Note for GEO 102 with Professor Andrus at UA-Lecture 1
Note for GEO 102 with Professor Andrus at UA-Lecture 1
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Geological Sciences 102 Science 0 Science Also it is the organized body of knowledge gained by this process Solence o A way of knowing 0 Based on measured observations of natural phenomena 0 Which lead to explanatory 0 Which are tested through experiments or further measured observation 0 Theories are constructed that explain the natural phenomena based on the above 0 Measured Observation 0 The fundamental assumption of science is o The observations are called are not opinions or assertions 0 Logic and reason take over from there Hypothesis o Similar to a model Theory o This is ABSOLUTELY NOT Tested Forever 0 Nothing and no one has the final word 0 According to philosophy no theory can ever be proven only disproved 0 Some theories have withstood centuries of questioning and survive a They are tested through predictions Predictions 0 Not fortune telling o If a theory is quantitative we can test the predictions with unambiguous measurements 0 This is true for both experimental and historical sciences Experimental and Historical 0 Experimental sciences are 0 Historical sciences are o The difference is almost meaningless in practice Uniformitarianism o A fundamental assumption explicit in historical science is uniformitarianism o This is implicit in all other science and in all human action 0 Essentially it is Quantitative o It is hard to agree on some observations 0 Measuring things with as little ambiguity as possible is critical 0 Numbers help o A rigorous logic can be applied to numbers through equations a Equations can describe the world What is it with the jargon 0 Some think that using obscure words is science 0 These words are simply another way of limiting ambiguity and saving time o It easier and less ambiguous to say cumulus than you know those low white puffy clouds you sometimes see on an otherwise clear day Example of the Process o Radical proposal at first a Modified as new tests were performed and new observations were made a Grew out of pure research 0 Powerful and parsimonious How does science really work 0 Who are scientists 0 Where do they work 0 Where do they get the money 0 What are the final products 0 Why does science on the news often contradict itself Who are scientists o Anyone who does science are scientists It is really that simple Where do they work 0 Many work for big universities like ours or the government a I will talk about why in a bit a They often do pure research 0 Many work in industry for profit a You don t hear about them as much a They often do applied research Where do they get the money a It is obvious for scientists in the private sector a Most public scientists get the money from Where does the money go 0 At a big public university like here 4050 of the money goes to run the school 445 at Alabama 0 The remainder pays for scholarships for graduate students professor salary lab expenses travel publishing costs etc 0 Science can be VERY expensive but it can also be done for nothing at all What are the products 0 Public scientists publish papers 0 Private sector scientists usually do not 0 We base future science on earlier papers 0 Hundreds are published daily 0 Perhaps the findings will lead to new technology and methods eg medicine Peer reVIew o All science is reviewed by other scientists often before and always after publication 0 All humans make mistakes and such so we rely on competition to fuel the drive to check and overturn each others work 0 Science that is not published is worthless o Myjob is first to publish papers Publishing a Journals 0 Not like magazines at all 0 You have not likely ever seen one 0 Some are more prestigious than others 0 All are competitive to get in o Conferences 0 Less important generally than papers o Books 0 More used to educate nonscientists a Can be viewed as an open continuous debate 0 We do not debate on stage oneonone Divisions of Geology 0 Petrology rocks 0 Volcanology volcanos o Geophysics deep earth study earthqakes crust movement 0 Structrure deformation of the crust tectonics o Hydrology ground and surface water 0 Paleontology fossils and evolution Divisions of Geology 0 Paleoclimatology past climate climate change 0 Geochemistry chemical reactions related to the Earth 0 Economic geology mining and valuable minerals o Petroleum geology oil exploration 0 Environmental geology pollution assessment and clean UP Divisions of Geology 0 Stratigraphy the sedimentary rock record 0 Planetary geology other planets o Geobiology earth life interaction 0 Geoarchaology geological aspects of archaeology 0 Marine geology oceans o On and on and on Careers In Geology 0 Oil and Gas 0 Environmental geology 0 Mining 0 Materials 0 Water resources 0 Pure research 0 Hazards 0 Resources management Who Hires o Industry 0 Oil eg ExxonMobile Texaco BP 0 Environmental 1000 s of companies 0 Mining eg Placer Dome Barrick o Geotechnical eg Schlumberger Halliburton 0 Energy eg Southern Company Duke Power 0 Engineering construction at all levels 0 Business analysts advisors Government 0 USGS NOAA NASA Military EPA Park Service Universities 0 Researcher 0 Professor Geology and Alabama Economics Construction materials o bauxite chalk sulfur salt and shale Oil and gas Coal o gt1000000000 annually 0 14th largest producer in US 0 70 of Alabama electricity is from coal Take Home Message Science as a method Define a theory Define a hypothesis Uniformitarianism Who are scientists How does science work today What are papers Where does the money come from Where does it go
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