Note for GY 101 with Professor Hart at UA-Notes
Note for GY 101 with Professor Hart at UA-Notes
Popular in Course
Popular in Department
This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.
Reviews for Note for GY 101 with Professor Hart at UA-Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/15
GY 101 82010 Tiffany Frazier CHAPTER 1 Atmospheric Process and Patterns Intro What is geography o GeoEarth o Graphia write or draw describe 0 Geography is spatial science 0 Geographersinvestigate 0 Patterns 0 Connectivity o Interdependence o Interactions Geography Characteristics 0 Generalized 0 Natural and social science 0 Integrative science 0 Common threat is spatial inquiry 0 Defined by method not subject Geography is integrative o Interdisciplinary approach to understand complex problems Questions in Geography 0 What Phenomena 0 Where Distributions 0 Why explanations 0 So what applications 0 Recent emphasis on applied science Geographical approach 0 Geography is defined by method not subject matter 0 Spatial patterns At some scale are not random but may be explained by process Five Themes 0 Location 0 Place 0 Region GY 101 82010 Tiffany Frazier 0 Movement 0 Humanenvironment interaction 0 As est by NCGE Location 0 Absolute location 0 Latitude and longitude o Tuscaloosa 33 N 87 W 0 Relative location 0 Landmarks time direction distance 0 5 minutes from 0 Places have human and physical characteristics 0 Architecture clothing food 0 Vegetation climate topography o Perception of place 0 Tuscaloosa Region 0 A coherent unit 0 Formal region 0 Government boundaries 0 Functional region 0 Alagasco Tuscaloosa News etc o Vernacular region 0 The South midsouth sun belt Movement viruses 0 Organisms goods ideas etc 0 Links and connections 0 Jump contagious flu Hierarchical 0 Earth as a global village Object moves ex Island hopping Humanenvironment o Humans adapt ex Changing clothes for weather 0 Humans modify earth s surface 0 Humans depend on earth GY 101 82010 Tiffany Frazier 0 Determinism possibilism probablism 0 Many applications Why use of resources Why geography 0 Move toward interdisciplinary approaches to solve problems 0 Move toward linking human and natural systems 0 Understand patter and process 0 View earth holistically 0 Global nature of our society global village Professional Geography 0 Geographic technology 0 Agriculture business engineering Planning 0 Transportation construction environment 0 Resource Management 0 Water soils lands parks and recreation Consultation 0 Private and public sectors 0 AAG for more information Four geography traditions o M techniques advances 0 Regional NGS long history area studies 0 Humanenvironment Changes in views 0 Earth science Physical geography Physical Geography 0 Spatial analysis of patterns and the physical chemical and Biological process that create them 0 Linking pattern and process 0 Utilize other natural sciences 0 Ultimate goal Understand total surface environments of earth Physical Geography Geography and 0 Geology geomorphology o Pedology soil geography 0 Biology Biogeography o Meteorology Climatology GY 101 82010 Tiffany Frazier Systems approach 0 Regional v systematic geography 0 Focus on the physical environment of specific world regions 0 Focus on a specific earth process or feature 0 Openclosed dynamic equilibrium feedbacks Earth as a system gm 0 A set of interrelated components through which energy flows to produce orderly changes Closed v open system Closed systems 0 Have a limited energy supply confined within the system eg Wind up clock automobile Open system 0 Unlimited energy supply from an external source eg Earthsolar energy Feedback and Dynamic eguilibrium Biosphere atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere all make up the earth Earth spheres 0 Atmosphere Thin gaseous veil held to planet by gravity 0 Lithosphere Crust and upper mantle o Biosphere Zone of life 0 Hydrosphere Water in atmosphere on surface and in crust 3 phases 0 Cgosphere Ice on land and water Earth as a planet 0 3rd rock from the sun Liquid water Land areas 0 NorthSouth America Eurasia Africa Australia and Antartica Great oceans 0 Pacific Atlantic Indian Artic and Antarctic Earth movements 0 Rotate daily GY 101 82010 Tiffany Frazier 0 Revolve annuallyone free trip around the sun 0 These two movements change earths position Revolution 0 Earth revolves around sun every 365 days 5 hours 49 mins ie 365 days 0 Always has sun at its focus 0 When viewed from above North Pole Counter clockwise motion 0 Path earth follows during revolution called orbic orbit 0 Earth orbits the sun on an angular plane known as the plane of the ecliptic Plane of ecliptic 2350 tilt The earth is 46 billion years old Rev cont 0 Orbit not a circle but elliptical orbit As a result 0 Distance from the sun isn t constant 0 Perihelion Shortest distance 0 Aphelion longest distance 1 revolution 1 year Seasons aren t affected by this Rotation o Spinning of earth towards the east on its axis 0 Takes 24 hours Why don t we experience rotation o Gravity 0 Speed varies by latitude but its constant at that location Shape Geodesy s earth round 0 Polar diameter 7900 miles 12714 km 0 Flattened at the poles by centripetal force 0 Equatorial diameter 7927 miles 12757 km 0 Shape is best described as an Oblate spheroid rather than a true sphere GY 101 82010 Tiffany Frazier Earth is wider than it is tall Shape o Centripetal force Causes flattening at poles o Centrifugal force causes bulging at equator Relief Max 12mi Mt Everest 29028 ft high Mariana trench 35810 ft deep Geographic grid system 0 Need to ID exact location of Phenomena 0 Need to standardize the reporting of specific locations 0 Uses a system of coordinates xy 0 Lines that intersect at right angles 8 27 IMPORTANT PARALLELS North Pole 90 N Arctic Circle 665 N Tropic of Cancer 2350N Equator 0 Tropic of Capricorn 2305 Antarctic Circle 66505 South Pole 900 Angle from center latitude lmportant Meridians GY 101 82010 Tiffany Frazier How to report 0 Specify a point Latitude and longitude o Eg Tuscaloosa AL 0 33 12 35quotN87 34 9quotW o Latitude given first 0 60 minutes1 o 60quotsecondsl Direction Position of one thing from another 0 Must have reference points No natural line of reference in space 0 Horizontal directions Based on rotation of earth 0 North or south of the equator 0 Vertical directions Based on gravity Two Ewes of direction 0 Azimuth 0 Degrees from magnetic north 0 0 360 0 Mariner s compass 0 Uses cardinal directionNSEW Seasons 0 Seasons are caused by distance from the sun 0 Angle of the sun and day length change the amount of solar energy we receive 0 This is what causes seasons Earthsun relations 0 The amount of the sun change its heating ability 0 Strongest when the sun is directly overhead 90 0 Focused on a small spatial area GY 101 82010 Tiffany Frazier 0 Heating ability gets weaker when the sun is not directly overhead 0 Spread over a larger area Subsolar point 0 Declination of the sun 0 Latitude receiving direct rays from the sun 90 0 Declination changes thought the year 0 Ranges from 2350 N to 2350 S 0 Summer solstice June 21 I Sun is at 2350 N 0 Winter solstice December 21 I Sun is at 2350 S 0 Spring equinox March 20 0 Fall equinox September 22 0 Sun is at 0 Sun angle 0 What is the angle of the noon sun in Tuscaloosa AL today Angle of noon sun 90 LP LS LP Latitude of position LS Latitude of sun opposing hemispheres OOOO same hemisphere Circle of illumination 0 Sun always illuminates half the world 0 Circle of illumination is a great circle half that is illuminated varies with season Length of day 0 Length of day changes throughout the year o In Tuscaloosa longest at summer solstice and shortest at winter solstice 0 Equal day and night at an equinox 0 Official US time timegoctimezone Time What is time 0 Only 3 natural units of time 0 Tropical year return of seasons GY 101 82010 Tiffany Frazier Lunar month return of new moon Day return of day and night 0 Long history of people and time High noon and differences in local time 0 Time and mariners 1714 challenge 20000 John Harrison Standard time 1884 intl prime meridian conference in DC 24 time zones Each 15 of longitude wide75 on sea side Meridians in multiple of 15 Used as central meridians for all time zones Greenwich mean time gmt or universal time coordination UTC Time and Politics 750 doesn t always work out nicely Can divide a country state or city Exceptions are made Some countries use only one eg China 180 longitude When crossed time changes by a full 24 hours Going west 1 day later Going east 1day earlier Date changes but the hour dose not because it s a standard meridian Daylight savings An attempt at a better correlation between day light hours and human activity 1916 Shift standard time forward one hour 0 Fall back spring forward US uses DST only un summer 0 This might change Some high lat countries use it all year Russia GY 101 82010 Tiffany Frazier 831 Geographic technology 0 Portraying earth 0 The geography tool kit 0 Globes and maps Globes 0 Pros o Accurate representation of earth shape 0 Capable of maintaining the correct geometric relationships of lat And long 0 Can represent without distortions of spatial relationships of features Know what shape the earth is o Oblate spheroid o Cons 0 Only V2 earth can be viewed at once 0 Constructed at a very small scale 0 Cumbersome cannot take into the field 0 Thus maps are more convenient Maps 0 Challenge Display 3D earth in 2D 0 Geometric accuracy at a globe but convenient o Cartography art and science of mapmaking Map Proiections o A system whereby the rounded surface of earth is transformed to display on a flat surface 0 Families of projections Cylindrical o Plane 0 Conic o Oval Cylindrical Low latsl 0 Wrap cylinder around 0 Lat and Long are straight o Distortion greatest at poles o The closer the paper to the globe the better the distortion Away is worse distortion 10 GY 101 82010 Tiffany Frazier Mercator projection Plane High atsl 0 Against surface of globe 0 Long straight radiate o Lat are circular 0 Shows half earth 0 Distorted adges 0 Cone over pole o Lat curve 0 Long straight converge o Distortion at higher ats Pseudocyndrical O 0 Central lat and long meet at right angle 0 Distortion away from center 0 Interrupted Portrays land areas accurately Properties of groiections o Conformalshape correct but not size 0 Equivalentsize correct but not shape Scale goes from small scale to large scale broad scale to finer micro scale Isolines 0 Connect points of equal value Rainfall sohyets 0 Temp Isotherm 0 Pressure Isobar 0 Elevation Contour Isoline rules 0 Never cross 0 Are never suspended never stop 0 Same vertical interval units 0 High density steep grade and vice versa 0 Circles indicate through and hill 11 GY 101 82010 Tiffany Frazier 0 Comp and structure of the atmosphere Troposphere stratosphere mesosphere thermosphere exosphere Chemical Homosphere heterosphere not dominate gas Unigue layers Ozone layer 03 onosphere Anthropogenic cha nge 0 Introduction of impurities into the atmosphere 0 nt l planel on climate change 0 Over whelming majority of scientists believe 0 Frequency and magnitude 0 Composition changes Ozone basics 0 UV radiation occurs in 3 bands 0 UVA B and C longest to shortest o In stratosphere under influence of UVC 02 slits some combine to form 03 0 O3 breaks down most all UVB and C o This breaks down most all UVD and C o UVA is thought to be harmless o 90of O3 is found in stratosphere 0 UV radiation can be fatal for organisms o Melanoma cataracts immune deficiency plant death microorganisms death 0 Ozone layer fluctuates o Thinning noticed in the 1970 s 0 CFC s halons and methyl bromide Chlorofluorocarbons 0 Stable in lower atmosphere 0 Odorless nonflammable non corrosive 0 Under UV radiation a chlorine atom is freed 0 CI breaks O3 apart to form a chlorine monoxide C10 and a 02 Status 0 Ozone monitored since 1979 0 quotHolesquot over Antarctic and Arctic 0 Arctic isn t as severe 0 Increased UV radiation in many regions 12 GY 101 82010 Tiffany Frazier UV index CFC s banned in 1996 Reservoir of CFC s in atmosphere that may last 100 years Air pollution Changes to atmosphere composition 91510 Weather and climate Weather happens everyday 0 Climate is longterm average of weather I Meteorology study of weather I Climatology study of climate 0 Climate influences soils flora fauna topography hydrology etc Goal Understanding global climate patterns Element 1 Temp 2 Moisture 3 Pressure 4 Wind Basic ingredients How they very through spance and time Controls Latitude control of temp Distribution of land and water influences moisture and temp Wind pattern etc General atmosphere circulation way wind moves General ocean circulation altitude Topography Storms Much overlap in these controls Latitude Earth sun relationships Influences the amount of insulation Distribution of heat is primarily a function of lat Control lat strongly influences the element temp 13 GY 101 82010 Tiffany Frazier Land and water 0 Oceans heat and cool slowly 0 Land heats and cools relatively rapidly o Continentalityheatingcooling o Oceans are also a source of moisture o Maritime v continental climates o Maritime less seasonality more moisture 0 Continental more seasonality less moisture Atmos Circulation 0 At the global scale general wind patterns in the troposphere 0 Local wind constantly changes 0 Most wind comes in Alabama from the WEST Ocean circulation 0 General pattern of currents 0 Heat transfer by moving warm water pole ward and vice versa 0 Important for costal climates 0 Cold currents and warm currents along coasts 0 Link between ocean and atmosphere Attitude 0 Temp pressure and moisture decrease with elevation in troposphere o Esp important in mountain regions 0 Increase elevation is analogous to increase in lat Trogosghere Barriers o Divert wind flow 0 Influence temp and moisture o Windward v leeward Storms 0 Some widespread some localized o Create specialized weather thus a control 0 Some areas storms are not just weather but a part of climate Cyclone lstorml cycle of low pressure Inward and counter clockwise 14 GY 101 82010 Tiffany Frazier Coriolis effect 0 Horizontal influence of earth motion on freely moving objects 0 Actually is a force 0 Most noticed with longranded movements 0 Caused by eath rotation Coriolis basics o Deflects to the right in Northern hemisphere o Deflects to the left in Southern hemisphere o Strongest at poles o Proportional to speedfast is stronger influence 0 But doesn t influence speed Temperature 0 Air temp results from complex interactions 0 Energetic of the atmosphere insulation in and thru the atmosphere 0 Extent of heating and cooling 0 Heat transfer 0 Goal understand distribution of temp over earth Signi cance o All organisms have temp tolerance 0 Most can t handle wide fluctuations 0 Temp and biodiversity patterns 0 Temp and evolution 0 Factor in soil development 0 Human life ways architecture clothing Laws of Thermodynamics o Thermodynamics study of energy 0 Energy exist in many forms 0 Heat motion chemical electrical 0 Energy is the ability to do work 1 Energy cannot be created or destroyed 2 Energy is converted it loses its ability to do useful work 0 Kinetic to thermal by rubbing hands GY 101 82010 Tiffany Frazier 16 Molecular level 0 Substances are made of moving atoms bound as molecules 0 Because of constant movement the molecules in a substance have energy 0 This is called internal energy form of kinetic 0 Apply more energymore movement of atoms 0 Warmer 0 Average Kinetic energy of particles in a sample of matter 0 More vigorous atoms move at higher temp 0 Energy that transfers from one object to another because of a temp difference 0 Substances do not contain heat 0 Attempt to balance temp feedback Thermometers 0 Instruments measure temp
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'