Note for GY 101 with Professor Hart at UA-Notes 2
Note for GY 101 with Professor Hart at UA-Notes 2
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 54 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
September 24 2010 Variations by Lat 1 Angle of incidence Angle at which rays hit earth surface 2 Atmos Obstruction Insulation blocked by atmos Particles 3 Day length longer days more insulation La ndwater contrasts 0 Earth heats primarily because air above it 0 Land v water is great contrast Land heats and cools more readily Land temps have a large range Transmission Land is opaque water is not Speci c heatWater has higher Mobiliy water is mobile Evaporation cooling Moisture availability 00000 Dallas average annual temp 65 deg F San Diego 63 deg F Heat transfer 0 ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION 0 Ocean circulation 0 Without poles would get colder and tropics more warmer 0 CA 7580 of heat transfers from air circulation 0 Ocean currents transfer could water to low lats and warm water to higher lats Vertical temp patterns 0 Temp change in troposphere is predictable o Decrease with increased altitude 0 Average change is 36 deg F1000 ft 65 deg C1000m Inversions o exceptions to the rule 0 radiation inversion 0 clear winter night ground cools by loss of longwave rad Cools air by conduction o Advection inversion 0 Cold air brought in by wind horizontal o Coldairdrainage 0 Cold air moves down slopes at night 0 Air quality implications Maior controls oftemg o Latitude 0 Land water contrasts o Atmospheric circulation 0 Ocean currents o Altitude Sept 27 2010 Globalwarming 0 Natural greenhouse effect 0 Data indicate earth climate is getting warmer o What is that cause 0 C02 and others 0 Increase gt 40 since 1750 0 Highest in 650000 years 0 ndustria Revolution cause the biggest increase Pressure and wind Pressure 0 The unrecognized element 0 Tied to other weather element 0 Pressure and wind are closely connected Impact 0 Pressure has a significant but indirect impact on earth 0 Influence manifested by wind and temp 0 Wind is more easily recognized visual Nature of pressure 0 Gas particles are loosely bound 0 Unlike solids or liquids o Continues motion of particles Pressure 0 Force exerted on specific area 0 Gases are easily compressed 0 Gas molecules in motion collide with the walls and with one another Collisions cause the pressure exerted by the gas Atmospheric pressure 0 Force exerted by gas molecules on some area of earth or another object At MSL 147 Ib59 inch or 101325 mb Value drops with increased altitude o Farther from earth fewer gas molecules because gravity 0 Pressure is NOT a weight Balance between outward and inward pressure Factors Pressure of gas is proportional to Density Temp Changes in any of these 3 will influence the other 2 Ideal gas law Densiy and pressure 0 is mass of matter in a unit volume 0 Density of o Solids doesn t vary by space 0 Liquid varies little by space 0 Gas varies greatly by space I Gas expands as far as pressure will allow 0 Density of gas is proportional to pressure 0 Denser the gas greater the pressure it exerts o Atmos Held to earth by gravity 0 At low altitude gases are packed tightly 0 Density of molecules is higher so more collisions 0 Higher pressure at low altitudes 0 As air is heated molecules move more vigorously at greater speeds 0 Causes more force collisions 0 Results in higher pressure 0 Increased in temp causes increase in pressure ifall else stays the same 0 but warm air is assoc with low pressure and cold air with high pressure 0 Warm low coldhigh o If all else stays the same 0 As air is heated it 1 Expands and decreased density 2 Decreases pressure Dynamic influences 0 Air pressure influenced by air movement 0 Esp vertical movement 0 Generally o Descending air high pressure 0 Ascending air low pressure Pressure gt density gt temp gt movement Dynamic w thermal Either movement or temp Dynamic high descending air with high pressure at earth surface Thermal high cold surface conditions and high pressure Dynamic low ascending air with low pressure Thermal low warm surface conditions and low pressure measurement 0 Measured with barometers 0 Measured in millibarsmb1013mb 0 Force per surface area 0 Highlow is realitive o Isobars connected points of pressure 0 Pressure gradients Isobars high and low are relative m 0 Horizontal movement of air The event 0 Unequal heating of earth gt temp gradients gt generate pressure gradients gt air moves from high to low pressure from high to low Air moves from LEFT to RIGHT on gradient With rotation o The coriolis effect force 0 Bent right in North Hemisphere o Bent left in South Hemisphere Friction force The drag of air moving across earth s surface Reduces wind speed 0 Weakens coriolis Greatest at earth surface and diminishes with altitude Friction layer extends ca 3500 ft above earth 3 forces 1 Pressure gradient 2 Coriolis 3 Friction 4 Relationship between these influences air movement Movement upper atmos 0 Pressure coriolis 0 Movement parallel to isobars geostrophic wind 0 Circulates clockwise around HI and counter clockwise around LO H hemi Low atmo 0 Friction slows wind so less coriolis 0 Pressure gt coriolis 0 Movement is from HI to L0 but bent with coriolis Circulation patterns 0 Predictable patterns of air movement around HI or L0 pressure centers 0 8 possible movements 0 4 in each hemi I Hi and low at upper lower atmos 0 Low pressure cyclone 0 High pressure anticyclone In our hemi o Anticyclone HI clockwise o Cyclone LO counterclockwise Opposite in southern hemi Movement 0 High pressure descending air 0 Low pressure ascending air 0 High pressure clockwise 0 Low pressure counter clockwise 0 Air moves from high to low pressure October 1 2010 Wind Speed 0 Primarily a function of pressure gradient 0 Steep gradient fast moving air 0 Gentle gradient slow moving air 0 Based on closeness of isobars Wind energy 0 Wind farms 0 Steady wind of 1520 knots o Converts 13 of available energy to electricity o No pollution does not alter land use day and night energy 0 Birds died because of the windmills o TVA Global atmospheric circulation Broadscale atmospheric motion 0 Major semipermanent conditions of pressure and wind Principal mechanisms for latitudinal and longitudinal heat transfer 13 comes from atmospheric circulation Low pressure at the equator amp High pressure at the poles Descends at the poles Basic pattern Know the order 0 Polar high 0 Polar easterlies 0 Polar front subpolar low 0 Westerlies o Subtropical high 0 Trade winds 0 Intertropical convergence zone ITCZ Global circulation 0 Closed system 0 No beginning or end 0 Driven by process we have discussed Hadley cells 0 Prominent tropical circulations 0 Hot tropical air 0 Low pressure 0 Air rises by convection 0 As it rises it cools and then sinks warm air will rise then causes temp to drop Subtropical high 0 Semipermanent high pressure 0 30 degrees N and S 0 Giant anticyclones 0 Development from descending air 0 High pressure dry and sunny deserts 0 Little win horse latitudes Trade winds 0 Major wind system converging at 0 degrees 0 Spain the tropics 0 Generally from the east NE or SE 0 Most dominant wind system 0 Warm moist unstable air 0 Wet locations ITCZ Intertropical convergence zone 0 Where the trades come together 0 Shifts seasonally with the sun 0 Weak airflow doldrums 0 High rainfall and instability Weste rlies 0 Wind system of the midlats 0 Not as constant or strong as trades 0 Many interruptions near the surface 0 Landwater topography seasonality Jet streams o Geostrophic winds aloft 0 Polar and subtropical jet stream o Westerlies lie btwn these two 0 Not always a tin ribbon 0 Driven by temp gradients Rosby waves 0 Jet streams shifts during the year 0 Polar front migrates during the year 0 Creates a meandering jet stream 0 Separate cold polar and warm tropical air 0 nterferes with westerlies o Zonal flow v meridional flow A Polar highs easterlies and fronts Polar high 0 High pressure cells located over the poles o Anticyclonic air flow 0 Air sinks and diverges Polar easterlies 0 East to west cold and dry F ro nts 0 Interface between polar and warmer air October 4 2010 Variations o Patter shifts with seasons 0 ITCZ o Follows the declination of the sun Monsoons 0 Seasonal precipitation regime 0 Heavy summer rains from moist air Land and sea breeze 0 Common along coastlines 0 Sea breeze day 0 Land breeze night 0 Diurnal pattern of heating pressure wind Valley and mountain breeze o Slopes heat during day 0 Valley flow stays cool 0 Slopes loose heat at night Kata batic winds 0 Originate in cold upland areas 0 Move to lower elevations under gravity 0 Sometimes channeled in valleys 0 Can be destructive Chinook winds 0 Common in high relief areas 0 Steep pressure gradient on opposite sides of topographic barrier 0 Rapid descent down leeward slope Santa Ana Winds 0 High pressure over the interior of the US 0 Wind diverges clockwise o Brings hot dry air to coastal California 0 Should be moist warm air from Pacific 0 Ideal conditions for wildfires 10 October 8 Moisture gt Temp pressure wind moisture Atmospheric moisture Conservation 3 phases Closed system no imputsoutputs same amount of water as years ago Most water occurs as vapor Life is not possible without water Nature of water Most widespread substance on earth surface 70 of earth No measurable characteristics Pure water is odorless tasteless and colorless Good solvent Higest density at 4 deg C ice floats Water molecule Atoms are building blocks of matter 2 or more atoms together is a molecule 2 H amp 0 H20 gt covalent bonds hold H amp O H are on same side Separated by 105 degrees 0 Electricity polarity o H side is positive 0 side is negative Allows from Hydrogen bonding water molecule to water molecule HZOOHZO hydrogen bond Properties Densiy Most substances contract as temp drops Water only goes this to 4 deg C then it expands Expands until it reaches freezing Solid water is less dense then liquid ice floats 11 Surface tension Strong hydrogen s o Cohesion water sticks to water 0 Adhesion Water sticks to objects Universal solvent 0 Most substances dissolve in water polarity o Attracted to over chemical compounds 0 Water in nature is always impure 0 Also carries solid particles Speci c heat Increased temp of 1 gram by 1 deg C High specific heat landwater contrasts Phase change 0 Evaporation liquid gas energy is stored think of sweat o Condensation gas to liquid 0 Sublimation solid to gas or gas to solid 0 Freezing liquid to solid 0 Melting solid to liquid Each change stores or releases energy Latent heat 0 Energy is stored or released 0 Released temp increases 0 Absorbed temp decreases o Evaporation absorbed cooling Absorbed cooling Ice in tray for wks gas comes out when you open freezer Importance of latent heat Atmospheric science is largely o Condensation o Evaporation 12 These are common processes in atmosphere October 11 Importance of latent heat Hydrologic cycle 0 Continuous interchange or water between atmosphere and earth 0 Closed system 0 System driven by solar energy Evaporation o More abundant at higher temps o More agitation of molecules 0 Higher vapor pressure 0 Pressure exerted by water vapor 0 Max vapor pressure by temp 0 Warm air is higher 0 Warm air has a higher capacity 0 Vapor pressure max saturation Evagotransgiration o Evaporation from water bodies 0 Transpiration from plants 0 Combined is evapotranspiration 0 There is a relationship 0 Humid v arid o Evapotrans And rainfall Humidiy o Atmospheric moisture 0 Capacity CAP 0 Amount of water vapor air can hold by temp 0 Speci c humidity SH 0 How much water vapor is in the air 0 Relative humidity RH 0 Ratio of specific humidity to capacity 13 Relationship 0 If SH stays the same Temp l CAP l RHJ TempxlCAPRH l RH SHCAP 100 Measurement 0 Using a sling psychrometer 0 Wet bulb dry bulb 0 Dry bulb temp and difference 0 Use a table lab manual Dew point o Is a temperature 0 When SHCAP 0 Air saturated 0 Can hold no more water vapor o Clouds form 0 Additional water vapor or cooling rain Sensible heat 0 Temp pressure and humidity 0 Warm humid days feel hotter I Sweat doesn t evaporate readily 0 Cold humid days feel colder 0 Body heat is not conducted away 0 Heat index and wind chill Condensation 0 Gas to liquid 0 Air must be saturated for this change 0 In nature usually from air being cooled o Decreased CAP o Condensation must take place on surface dust pollen etc o Condensation nuclei 0 Centered over sources cities SH specific humidity CAP capacity 14 RHSHCAP RH100 SHCAP From large to small figure WPF N Typical raindrop biggest Large cloud Large droplet Typical cloud droplet Typical condensations nucleus smallest Water is sticky cohesive Adiabatic processes Rates Heating by compression Cooling by expansion Important in physical geography Risingfalling air coolswarms at predictable rates 0 Dry adiabatic rat 0 Saturated adiabatic rate Dry adiabatic rate DAR 0 Air not saturated SHltCAP o 10 deg C1000m or 55 deg F1000 ft Saturated adiabatic rate SAR 0 Air is saturated SHCAP o 6 deg C1000 m or 33 deg F1000 it I Still cools but to a lesser degree because latent heat rel Air warms at the dry adiabatic rate Figure X axis is Temp Y axis is altitude at dashed line DP temp is met SHCAP Adiabatic verses Lapse Rates Adiabatic is dynamic air moving Lapse rate is static nonmoving DAR 10 deg C1000 m or 55 deg F1000 ft SAR 6 deg C1000 m or 33 deg F1000 ft ELR 65 deg C1000 m or 36 deg F1000 ft 15 Clouds 0 Concentrations of water droplets andor ice crystals October 25 2010 EXAM 2 gt Information since exam 1 gt Chapter 3 gt Chapter 4 first half to ocean currents gt Chapter 4 first half thru air masses Global temperature 0 Global patterns and processes 0 Latitude o Landwater contrasts o Atmospheric circulation 0 Ocean circulation o Altitude 0 Global warming Pressure 0 Density temp and pressure 0 High v low how its measured 0 Thermal temp driven v dynamic movement driven 0 Measurement 0 Pressure gradient Coriolis and friction 0 Movement 0 High and low pressure 0 Upper and lower atmosphere 0 North and south hemi 0 Vertical component 0 Global pressure and wind patterns 0 Variations eg landsea breezes 17 Moisture 0 Properties of water 0 Phase change 0 Hydrologic cycle ie processes 0 Adiabatic processes 0 Adiabatic and lapse rates Moisture o Clouds o Fog know the 4 types of fog o Dew know lifting condensation o Precipitation 0 Spatial and temporal patterns know places on earth why it s wet or dry and why and why they will change 0 Variability know why it changes from one place to another 0 Acid rain understand what acid precept is and why we have an impact on it Know the total 10 cloud types and which produce rain Air masses 0 Definitions 3 0 Know the codes 0 mT cP A 0 Know the frontal symbols 0 Understand weather maps n book see all codes and what they mean
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