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Date Created: 12/21/15
Theoretical aspects of employee assessment and guidelines of employee evaluation system construction Introduction 3 employee evaluation system - a theoretical 3 essence of the system of employee evaluation3 systemObjectives 4 employee evaluation criteria for assessing4 personality Criteria4 4 Eligibility Criteria 5efektywnościowe Criteria5behavioral Overview ofassessment methods Method 5180 and 360 7 The advantages of implementing a system of employee evaluation 8 Risks and mistakes 9 11 List of Figures Bibliography12 Introduction One of the major issues affecting small business sector in Poland is the inefficient management of human resources, or even the lack of such management. In a small Polish companies too little attention is paid to professional recruiting, motivating competent staff and their development and improvement. Reluctantly and rarely reaches even after such a tool of human resource management, which is a system of employee evaluations. This is a problem that small firms, operating in an increasingly competitive and globalized market, will need to be resolved quickly. The aim of this paper is a synthesis of theoretical aspects of the evaluation of employees. Employee evaluation system - a theoretical essence of the system of employee evaluation Evaluation of the work is the general term referring to many different processes within which the supervisor carries out periodic evaluation of subordinate performance, in order to make further management decisions. Evaluation of the different companies take different forms. From the very formal, ongoing assessments of the employee, after a very formalized and time-consuming process, usually present in larger organizations. Regardless of the size of the organization, the activities related to the evaluation of workers should be some kind of system - a repetitive, scheduled, formalized and aimed at the development employee.The most important elements of the evaluation of employees belong are: ● objectives of the system of employee evaluation ● criteria according to whichconducting an evaluation ● the method ofand assessment techniques ● to determine the assessed and to assess the ● frequency in which they conducted the evaluation 2 ● and assessment principles 1 Magdalena Rapacka, Thomas Rostkowski, Modern methods of human resourcemanagement,Difin Publishing, page 118 2Grażyna Maniak, Introduction to HumanResources,Publisher of the West Pomeranian Business School, page 94 The objectives of employee evaluation system the basic element of employee evaluation is to determine which serve no assessment of employees, which define the objectives of the system. Each organization defines its own list and the hierarchy of objectives. Among the most frequently mentioned purposes, however, probably will be: ● Increasing the efficiency of their work - each employee to better perform his job, he should know what does well and what is wrong and the consequences that perpetuate habits and what to eliminate. ● Motivating employees by satisfying occurring in workers need to assess their own work. 3 ● Making personnel decisions, such as salary levels, bonuses, promotion, dismissal, etc. ● Focusing the development employee, for example by detecting training deficiencies, and identify areas of particular interest or ability of the employee. Criteria for evaluation A key element of a well-designed system of employee evaluation are clearly defined, accepted and understood by all employees of the assessment criteria. Possible to 4 apply the criteria can be divided into four groups: Criteria forpersonality Psychiatric employeecharacteristics important from the point of view of the requirements for a given position and the type of work. For the most frequently mentioned criteria in this group are: responsibility, honesty, creativity, resistance to stress, assertiveness, interpersonal contacts. Eligibility Covering the knowledge gained by the employee during his education (school, college, courses, training). This group is most commonly used criteria in the recruitment process and also when deciding on promotions and transfers. As an example, eligibility criteria include: education, work experience, specific technical 3Ibid, page 97 4Magdalena Rapacka, Thomas Rostkowski, Modern...,op. cit, page 131 skills required by the company, foreign languages, law, etc. The criteria efektywnościowe characteristic of this group is able to embrace not only the individual worker but also transfer them to the group department or entire enterprise. Frequently, these criteria include the results of the work in terms of qualitative or quantitative timeliness, quality of work, sized amount of labor costs, sales, etc. The behavioral criteria last group ofare behavioral criteria used most often in cases where the employee's performance measurement is hindered or impossible. The starting point for the application of these criteria is the assumption that the work depends on the 5 acceptance by staff of specific standards of behavior.Behavioral criteria may be, for example, honesty, attitude towards colleagues, loyalty, regularity, persistence, relationship with customers, colleagues and superiors. Review of methods for assessing person responsible for the construction of employee evaluation system may face a real problem because there are very many methods of employee assessment. At the highest level they are divided on the relative method, which is the essence of comparing employees with each other and the absolute methods, which rely on comparing the performance of an employee with certain standards. The most popular methods are relative: Ranking - methodology of rankings on all or some of its staff in order from best to worst. This method may be effective in organizations where it is easy to clear criteria for the construction of the ranking, ranking eg traders built on the basis of monthly sales. Comparing pairs - by comparing each with each. Despite its simplicity, the method may be troublesome kilkunastoosobowych teams already in the rapidly growing number of comparisons required, eg for 25 persons should be performed 300 The method comparisons.of normal distribution assumes that all employees of a 5Grażyna Maniak, Introduction...,op. cit, page 100 representative sample of the population. Prioritizing them, therefore, relative to some criterion, such as efficiency, we will get a graph of the characteristic frequency in the population, called the normal distribution or Gaussian. The evaluation method determines the normal distribution in which the distribution range of the characteristic is evaluated employee. The result is a classification of employees. Absolute of the methods most frequently cited Assessment are:descriptive - is to prepare a written report by an assessor strengths and weaknesses of the employee. The method is not easy for the evaluator because it is forced to a careful study and thorough justification evaluation. Another disadvantage is the difficulty compared to evaluations of specific The method employees.of critical events - similar to a descriptive assessment because the evaluator shall prepare a report based, however, recorded throughout the period of critical events (successes and failures of the employee). Therefore requires the evaluator to focus on continuous assessment of the employee. Test - This method consists in carrying out the evaluation report contains a dozen or so, dozens of questions such as: Does the employee ensure timely implementation of the tasks? Or What is the ratio of staff tocustomers?.The evaluator has a choice of several pre-defined answers. The advantage of this method is its simplicity, the disadvantage of averaging and the tendency to lack of a more individual approach to be assessed. Behavioral Scales - a method quite difficult to prepare. Behavioral scales with clearly defined behaviors describe the levels of performance by an employee of the specific factors to be evaluated. Quantitative labor standards - a method of losing popularity in the modern economy consists in comparing the results of the employee with pre-established standards. A single point grading scale - the use of this method is a bit like filling index student. The evaluation sheet are listed again all evaluated criteria such as accuracy, creativity, etc. For each criterion evaluator determines, for example, on a scale from 1 to 6, the degree of compliance by the employee that criterion. 6 Monika Koster, PersonnelManagement,Polish Economic Publishing House, page 78 7Grażyna Maniak, Introduction...,op. cit, page 102 8Magdalena Rapacka, Thomas Rostkowski, Modern...,op. cit, page 130 Ordinance by objectives - a method based on the principle of setting objectives by the employee and his immediate supervisor. The evaluation of this method is to check whether and how the objectives set were achieved.The method is considered to be effective in organizations where the level of competence, accountability and morale are high. The disadvantage of this method is its high time-consuming. Method 180 and 360 dealing with the assessment process from the perspective of an evaluator, we can distinguish two approaches to the evaluation process. The first of these, usually bearing the name of 180 degrees, a process in which information on the performance of individual employees are gathered from two sources: self-assessment and supervisor of the employee.An alternative to the method of approach is 180 degrees, 360 degrees, whose fundamental aim is to gather information about an employee from multiple sources: self, supervisor, clients, colleagues, subordinates. This method of evaluation is better especially in situations in which workers interact with other branches of the company and where their jobs are hard to quantify. Figure 1 - Sources of evaluation method, 360 Source: Own The advantages of implementing a system of employee evaluation employee evaluation system application allows a more efficient and comprehensive management of human resources and related processes. Thus supports the implementation of strategic business goals. With its implementation are the benefits for both the company and its The most important employees:benefits for organizations: ● the proper use of the potential of employees and improve business performance through the ● ability to plan business growth in the long run ● to create the basis for future personnel decisions 9Monika Koster, Management...,op. cit, page 77 10Magdalena Rapacka, Thomas Rostkowski, Modern...,op. cit, page 125 11John Stredwick, management employees in small business, Helion Publishing House, page 96 12 Magdalena Rapacka, Thomas Rostkowski, Modern...,op. cit, page 118 ● to increase capacity andstaff morale, ● improveinternal communication Key benefits for managers: ● subordinates better understand the expectations placed on them and easier to recognize opportunities for improving the performance of tasks ● to increase productivity and morale among subordinates ● can obtain knowledge about the assessment of their work and thus the possibility of self-improvement Key benefits for employees: ● the possibility of obtaining feedback on the quality of work and expectations for the future ● opportunity to influence the further course of a career by presenting his own ideas on the development and companies ● can eliminate the negative behavior and reinforce desired behaviors ● sure that work is constantly monitored and merit will not be missed Threats and errors Creating a good system of employee evaluation and conduct assessment interviews is an extremely difficult task. As a consequence, many companies in the evaluation process is more or less run correctly. The most frequent errors in the design of employee evaluation system and, during the assessment interviews include: ● Error freshness - namely the tendency to judge based on the stored past performance of the subordinate. ● Haloeffect,the tendency for automatic, positive or negative evaluation of their subordinates on the basis of pre-formed opinion of the evaluator. The ● error of centraltendency,which may be manifested for example by awarding all evaluation "average." 13Magdalena Rapacka, Thomas Rostkowski, Modern...,op. cit, page 134 ● Misuse of the conclusions of the assessment - constructing a system should not focus attention off the tools and techniques. Element should be the overriding objective, namely to answer the questions on which we implement the system in the enterprise. If the target recedes into the background the system ceases to function, because employees and managers will not spend time evaluating, the proposals did not translate into significant decisions for them. ● Lack of feedback - directly after the assessment of a worker should receive information from the personnel department of the final decisions flowing The assessment. For example, if the meeting the employee and the manager agreed to train, you must send the employee whether the request was granted, or negatively. Feedback should be provided immediately. ● No improvement of the system - the external environment and internal business is constantly changing. These changes should be systematically reviewed and taken into account by introducing corrections in even the best prepared of employee evaluation system. A very common mistake is to appreciate the need for the organization's analysis of the system and placing it changes. The best time to perform these operations is the period immediately after the next assessment. Bibliography 1. Magdalena Rapacka, Thomas Rostkowski, Modern methods of human resourcemanagement,Difin 2. Grazyna ManiakPublishing, Introduction to HumanResources,Publisher of the West Pomeranian Business School 3. Monika Koster, PersonnelManagement,the Polish Economy Publisher 4. John Stredwick, management employees in smallbusiness,Wydawnictwo Helion 5. Margaret Sidor- Rządkowska, personnel management in smallbusiness,Publisher Oficyna Economics
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