Note for GEO 101 with Professor Tick at UA-Exam 1
Note for GEO 101 with Professor Tick at UA-Exam 1
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Study Guide for Exam 1 Summer 2011 Geology 101 Dr Tick CHAPTER 1 amp PRELUDE pp 1 33 What is Geology pg 2 What is Physical Geology pg 23 What is uniformitarianism pg notes 284 What is the concept of uniformitarianism and why is it important notes 284 Geologic Time and age of the Earth pg 5 How old is the Earth oldest rocks pg 5 How are these the age of the Earth determined pg 5 6 Magnitude of Geologic Time pg 56 The Nature of Scienti c Inquiry pg 67 Hypothesis pg 7 Theory pg 7 Scienti c Methods pg 67 Subsystems of the Earth and interactions between these subsystems ie atmosphere biosphere hydrosphere lithosphere mantle core pg notes Geology and it s affects on our lives ie global warming overpopulation economy resources earthquakes Tsunamis etc Origin of Planet Earth pg 1617 1819 Nebular theory hypothesis pg 18 Solar nebular hypothesis pg 17 Origin ofthe Solar system Solar Nebula Hypothesis pg 15 1819 Origin of the Earth pg l6 l9 Differentiation of the Earth layers that make up the earth What do these layers consist of and relative size inner core outer core mantle lower mantle upper mantle asthenosphere lithosphere crust etc pg 1920 2732 How do we know about these layers pg 2527 Plate Tectonics Theory basic premise pg 45 Divergent vs Convergent notes Continentalcontinental convergent plate boundaries notes Continentaloceanic plate convergent boundaries notes Oceanicoceanic convergent plate boundaries notes Divergent plate boundaries ie midAtlantic ridge notes Midoceanic ridge notes Basic Rock Types pg 2425 Igneous vs Sedimentary vs Metamorphic rocks pg 2425 Rock Cycle description and what this is notes recycling effect pg 174177 notes Basic Rock Types Igneous vs Sedimentary vs Metamorphic rocks pg 2425 9798 CHAPTER 3 Patterns in Nature Minerals What is matter and what is it composed of What types of matter Matter anythjng that has mass and occupies space Types of matter include solids liquids gases and also plasma Mineral De nition pg 7980 Rock De nition pg 96 What is a mineral What is a rock pg 7879 pg 96 What does crystalline mean pg 7879 What is amorphous Amorphous no de nite structure Composition of Minerals pg 80 9091 Elements and Atoms pg 8081 Box 31 A2A5 element vs atoms Structure of atoms nucleus electron shell pg 8081 A2A5 Neutrons vs protons vs electrons pg 8081 A2A5 What are atoms composed of and how is an atom s identity determined pg notes A2A5 Difference between atomic number and atomic mass number pg 8081 Box 31 A2A5 Atomic Number number of protons ie Hydrogen is 1 pg 8081 Box 31 A2A5 Atomic Mass Number number of protons and neutrons pg 8081 notes Box 31 A2A5 Chemical Bonding pg notes A5 7A7 Types ofBonds pg notes A5 7A7 What is the difference between ionic bonding covalent bonding metallic bonding and van der Waals bonding pg notes A5 7A7 notes Isotopes pg A4A5 De nition and characteristics pg 7985 Structure of Minerals pg 8185 What is a polymorph What is an example pg 83 notes and gure 37 Does internal structure determine the eXtemal shape pg 8183 Salt or Halite has what structure tetrahedron cubic etc pg 8285 notes Diagnostic Properties of Minerals ie crystal form luster cleavage etc pg 8588 Is color a good diagnostic feature Moh s Hardness Scale pg 87 Fracture vs cleavage pg 87 Speci c gravity pg 87 Rock Forming Minerals and Mineral Groups pg 8993 95101 Silicates pg 8993 Most abundant elements in the continental crust pg 9091 notes and g 321 Siliconoxygen tetrahedron pg 90 and g 321 Silica groups sheets chains double chains etc pg 90 91 Common silicates pg 9091 notes Silicate Minerals Most abundant types of rocks in crust Structure Silica tetrahedron What is the silica tetrahedron and what is it composed of pg 90 and g 321 Ferromagnesian Dark vs Nonferromagnesian silicates Light pg notes Ch 4 Characteristics of both types pg notes Ch 4 Types of minerals for each group pg 8990 Nonsilicate Mineral Groups ie Carbonate Halite native oxides silicates sulfates sul des pg 8990 Origination of Minerals Where do minerals originate CHAPTER 4 Up from the Inferno Magma and Igneous Rocks Types of Igneous Rocks 2 main types pg 102104 Intrusive plutons vs extrusive volcanic lavas pg 102104 110 Where do they form pg 102105 106107 109 Plate tectonic boundaries ie convergent vs divergent vs hot spots Nature of Magma pg 104105 109 notes What is magma pg 102 104105 Textures Size and Shapes of Igneous Rocks pg 116117 Aphanitic vs Phaneritic pg 116 notes How are crystal sizes related to cooling rates pg 112116 Volcanic vs Intrusive and differences in crystal size pg 109110 Glassy texture vs Pyroclastic texture vs Pegmatitic texture pg 116119 Igneous Compositions pg 105107 gure 46 g 416 g 417 Felsic vs Intermediate vs Ma c vs Ultrama c 105 notes gure 416 g 417 How does silica content vary from Felsic to Ultrama c pg 105107 figure 45 g 46 g 417 How does viscosity change Felsic to Ultrama c pg 105109 notes gure 45 Effects of silica content on viscosity pg 105 107 notes g 45 g 417 Hawaiian Type ma c basalts vs Cascade felsic rhyolites type Magmas viscosity vs composition vs explosivity pg 109 114 Ch 7 190193 What is viscosity and what types of magma are more or less viscous and why Naming of igneous Rocks pg 107108 Volcanic intrusive equivalents pg 114119 gure 417 ie graniterhyolite dioriteandesite etc Origin of Magma pg 102105 What are the 3 main factors pg 106107 gs 416 amp 417 Heat what is the geothermal gradient vs Pressure vs Volatiles gases pg 104105 gs 43 amp 45 Evolution of Magmas pg 128 Bowen s Reaction Series pg 104107 114115 g 44 gure 415 Changing Magma Compositions pg 129 132 3 main mechanisms pg 106107 Magma differentiation crystal settling vs Assimilation vs Magma mixing pg 106107 Types of Magma Felsic vs Intermediate vs Ma c what are the characteristics of each pg 105 g 417 Igneous features dikes sills plutons batholiths laccoliths etc pg 110113 g 410 g 411 g 412 fig 413 g 414 CHAPTER 7 The Wrath of Vulcan Volcanic Eruptions Nature of Volcanic Eruptions pg 180182 Explosivity Factors pg 190193 Factors affecting Viscosity effect of temperature silica content gases pg 182 193 notes Importance of dissolved gases and volatiles pg 185 Felsic vs Intermediate vs Ma c Lavas pg 182185 notes Characteristics of each ie silica content viscosity etc pg 182185 notes Types of Volcanic Activity pg 182185 notes Lava Flows Ma c types Viscosity pg 182 Pahoehoe vs Aa Viscosity differences between each pg 182183 Lava tubes vs Columnar vs Pillow Lavas pg 182185 notes Pyroclastic Materials pg 184185 Volcanic Extruded Materials Ash vs lapilli vs bombs pg 184185 198 Anatomy of Volcanoes pg 186190 g 710 g 711 General Volcano Features pg 186190 Summit opening vs Crater vs Caldera vs Vents vs Fumarole pg 186187 Types categories of Volcanoes 2 main types Shield and Composite Stratovolcanoes pg 186190 g 710 g 711 Shield vs Composite Distinguishing characteristics between these pg 186193 197 Anatomy ofthese types ofvolcanoes g 710 g 711 Pro le Differences and relative sizes between these types pg 186193 197 gs 710 711 Cinder Cones What are these pg 192193 Volcanoes Impact on humans pg 198199 202203 Other Impacts resulting from volcanoes landslides Tsunamis Nuee ardentes etc pg 184 198199 202203 Pyroclastic Flow and nuee ardentes pg 184 Lahars and volcanic mudslidesash ows pg 185 Caldera formation pg 186187 188189 Fissure Eruptions and ood basalts examples pg 186 196 Volcanic Remnants pg 197198 Lava Domes volcanic necks and pipes pg 195 198 notes Nature of Plutons pg 194196 Ch 4 Intrusive Igneous Activity Ch 4 Igneous structures Dikes vs sills vs plutons vs batholith vs lacolith pg Ch 4 Concordant vs discordant and what igneous intrusive bodies are associate with these pg 110113 fig 410 g 411 g 412 g 413 g 414 Location of Volcanoes and Tectonic Activity pg 190195 g 712 g 716 Ma c rocks and their location derived from Mantle pg 194 notes Felsic and Intermediate rocks and their location pg 105 Ch 4 pg 182184 194196 What is the ring of re or the circumpaci c belt pg 190191 notes gure 712 What types of plate boundary are MidOceanic Ridges associated with examples pg 194195 g 712 notes Features and characteristics pg 194 Types of Magma associated with divergent plate boundaries pg 194 What types of plate boundaries are convergent types pg 194195 g715 and 716 Subduction Zones Ch 1 pg 191 notes g 712 Features and characteristics pg 190197 Type of volcanism pg 186191 194 Types of Magma pg 172173 Intraplate HotSpot Volcanism pg 194196 g 715 g 717 Hot Spots intraplate volcanism pg 194196 g 715 g 717 Are these associated with plate boundaries Formation features and characteristics pg 194196 g 715 g 717 Types ofMagma associated with hot spots pg 194197 fig 715 g 717 Distribution of Volcanoes where do we nd volcanism pg 190191 Fig 712 Where does the majority of volcanic activity occur What is the circumpaci c belt In what tectonic setting do we get these different types of volcanism Divergent boundaries Convergent boundaries Hot spots Intraplate volcanism Volcanoes and climate pg 202203 Effects on climate pg 202203 CHAPTER 5 A Surface Veneer Sediments Soils and Sedimentary Rocks PART on WEATHERING First half ofCH 5 pp 121 132 External Processes pg 122127 Weathering vs Mass wasting vs Erosion pg 122127 132 notes Weathering De nition and Differential Weathering pg 122127 notes Parent material original rock material eXposed to weathering notes Types of Weathering 2 Main Types Chemical and Physical mechanical pg 123127 What is the difference between these two pg 123127 Mechanical physical vs Chemical weathering pg 123127 Types of Mechanical weathering and the processes involved pg 124 Frost wedging vs Unloading vs Thermal eXpansion vs Biological animal pg 124 Types of Chemical weathering and the processes involved pg 125127 Dissolution vs oxidation vs hydrolysis vs alteration pg 125127 Rates of Weathering pg 126127 Factors affecting Weathering surface area climate etc pg 126127 Least resistant mineral vs Most resistant minerals to weathering Bowen Reaction Series notes This leads to differential weathering pg 126127 Factors Controlling Soil Formation pg 128129 Factors Parent material Time Climate PlantsAnimals Topography pg 129130 How do these factors control soil formation pg 129 Soil Pro le 0 A E B and C De nition and Description pg 129 127130 gs 510 511 512 How are the soil horizons de ned pg 128129130 Zone of leaching zone E pg 203 vs zone of accumulation zone B pg 128 Soil and its relation to climate moisture and temperature pg 129131 Table 51 Factors contributing to erosion 131 130 132 How does topography slope and direction of slope affect the lay of the land 129 Erosion and Physical and Chemical deterioration of soils pg 130131 132 Rates of erosion and what controls this rate pg 126127 130131 132
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