Vocab for GEO 101 at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Introduction to Geology i i GEO101004 Class 4 Plate Tectonics University of Alabama gical Sciences Last Question of the Day Name the three major plate boundary types and define the process that occurs at each Answer Convergent one plate goes under the other mountain belt may form Divergent Plates move apart Transform Plates move past each other Question of the Day You are at the beach and have dozed off You wake up to see that the tide has gone out far more than you have ever seen before You see that a number of other people are also looking at the shore rather curiously What do you do Exams Use online resources Concept quizzes Chapter tests Vocabulary Review Key Terms Virtual Field Trips Come and see me during office hours or make an appointment email me 39 Kuiper elt Neptune Asteroid Belt E 39rth 39 SHquot Mercury Venus Jupiter Copyright 2005 Pearson Prentice Hail Inc On Jan 14 the ESA s Huygens probe successfully descended through the atmosphere of Titan Saturn s largest moon One of the main reasons of sending Huygens to Titan is that its nitrogen atmosphere rich in methane and its surface may contain many chemicals of the kind that existed on the young Earth Combined with the Cassini observations Huygens will allow an unprecedented view of Saturn s mysterious moon me mm WWW 25a miSPEciALscassmtHuygensSEMQioealGEgn hlml A boundary between high lightercolored terrain and darker lowland area on Titan Composite of Titan39s surface seen during descent Frum hm imww Esa iniSPEciALsoassinrHuygensSEMaoo van ntmi The surface of Titan seems to be strewn with ice blocks me mm MNWW esa mSPECALSCassmvHuygensSEMEOONV3E7EI mm Testing the plate tectonics model Evidence from ocean drilling Some of the most convincing evidence con rming sea oor spreading has come from drilling directly into ocean oor sediment Deep Sea Drilling Program 19681983 0 Age of deepest sediments measured from microfossils Age of deepest sediment increases away from the spreading center From http WWW40dp tamu eduglomarhtml Testing the plate tectonics model me mm Wwwlams12c gulp me mm WWW uceandvllllng mg The Ocean Drilling Program using the JOIDES Resolution succeeded the DSDP continuing until 2003 In 2003 the Integrated Ocean Drilling program started The newest ship in the program is the Chikyu Earth run by the Japanese research institute JAMSTEC Sampling the Ocean Floor The JOIDES Resolution drills into the seafloor and collects cores long cylinders of rock Named after the HMS Resolution Captain Cook s flagship 65 m derrick used for rotary drilling Thrusters keep ships position constant over the sea oor Can drill in up to 8200 meters 27000 feet of water Can drill 2100 meters 6900 feet below the sea oor Since 1985 the ship has recovered more than 104 miles of core samples Thrusters 33 T fhrusters Hyd rophones Drill A pipe Maximum water depth 8200 meters 27000 feet Television 7 camera 39l l l rezone 3 Copyright 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Sampling the Ocean Floor Testing the plate tectonics model Mapping revealed several linear chains of volcanoes in the Pacific Ocean The most studied is the HawaiiEmperor chain extending from the Hawaiian Islands to the Aleutians Radiometric dating shows volcanoes increase with age from Hawai i forming today to Suiko Seamount 65 million years old near the Aleutian Trench 39 i s igfjvfgf years 39ThlS age progression is Copyrigh1 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc seen in detail in the Hawaiian Islands 0205 The Hawaiian Islands become younger to the eastsoutheast Hawaii is the youngest while the seamounts to the west northwest are oldest Assuming the hot spot is stationary and the entire chain of islands was formed by this hot spot which direction is the Pacific plate moving 1 eastsoutheast no h westnorthwest south 5 none of the above Testing the plate tectonics model A rising plume of mantle is located beneath the island of Hawai i Melting occurs at the base of the lithosphere Molten rock erupts at the surface As the plume is in the mantle the lithosphere moves over it resulting in a chain of volcanoes A bend in the HawaiianEmperor chain indicated a major change in Pacific plate motion Khuai Oldest oceanic Inhoslpher Zone of V magma r tormalion Ages given In millions of years From http lvolcanound eduvwdocsvwlessonslhotspotsintroductionhtml oopyngni o 2005 Pearson Prentice Halli in Testing the plate tectonics model Hot spots and mantle plumes Caused by rising plumes of mantle material Volcanoes can form over them Hawaiian Island chain Mantle plumes Longlived structures Some originate at great depth perhaps at the mantlecore boundary 0201 Which one of the following most accurately describes the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands 1 Stratovolcanoes associated with subduction and a convergent plate boundary Shield volcanoes fed by a longlived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate 3 Shield volcanoes associated with a midPacific ridge and spreading center 4 Stratovolcanoes associated with a midPacific transform fault Measuring plate motion Hot spot chains High intensity Assuming that the hot spot is xed relative to the mantle plate motion and rate can be determined by examining the volcanoes formed by it 9 cm or A Magnetometer record showing symmetrical 4 inyear for the HE chain magnetic field across ridge Paleomagnetism and plate motions Paleomagnetism stored in rocks on the ocean oor provides a method for determining plate motions Both the direction and rate of sea oor spreading can be established B Research vessel towing magnetometer across ridge crest Copyright 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Measuring plate motion 0 Measuring plate velocities from space Accomplished by establishing EXACT locations on opposite sides of a plate boundary and measuring relative motions Two methods are used Very Long Baseline Interferometry V LBl Global Positioning System GPS capyngmo 2005 mm Pmnhm HaH In In VLBI the distance between two widely separated radio telescopes and distant billions of light years quasars is measured The millisecond difference in arrival times at each station is a measure of the distance between the stations Accurate to about 2 cm Measuring plate motion Measuring plate velocities from space Global Positioning System GPS The distance from a point on the Earth to a number of GPS satellites is measured 0 The difference in distances is used to triangulate the location of the point From httpwwwnasmsiedugaleriesgps Plate motions VLBI velocities in centimeters per year Antarc c plefe Igu 39r39e 129 quot w Copyright 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc What drives plate motions Forces that drive plate motion 7 Slabpull Slab suction Ridge push Cold dense slabs of subducted oceanic lithosphere pull the plate towards the subduction zone 7 Ridgepush The higher elevation of spreading centers result in oceanic lithosphere wanting to move downhill away 7 r 7777A77 fI Om the ridge capyn gmozaOS Pearson Pienlins Halunu Far less important than slabpull 7 Mantle drag and plate resistance 0 Can act to increase or decrease plate motion What drives plate motions Models of platemantle convection Ocean Any model must be consistent Squotquote e dams with observed physical and chemical properties of the mantle Slabpull at trench Horizontal movement of plates causes mantle upwelling Models Layering at 660 km Explains why basalts erupted at midocean ridges are different more A Layering 511660 kilometers evolved relatively shallow source compared to those erupted at hotspots more primitive deeper source We know that subducting slabs descend beneath 660 km Copyrigm n 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc What drives plate motions Wholemantle convection Would mix the entire mantle in the space of a few hundred million years removing Vomic u 39 I heterogeneltles quotaquot R39dge Descending ocean plate B Wholemantle convection Copyright 2005 Pearson Premice Hall Incl What drives plate motions Deeplayer model Lava lamp model Two layers swell and shrink in a complex fashion in response to Wig Oceanic ridge heat from the Earth s interior C Deeplayer model Copyright 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc 0201 Which of the following characterizes convective motions in the mantle 1 Cool material sinks as slender pipelike plumes 2 Hot material rises as broad sheets and ribbons Hot material sinks as broad sheets and ribbons 6 Cool material sinks as thin slabs Importance of plate tectonics The theory provides explanations for Earth s major surface processes The geologic distribution of earthquakes volcanoes and mountains The distribution of ancient organisms and mineral deposits How is a Tsunami Generated Earthquake Tsunami iii iilir From httpwwwsoesthawaiiedutsunamitsugenhtml In the source area sea level continues to oscillate Every time the swell collapses another set of waves is pushed outwards The individual waves in a tsunami arrive at some distant shore several tens of minutes apart and they will keep coming for hours How is a Tsunami Generated A Tsunami can also be generated by an underwater landslide see right Other methods of Tsunami generation include volcano eruption plume collapse and meteorite impact Frum httpMWW suestnawau Edutsunamitsugen mm hm msun 55 mtsu abZEIDMZZE mm 12646 Earthquake M124 the last ear hqual e About a unwed years leaner From httpwwwsoesthawaiiedutsunamitsugenhtml Eartl muaka39 92 94 96 98 From httpearthobse rvatory nasagovNaturalHazardsshown h ph p3imgid After a large subduction Earthquake you would expect both uplift and subsidence on the upper plate left The magnitudes of this vertical movement have been modeled for Sumatra right 98 96 94 92 From httpllearthobservatorynasagovNaturalHazardslshownhphp3imgid12646 to lt 8 n cqnuFo II III H Novlmnlul Mellon Earthquake E 2 a i i g 1 a g m wq39ua nsygweunsynpe39 HEMEq39JSSOS39MMMI duq Luon 94 96 98 92 You would also expect horizontal motion LATITU DE T SECONDS 120 in 240040 maximum DATA SET inpD1Bhq 1UU E 150W LONGH39UDE Wave Amplitude CENTIMETERS From httpMMMpmelnoaagovlsunami nd020041226maxglobalpdf 25D 45 30 195 18 165 15 135 12 105 43 hrs 37 hrs 1 hrs 28 hrs 2 hrs Isms n hrs 5 hrs NCAA OAR Paa c Marin Environmanlal Labome Seame Wasmngaon Credil MOM From hnpMmmpmelnoaagovtsunami nd020041226globa rslwavearrjpg Tsunami waves travel at about the same speed as an airliner From bbccouk SUMATRA 539 Banda Aceh Shore Indonesia How do we stop a tsunami in the Indian Ocean having such a huge death toll next time Evacuate coastal areas every time there is a potentially tsunamigenic earthquake Tsunami sirens Teach people how to respond in the event of a tsunami Recognize some of the pre cursors earthquake sudden reduction in sea level Deployment of a tsunami monitoring system in the Indian Ocean similar to that which already exists in the Pacific Ocean DART Mooring System GOES Antenna 1 met ops Antenna 12 an Optional Sensors Wind Barometric Pressure Seasuriace Temp st Conductivity Air Temperature Relative Humidity HF Antenna RF Modem Master Control U nit 25 m Disk Euoy 42 ton client th Signalling 1 t r Chumlssm Swivel Acoustic Telemetry e 1 Nylon Glass Ball Flotalion 13quot Nylon 5000 m 12 Polyester 75m Transducer Acoustic Release Bollom Pressure Recorder Selim Anchnr 72D Ila I lnuchmethouwMEt From httplVlMANpmelnoaagovsunamiDarUPdfdartbuoypdf
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