmed because water quality continues to sur pass all health standards said Susan McMahon a water quality supervisor with Casi tas Municipal Water Dis trict The change happens every fall when water temperatures on the top of the lake drop bringing with it the byprod ucts of algae that usually re main at shallower depths Lake turnover is the culprit McMahon said The lake water which is treated by the district flows to thousands of homes on Ventura s west end down town midtown and beach neighborhoods as well as un incorporated western Ventura The city of Ventura s water division received more than two dozen calls reporting the funky taste on Monday with fewer complaints Tuesday and Wednesday city Water Super intendent Jim Passanisi said The issue was brought up at Monday s City Council meet ing where officials apologized for the taste The city however has little ability to improve or alter the taste because the water is treated by the Casitzis District before it flows into homes The water is not routed to the city s new 32 million treat ment facility on North Ven tura Avenue That state of the art facility treats river water from shallow wells in and near Foster Park Passa nisi said People expect the same tasting water he said If it s not normal they39ll call But I encourage them to call he continued I want them to We rely on the public to find water leaks and to in form us of other possible is sues which we can and will investigate The odor could be gone in a matter of days or a few weeks at most Passanisi said There is no way of know ing he said We are at the wwwphysics1 Odoyorg Giving fluids the slip Model simulations use equations for uid ow Visualization of the ows provide insights This work on boundary layers concerns means of reducing drag on ship hulls JSATURDAY oer 17 2009 CONTINUED FROM THE F 1quot39 x Rob Varela I Star staff Visitors walk past an unmanned surface vessel on display at Naval BaseVentura County Port Hueneme on Friday while touring the Navy39s new combatship facility Naval base displays new combat ship technology LL Judge attacks nine errors in Al Gore39s alarmist climate change film London Evening Standard Last updated at 0752am on 111007 Add your View A controversial documentary on climate change which has been sent to thousands of schools has been criticised by a High Court judge for being alarmist and exaggerated Mr Justice Burton said former US vicepresident Al Gore39s lm An Inconvenient Truth was onesided and would breach education rules unless accompanied by a warning Despite winning lavish praise from the environmental lobby and an Oscar from the lm industry Mr Gore39s documentary was found to contain nine scienti c errors by the judge I ERROR Mr Gore asserted that a sealevel rise of up to 20 feet would be caused by melting of Ice sheets in the near future JUDGE This is distinctly alarmist and will only occur after and over millennia E cnnon Lowlying Pacific atolls have already been evacuated JUDGE There was no evidence of any evacuation having yet happened E ERROR The Gulfstream that warms up the Atlantic would shut down it would shut down in the future though it might slow down E ERROR Graphs showing a rise in C02 and the rise in temperature over a period of 650000 years showed an exact fit JUDGE There was a connection but the two graphs do not establish what Mr Gore asserts of snow on Mt Kilimanjaro was THE NINE ERRORS 5 due to global warming JUDGE It cannot be 5 established that the 0 recession of snows on Mt E Kilimanjaro is mainly k attributable to human bk induced climate change g E ERROR The drying up of 5 Lake had is a prime example j of a catastrophic result of 5 global warming 2 JUDGE Insufhcient to i establish the exact cause h B ERROR Hurricane Katrina f blamed on global warming JUDGE lherewas insufficient f evidence to show that was evev Ne Eiquot 39quoti3939 39ii E drowned swimming long P c distances up to 60 miles to find the ice JUDGE Only four polar bears 5 have recently been found p drowned because of a storm V E ERROR Coral reefs were 3 bleaching because of global W warming and other factors g JUDGE Separating the impacts h of stresses due to climate 5 change from other stresses 5 ERROR The disappearance pollution was difficult such as overfishing and wr1IVa 3 lU NO 3 ODDLYiE NOUGH l Groundhogpeits I Phil fails to see shadow By Lee Powell Associated Press PUNXSUTAWNEY Pa The country s most famous groundhog predicted an early spring Wednesday but wasn t willing to go out on a limb to forecast whether his state s Pittsburgh Steel ers will win the Super Bowl Punxsutawney Phil emerged just after dawn on Groundhog Day to make his 39 125th annual weather fore cast in front of a smaller thanusual crowd in rural Pennsylvania who braved muddy icy conditions to hear his handlers reveal that he had not seen his shadow Including Wednesday s forecast Phil has seen his shadow 98 times and hasn t seen it just 16 times K N we ma 395 1quot early spring Groundhog Club President Bill Deeley right looks and listens to Punxsutawney Phil the weatherpredicting groundhog as handler John Griffiths left awaits the weather prediction since 1887 according to the Punxsutawney Groundhog Club s Inner Circle which runs the event The Groundhog Day cel ebration is rooted in a Ger man superstition that says if a hibernating animal casts a shadow on Feb 2 the Chris tian holiday of Candlemas winter will last another six weeks If no shadow was seen legend said spring would come early The celebration usual ly draws 10000 to 15000 spectators when it falls on a weekday Groundhog Club p spokesman Luke Webber said The area was under awinter weather warning and while heavier 39 snows and sleet never ma terialized SHARE YOUR THOUGHTS n i Respond to editorials letters to the editor and columnists LettersVCStarcom gt i Sam 7IegoU111o39n 39Tri hme cR46Ah o2s CoM 2ZI I Oil Shipping Choke Poin in the Mideast Gulf War 1991 Water supplies res air pollution 5quot M J 39 139 A39ilU398y39l1i3h Dhahran Abq ig I i I Riyadh V u As Saffamyah p quot ri39 39E8TERN E8587 I0KX CC cvmus 5 MSYRM Benn 0 0 V Damascus LEBANON ISRAEL A 39rJ Icrusalctp 39icoua 0 or II I A 1 quot1Ictpn EGYPT W ARABIA L V A Medina Yanbu 1 Huh Mantra g Hal139Ib llddah u U 5 I A u Mex o 2 0 c n 7 Pbnsudan South Pars iran North Field R39as Tanura ana I 81 A O at 339 Doha i J S 4 39 Arabia E I 3 quot Muscat 1 b E nrafes Chapter 8 Ocean Circulation Currents O O O O O 0 moving water mass from one location to another California current which runs from North to South this water comes from Japan Global warming effects currents which effects weather may also cut off the circulation of deep water currents ships will get into currents and ride the gulf stream to save gas military applications hiding submarines Measuring Currents O O 0 Can drop in something that will oat and watch how it drifts around Drifters buoys that are dropped and satellite record where they go Argo oats Moorings can have propellers which measure speed of currents Acoustics Doplar effect bouncing sound energy off moving objects Satellites see level of sea surface as it goes up and down Chapter 10 Ocean Waves Surface Waves why are waves important 0 transportation sur ng military operations ships at sea marine organisms and animals transport of sand and sediments beachfront damage recreation energy source How are surface waves measured 0 current meters 0 tide gauges and wave staffs 0 bottom pressure sensors used to measure passages of tsunamis t sea can resolve lcm wave height variations 0 wave rider buoys coastal radar satellites altimeters microwave scattermeters 0 changes in hydrostatic pressure occur with the passing of a wave and can be used to detect surface waves using pressure sensors on the sea oor they are the line of alert in tsunami warning systems 0 Giant waves around antarctica racetrack for winds causing really fast currents and big waves How can we de ne and quantify waves and their characteristics 0 crest and trough amplitude of the wave 0 steepness 0 wave speed What are the classes of surface waves 0 wavelengths and frequencies 0 long waves and short waves tides are long waves long period waves infragravity waves gravity waves ultra gravity waves and capillary waves are short What causes surface gravity waves 0 caused by disturbances such as winds and atmospheric pressure earthquakes submarine landslides and volcanoes ship movement meteors Wave restoring forces 0 gravity surface tension Coriolis effect Chapter 8 Continued 0 Sea Surface Salinity SSS precipitation and rainfall freshen and decreases SSS evaporation causes salinity increases behind 0 if precipitation is greater than evaporation then SSS decreases 0 if precipitation is less than evaporation then SSS increases 0 at the equator have higher precipitation 0 low salinity water fresh water coming from Antarctica melting ice Thermocline temperature change region where there is the change from very warm water to cold water there is a change of density pycnocline rapid change of density from hot water to cold water 0 the deeper you go the bigger difference there is antarctic water gets a lot colder than northern water Hurricanes Typhoons Cyclones WillyWilly39s Northern hemisphere Hurricane season June 1 Nov 30 5 Categories of Hurricanes 1 is wind of 7495mph 2is 96110 mph 3 111130 mph 0 4 131155 mph 0 5 is higher than 155 mph tons of destruction and storm surge Recipe for a hurricane 0 heat 200 ft of ocean water above 80 degrees F 0 converge winds near surface 0 make air unstable allow to rise 0 humidify about 18000 ft of air as you pull it into storm extra water vapor means more latent heat energy 0 avoid ripping storm apart exterior wind should remain steady 0 pump away air rising in the storm with high pressure area in upper atmosphere Basic Hurricane Research 0 mathematical models calculated 5 vorticestornadoes within the eye of a hurricane and was found in pictures could be the reason that in the wake of hurricanes one half of the street is destroyedhit by vortex while the other is okay not hit 0 Hurricane Fabian hit Bermuda as a category 3 in 2003 worst one to hit bermuda since 1926 8 people died 300 million dollars worth of damage 0 CO2 Ef ux event sin wakes of bermuda hurricanes O Felix event hurricane increased CO2 input enourmously Chapter 9 El Nino warm pool of water from western paci c is pushed across to North America usually it doesn39t make it that far 0 sheries suffer because phytoplankton content drops 0 higher altitude of water because warm water rises and expands productivity shuts down 0 happens to South America too more of an impact La Nina means colder water which spreads to the West El Ninos occur at intervals of roughly 27 years Recent Equatorial Activity La Nina right now Ocean Models 0 use data theories computers to aid in understanding and making predictions about the ocean 0 Alan Turing conceived idea of computers and computer programs one of rst computers was developed at Princeton for weather prediction 0 most large scale atmospheric and oceanographic models are based on princeton GFDL models models are good but can be wrong Monsoons of the Arabian Sea 0 monsoon is derived from Arabic word mausim meaning season 0 Northeast monsoons winter From India air is being blown over Arabian sea towards Somalia Circulation of Arabian sea makes a circular path in the bay counterclockwise 0 Southwest monsoons In the summer the high pressure system in India becomes a low pressure system winds ow towards Himalayas from Somalia currents reverse direction going clockwise Biogeochemistry Chapter 8 coastal upwellings equatorial currents el ninosouther oscillation global teleconnections ocean circulation models monsoons antarctic currents deep ocean currents more on global climate change NH Coastal Upwelling O O O O O O 0 cool nutrient rich waters upwelled along the coast phytoplankton grow well in upper welllit layer with input of nutrients zooplankton eat phytoplankton sh eat zooplankton thus coastal areas are often very biologically productive colder water right along some coastline from coastal upwelling California waters are cold due to circulation and upwelling Equatorial Upwelling and Currents O ekman transport of water is upwelled away from the equatorial water from depth upwells into the upper well lit layer brings cool nutrient rich water biologically productive wind goes directly across over the equator go straight The Southern Oscillation O 0 El Nino La Nina La Nada ribbons of green water near equator indicates biologically productive waters with high concentrations of phytoplankton very unusual sh during el nino conditions big slosh of water towards the west Chapter 9 Ekman Currents and transport 0 Nansen observed that although the wind was going straight objects were drifting at an angle but it was because the currents were going a different direction and objects were drifting at an angle in between the two forces Ekman gured this out 0 came up with theory of internal gravity waves to explain dead water 0 surface currents are directed 45 degrees to the right of the direction of the lwind in the northern hemisphere and to the left of the direction of the win in douther hemispehere 0 speed of wind driven currents decreases with depth 0 deeper currents move sequentially towards the right 0 plots of current vectors on a graph result in a sprial patter called the Ekman spiral not a whirlpool though 0 Ekman layer depth is the depth where the speed has decreased to a value of about 37 of its surface value this is the depth where a current vector is pointing in the opposite direction of that of the surface current depends on coriolis parameter 0 Ekman transport summation of the ow from the surface to the Ekman layer Ekman transports lead water in a gyre to ow inwards so it is a spiral inwards and it ows down downwells so the thermocline drops and depresses like a bowl leads to a gyre the raised sea surface causes a horizontal pressure gradient forces water down off of it which is de ected to the right northern hemisphere due to the Coriolis force and forms a geostrophic currents model shown had one at side while the rest was circular shows the speed of the gulf stream Coriolis effect gets bigger as you get to higher latitude almost zero at the equator Summary 4 Steps to explain gyre circulation and gulf stream Wind Forces Ekman Transport 0 90 degrees to right of wind force forcing water towards the center Geostrophic currents horizontal pressure gradient causes water to ow outwards Variation of Coriolis effect with latitude causing intense western boundary currents gulf stream Weather in the Ocean 0 Mesoscale Eddies 0 spin off of currents like the gulf stream 0 can be warmer eddies in colder water or cold eddies in warmer water 0 very large 68180 miles in diameter 0 speeds of 100 cm per sec lifetimes of 1 month to a year cold eddies are typically blooms of phytoplankton
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