Class Note for HD 101 with Professor Scofield at UA-Life Span Humn Develpmnt
Class Note for HD 101 with Professor Scofield at UA-Life Span Humn Develpmnt
Popular in Course
Popular in Department
This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.
Reviews for Class Note for HD 101 with Professor Scofield at UA-Life Span Humn Develpmnt
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/15
HD 101 LECTURE OUTLINES HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 101 SPRING 2009 DR JASON SCOFIELD Required Text Human Development 4th edition by Kail amp Cavanaugh Phone 348 4057 or 348 6158 HDFS Main Of ce Email sco eldchesuaedu Of ce 222 Child Development Research Center course website url httpwwwchesuaedudepartmentshdfacultvsco eldhdlOl Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION THEORY AND RESEARCH INTRODUCTION multidisciplinary study developmental psychology psychology the scienti c study of the mind and behavior development growth and change across the lifespan general principles universal changes that occur during development individual differences differences in the timeline of children biological changes in physical characteristics cognitive changes in thoughts intelligence socioemotional changes in relationships with others environmental changes in the external world THEORY theory set of propositions or statements that describe explain and predict a phenomena behavior 1 framework for organizing explanation for things we observe 2 make predictions for future behaviors 3 allow for application of concepts to real situations primary orientations of theories 3 basic issues 1 course of development single course all children follow a universal course through development multiple courses children vary in their course of development based on genetic and environmental in uences 2 course of development continuity vs discontinuity continuous same behavior or ability gradually improves with time and experience discontinuous new abilities develop allowing new behavior to emerge 3 propels development nature vs nurture nature development change is driven by inborn biological mechanisms nurture development is driven by environmental in uences evaluating theories R Thomas Murray RESEARCH research methods speci c actions taken to directly investigate research hypotheses hypothesis speci c testable proposition observation observing the natural occurrence of behavior of a population and drawing conclusions case studies examining a speci c individual or group surveys a set of questions or statements addressing a particular attitude experiments establishing a causal relationship cause and effect between variables variables things manipulated or measured in an experiment independent variable manipulated by the experimenter dependent variable observed or measured behavior person variables variables that cannot be assigned randomly Variable Relationships correlational and experimental correlational shows noncausal relationships between variables both positive and negative experimental causal relationships between variables troubles ecological validity operationalization control group random sample confound Research Designs crosssectional children of different ages studied at the same time longitudinal same children studied across time cohort effect effects of time of birth and life experience crosssequential longitudinal series of crosssections vertical columns crosssectional design horizontal rows longitudinal design diagonals view cohort differences Analysis data information about individuals people or things statistics math formulas that help describe and interpret data central tendency mean average 0f scores median middle score mode most frequent score variability how scores differ from the mean standard deviation Ethical Concerns informed consent subject must be given full information and must consent to participate assent verbal agreement Chapter 1 HISTORICAL THEORIES AND DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES HISTORICAL THEORIES medieval times preformationism protestant reformation John Locke british philosopher 1632 1704 tabula rasa blank slate J Rousseau french philosopher 1712 1778 noble savages innate sense of right and wrong C Darwin evolutionary theorist 1809 1832 natural selection certain traits or genes are selected because they promote survival of the organism survival of the fittest those organisms best equipped to survive are more likely to reproduce and thus more likely to pass 39survival gene39 to their young importance of adaptive qualities H aeckl though credited to Darwin quotontogeny recapitulates phylogenyquot quotdevelopment repeats evolutionquot G Stanley Hall 1846 1924 father of developmental psychology A Binet 1857 1911 created measures to identify normal and abnormal performance in children DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES Psychoanalytic Theories Freud and Erikson S Freud 1856 1939 psychosexual theory create sex eros destroy aggression thanatos id demanding wants immediate satisfaction pleasure principle ego balances demands of id with common sense reality principle superego internalizing parental and societal values and rules psychosexual stages oral stage 0 1 yrs anal stage 1 3 yrs phallic stage 3 6 yrs oedipal complex boy desires to eliminate father and win mother s love electra complex girl desires to eliminate mother and win father s love latency 6 puberty genital stage adolescence xation failure to complete stage normally E Erikson 1902 1994 Psychosocial Theory lifespan theory 8 stages trust vs mistrust 0 l autonomy vs shame and doubt I 3 initiative vs guilt 3 6 industry vs inferiority 6 11 identity vs identity confusion adolescence intimacy vs isolation young adulthood generativity vs stagnation middle adulthood integrity vs depair old age Learning Theories Pavlov Skinner Bandura J Watson 1878 1958 behaviorism stimulus response psychology 1 Pavlov demonstrated conditioning classical conditioning forming association between a stimulus and response unconditioned stimulus stimulus which causes a natural response unconditioned response response caused by natural stimulus conditioned stimulus stimulus which causes an unnatural response conditioned response response caused by an unnatural stimulus 10 B F Skinner operant conditioning operant conditioning used schedules of punishment and reinforcement to form speci c behaviors law of effect any behavior followed by a positive event will be more likely to occur again reinforcement increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur positive reinforcement response is strengthened if it is presented negative reinforcement response is strengthened if it is removed punishment decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur positive punishment response is weakened if it is presented negative punishment response is weakened if it is removed A Bandura social learning theory modeling imitation or observational learning vicarious conditioning ll Chapter 2 BIOLOGY AND HEREDITY BIOLOGY cells basic unit of any living organism nucleus center of cell that contains our chromosomes and dna chromosomes collection of genes located in the nucleus of a cell sex chromosome pair of chromosomes that determines organisms genetic sex gene region or segment of dna along the chromosome dna the chemical inside the chromosome that carries the genetic instructions cell diVision process of cells diViding mitosis cell diVision that results in two daughter cells meiosis cell diVision that results in four daughter cells crossing over process of exchanging genetic material in order to ensure unique genetic makeup of infant monozygotic twins identical fertilized egg zygote separates into two groups of cells dizygotic twins fraternal two ovum are released and both are fertilized 12 HEREDITY gene composed of two alleles matched pair homozygous two alike alleles two dominant or two recessive heterozygous two different alleles one dominant and one recessive dominantrecessive traits genotype genetic blueprint containing parents genetic material phenotype expressed trait resulting from the genotype Xlinked sexlinked traits traits passed to offspring from mother polygenic contribution multiple genes can code for compleX traits and behaviors chromosomal abnormalities environment physical basic physical conditions prenatal hormone release chemicals social surroundings many levels family structure and makeup of family peers agemates friends community quality size location society amp culture norms values beliefs principles child care welfare l3 reaction range Scarr and McCartney behavior genetics genetic contributions to behavior development passive effects from child s point parents pass genes environment provided by parents evocative effects child39s genotype elicits certain responses from the environment active effects child seeks out environments that match their phenotype or genetic makeup nichepicking genetics and environments comparing identical twins and fraternal twins identical fraternal concordance rate percent of times both twins show a trait present in one member nonshared environmental in uences environmental differences that lead to unique personal differences 14 Chapter 2 3 PRENATAL BIRTHING PHYSICAL PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT development begins at conception an ovum is released from a woman s ovaries every 28 days standard menstrual cycle egg travels along fallopian tubes toward uterus during intercourse the male releases 350 million sperm produce in the testes once a sperm penetrates the ovum the newly formed zygote closes its membrane to any remaining sperm zygote begins migration to uterus teratogens environmental toxins that harm the organism during prenatal development drugs prescription nonprescription and illegal any molecule that can penetrate the placental lining can enter the blood stream nonprescription prescription illegal alcohol fetal alcohol syndrome environmental pollutants disease viruses 15 PREGNANCY divided into periods zygotic embryonic fetal trimesters 3 months blasocyst 4 days into life the zygote consists of 50 100 cells that cluster to form a uid lled ball umbilical cord source of nourishment from mother to child embryo refers to developing organism from 3 8 weeks of life week 3 4 internal structures have begun to develop first missed cycle week 5 8 internal structures are functioning some external structures begin to form fetus refers to developing organism from 12 weeks until birth week 9 12 internal systems become organized and functional external structures function week 13 16 organism continues to grow and strengthen and become more self sufficient lanugo thick hairlike covering that keeps organisms skin from chapping week 17 20 growth and increased definition week 21 24 continued growth week 25 28 continued growth nearly selfsufficient age of viability week 29 32 continued growth preparation for birth week 33 36 continued growth preparation for birth 16 BIRTHING initiated by a series of hormone changes progesterone hormone regulated during pregnancy to keep the cervix rm estrogen released in increasing amounts during pregnancy counters progesterone connexin protein that coordinates uterine muscles oxytocin hormone released to initiate contractions prostagladins hormone released from the placenta that softens the cervix for dilation lightening or engagement a few weeks lt 4 prior to birth the cervix softens bloody show sign that labor is very near water breaks amniotic membrane breaks water is amniotic uid inducing labor drugs potocin and oxytocin l7 3 stages of child birth often referred to as labor stage 1 dilation and effacement of cervix transition transition climax of rst stage most pain ll stage stage 2 birth of baby begins when heads moves into birth canal episiotomy small incision increases size of vaginal opening stage 3 afterbirth preterm premature born prior to 38 weeks low birth weight born after gestation 38 40 weeks and weighs under 512 lbs 18 delivery complications transverse born faceup precipitate delivery birth is too rapid lt 10 minutes anoxia birth takes too long insufficient oxygen breech position head in uterus when lower body emerges cesarean section surgical removal of infant from uterus nonvaginal birth Apgar scale first assessing newbom s physical condition appearance color pulse heart grimace re ex activity muscle tone respiratory breathing heart rate none 100 beatsminute 100 l40 respiratory effort none irregular strong re exes none weak strong muscle tone limp weak movement strong color blue blue and pink pink nonstandard birthing methods Leboyer method Lamaze method Waterbirth birth occurs in 19 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT senses newborn capacity to perceive touch Vision hearing smell taste re exes innate motor behaviors eye blink sucking re ex rooting moro s palmar grasping swimming stepping babinski plantar tonic neck crying withdrawl motor development gross motor skill walking rolling over ne motor skill grabbing move mouth neural development synaptic pruning neural connections are eliminated lateralization specialization of functions in two hemispheres plasticity undamaged brain areas assume role of damaged brain areas myelinization neural bers are insulated to improve ef ciency of message transfer 21 Chapter 4 amp 6 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT cognitive development changes in children s knowledge and knowledge structures PIAGET theory of cognitive development genetic epistemology schemes organized knowledge structures that begin as motor action patterns and move to more deliberate series of behaviors adaptation assimilation using existing scheme to understand new information accommodation developing new scheme to understand new information organization equilibration incorporating new information into existing knowledge structure Piagetian Stages of Cognitive Development 1 sensorimotor 0 2 children gain knowledge through senses and motor skills object permanence 22 2 preoperational 2 6 child uses mental representation but cannot operate on environment egocentrism 3 concrete operations 6 12 can use logical thought but only on physical problems no abstract thought conservation seriation transitivity classificati on multiple perspectives 4 formal operations 12 adulthood full access to logic and abstract thought in problem solVing pendulum problem combinations problem balance scale 23 VYGOTS KY social cognition zone of proximal development sca olding private speech INFORMATION PROCESSING cognitive development occurs as an increase in information processing capacity modal model of memory Atkinson and Schiffrin 1968 sensory register short term memory long term memory 24 3 main processes for memory 1 encoding translating information from the world into mental language 2 storage maintaining information until access needed scripts schemas 3 retrieval capacity to recover information from storage system recognition recall two types of memories implicit and explicit implicit memories of which you are not consciously aware explicit normal conscious memories semantic memories episodic procedural autobiographical infantile amnesia difficulty forming and maintaining long term memories intelligence source monitoring 25 INTELLIGENCE IQ intelligence quotient standardization process of determining test norms Gardner LANGUAGE 2 4 months cooing babbling 8 12 months communicative gestures 10 15 months rst word 18 22 months vocabulary spurt naming insight understand principle 39words label things39 overeXtension extend word too broadly undereXtension extend word too narrowly phoneme morpheme mean length utterance mlu semantics grammar syntax broca39s area wernicke39s area motherese joint attention 26 OTHER CONCEPTS imitation ability to reproduce an observed behavior theory of mind understanding how the mind works false beliefs intentionality nonreality states wishing dreaming fantasyimagination makebelieve play mental creation of unreal event imagination pretend pretend dual representation symbolic object is both an object and a symbol animism what makes something alive number countable quantities 27 oralinality numbers differ in magnitude with some values greater than others one to one principle one number name for each object counted stable order principle number names must be counted in the same order cardinality last number counted corresponds to the number of objects counted categorical knowledge horizontal properties vertical properties artifacts natural kinals nominal kinals emergent literacy reading and writing writing reading 28 Chapter 5 amp 7 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT EMOTION internal state valence transitory behaviors interpretable social surroundings basic emotions emotion directly inferred from facial expression separation anxiety fear of unfamiliar adults social referencing trusting another s emotional reaction emotion regulation adjusting emotional reactivity to accomplish goals TEMPERAMENT stable individual differences in quality and intensity of emotions structure of temperament 3 prototypes easy child 40 cheerful regular adaptive di icult child 10 irregular reactive no adjusting slow to warm up child 15 inactive unreactive adjusts slowly 29 Thomas and Chess 9 dimensions 3 types activity level rhythmicity distractibility approachwithdrawl adaptability attention intensity responsiveness quality of mood Rothbart three temperament components emotion attention action goodness of t childrenparents most content when temperament and environment match ATTACHMENT bonding initial physical connection between infant and caretaker attachment a deep close and enduring relationship Bowlby39s developmental course for attachment 1 preattachment phase birth 12 weeks 30 2 attachmentinthemaking phase 6 weeks 68 months 3 phase of clearcut attachment 6 8 months 2 years 4 formation of reciprocal relationship 18 months 2 years Ainsworth strange situation test 0 experimenter mom child 1 mom and child secure base 2 stranger enters unfamiliar adult 3 mom leaves separation anxiety stranger responds 4 mom returns stranger leaves reaction to reunion 5 mom leaves separation anxiety 6 stranger enters stranger soothing 7 mom returns reaction to reunion secure insecure avoidant resistant disorganizeddisoriented Harlow s monkeys 31 SELF self recogniti on self concept self esteem PLAY riorisocial activity solitary onlooker play observes watches others play parallel play no interaction associative play children interact cooperative play play together FRIENDSHIPS dominance hierarchy popular average controversial neglected rejected 32 MORAL DEVELOPMENT Kohlberg preconventional conventional postconventional distributive justice fairness GENDER ROLES process of sextyping gender identity gender stability gender constancy Bern biological gender gender differences F risch parents sextyping Crick verbalrelational aggression 33 locus of control what controls behavior internal explain behavior in terms of self external explain behavior in terms of others learned helplessness usually external locus of control no control over events or outcomes Dweck 6th graders solve anagrams ihts this sex role stereotyping selfful lling prophecy peer pressure real or imagined pressure to conform to group standards conformity change in behavior or attitude to fit with group standards 3 levels compliance conforming for the sake of conforming identification conform to be like and to be liked by group internalization change attitude and behavior to align with group s 34 PARENTING STYLES 2 dimensions control amount of control exerted on child responsiveness how reactive parent is to child four parenting styles Baumrind 1967 authoritative discipline authoritarian discipline permissive discipline uninvolved discipline child abusemaltreatment act or failure to act that presents harm or threat of harm physical abuse assault on child sexual abuse sexual exploitation physical neglect physical disregard emotional neglect emotional disregard psychologicalemotional abuse damage socialemotional functioning 35 Chapter 8 amp 9 7 ADOLESCENCE IDENTITY RELATIONSHIPS PROBLEMS ADOLESCENCE period of time between childhood and adulthood chronological variable biological or physiological measures rite ofpassage puberty set of physical changes that make a human capable of reproduction primary sex characteristics gonads responsible for reproduction secondary sex characteristics outward changes in physical appearance menarche rst menstrual cycle critical weight hypothesis menarche determined by weightfat ratio spermarche 14 yrs research documented as early as 1970 adolescent sexuality attitudes toward sex both society s and adolescence can be restrictive semirestrictive permissive 36 intimacy acquaintance rape masturbation homosexual activity pregnancy methods of contraception sexually transmitted diseases IDENTITY identity development Erikson identity vs identity confusion identity crisis Erikson believed by nature this was a dif cult turbulent time all adolescence experienced crisis Marcia identity status exploration and commitment 1 identity dif ision no commitment no exploration 37 2 identity foreclosure committment no exploration 3 psychosocial moratorium exploration without commitment 4 identity achievement commitment and exploration Adams foreclosure achievement diffusion moratorium Marcia occupation religion beliefs political views relationships Steinberg myth of storm and stress Elkind adolescent egocentrism cognitive distortion personal fable believe they are unique individual so unique that no one else could possibly understand how they feel imaginary audience believes everyone or at least someone is as concerned about their appearance and behavior as them 38 identity into early adulthood lifespan construct continuous uni ed sense events including past present and future events scenario expectation about the future social clock timeline assigned to aspects of scenario life story narrative that organizes lifespan construct possible selves projections of the self into the future actual self ought self ideal self counterfactual thinking whatifs other possible pasts vocational occupational development Super vocational development sequence childhood crystallization specification 39 adulthood implementation establishment maintenance deceleration vocational inventories RELATIONSHIPS nature of friendships change intimacy loyalty peer relationships in adolescence clique small group of 5 7 who are good friends crowd more loosely organized group family system complex interrelated set of relationships attachment autonomy achievement identity sexuality Hetherington effects of early divorce 40 PROBLEMS IN ADOLESCENCE ADHD attentionde cit hyperactivity disorder attention de cit ADD substance use and abuse prevention and intervention agent intervention programs that target substance make drugs unavailable host interventions target users education awareness environment interventions target context in which drug use occurs eating disorders primarily seen in adolescence and young adulthood anorexia nervosa bulimia binge purge obesity 41 Chapter 11 RELATIONSHIPS friendship close relationships nonfamily nonromantic ABCDE adult model of friendship stages A acquaintanceshi p B build up C continuation D deterioration E end major themes of adult friendships emotional connection mutual sharing compatibility assortative mating partners found based on similarity interpersonal attraction proximity 42 similarity physical attractiveness matching hypothesis triangular theory of love passion commitment and intimacy passion alone infatuation intimacy alone liking commitment alone dedication loyalty passion and commitment fatuous love passion and intimacy romantic love commitment and intimacy companionate love passion intimacy and commitment consumate love Marriage cohabitation committed intimate sexual relationship in which two unmarried people live together limiteal cohabitation 43 premarital cohabitation substitute marriage successful marriage strong sense of identity homogamy similarity exchange theory equity and unique contributions Gottman resolving con ict validating couples volatile couples avoialant couples warning signs of deteriorating relationship criticism contempt defensiveness stonewalling 44 relationship abuse emotionansychological abuse sexual abuse physical abuse battered woman syndrome tension building phase explosion or acute battering incident calm loving period honeymoon phase pattern of symptoms 45
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'