Note for HY 204 with Professor Davis at UA-Amer Civilizatn Sc 1865
Note for HY 204 with Professor Davis at UA-Amer Civilizatn Sc 1865
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Charles Darwin natural selection Herbert Spencer survival of ttest Social Darwinism Some people are naturally superior to others survival of the ttest 0 books like Edward Bellamy s Looking Backward sparked a social consciousness The White Men s Burden poern by Rudyard Kipling costs of imperialism Alfred T Mah an Noted military historian o Maintained that in order for the US to become a world power a canal must be built connecting Atlantic amp Paci c 0 US Navy would have to expand o Militarytrade post would have to be established in the Paci c to stimulate trade w China amp Japan Terms for Test 2 The Influence 0fSeu Power on History 16601 783 0 Written by Alfred T Mahan importance of strong navy timely publication of this led to politicians newspapers amp industrialists re examining amp debating imperialism Sphere of In uence Divisions of the world that would eventually lead to worldwide con ict Liliuokalani Becomes Queen of Hawaii when brother dies Sanford Dole Former Supreme Court Justice becomes Pres of Republic of Hawaii Grover Cleveland Denounced imperialism entirely 0 Turned his back on spoils system that rewarded political cronies w gov jobs 0 Instituted the Interstate Commerce Commission to curtail unfair trade practices 0 Investigated railroad land schemes 0 Defeated for re election Returned to office 4 years later after 1892 election 0 Style of reform included the appointment of reformminded judges opposed to machine politics amp gov corruption William McKinley Annexes Hawaii in 1898 o Wasn t opposed to imperialistic adventures but didn t want to war with Spain 0 Bene ts from discovery of gold in Alaska amp an economic turnaround o Assassinated by anarchist in 1901 making his VP Teddy Roosevelt Pres Teller Amendment April 20 1898 US blockaded Cuba in a move that caused Spain to declare war on US on April 23 Yellow Journalism Writing that isn t entirely true in order to stir up excitement helped in SpanishAmerican War Platt Amendment Added to Appropriations Bill outlawing Cuba to enter any foreign treaties The Panic of 1893 Caused Cleveland amp the Democrats to lose to McKinley in election Theodore Roosevelt 0 becomes President after McKinley is assassinated 0 Used antitrust threats to keep businesses within bounds o Regulated railroads cleaned up food amp drugs conserved the land Booker T Washington visited Teddy Roosevelt at the White House Many Southerners protested The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 set rules for sanitary meatpacking amp gov inspection of meat products The Food and Drug Act required manufacturers to list certain ingredients on the label represented pioneering effort to ban the manufacture amp sale of adulterated misbranded or unsanitary food amp drugs Progressivism political attitude favoring reform through government Battle Cry of Freedom Northem song enjoyed post Civil War The Virginian Dime novel about Old West written by Owen Wister Leaves 0mess By Walt Whitman realism considered obscene in some circles Walt Whitm an Wrote realism poetry popular w themes that bordered obscenity in some circles Scott Joplin King of Ragtime Maple Leaf Rag rhythmic Horatio Alger Wrote a series of Rags to Riches stories amp novels that saw the Indus Rev bringing prosperity amp opportunity to those who only had to work hard enough to attain it Mark Tw ain 0 Samuel Clements humorous saw importance of lit in healingaddressing problems of the time real contribution came in the years he spoke publically against Social Darwinism amp esp imperialism Life on the Mississippi 0 Written by lVIark Twain humorous realistic depiction King Leopold s Soliloquy 0 Written by Mark Twain denounced imperialism Social Darwanism Little Women Written by Louisa May Alcott depicted the lives of 4 girls through womanhood amp the longing for education amp selfreliance Stephen Crane In 1895 became first to turn from the glori cation of war to the carnage of war in Red Badge of Courage Realism Literature determined to portray life as it really was True relationships between people Jack London Wrote of power of nature over civilized society in Call of the Wild Upton Sinclair Wrote quotThe Jungle novels polar opposite of Alger signify the high point in progressivism amp the total change to realism as a form The Jungle 0 Written by Upton Sinclair o exposed the Chicago meatpacking industry amp single handily brought about the Meat Inspection Act amp the Food and Drug Act 0 Theo Roosevelt so appalled by the book he swore off eating any meat he didn t personally kill himself Bull Moose Party Led by presidentialhopeful Teddy Roosevelt in 1912 after his disillusionment of the GOP William Howard Taft President when Panama Canal completed Dollar Diplomacy Woodrow Wilson 0 won 1912 pres Election 0 isolationist but had vision for world peace 0 wished to stay out of war amp preached that Americans should be impartial in thought and deed o Skillfully sold Americans on staying out of con ict 0 Narrowly won 1916 reelection w slogan He Kept Us Out of War Dollar Diplom acy o to promote American nancial business interests abroad pro tseeking motives aimed to substitute economic ties for military alliances w idea of increasing American in uence amp bringing lasting peace Moral Diplom acy o policy put in place during Wilson 0 Pres hoped to in uence amp control other countries thru econ pressure 0 Only supported Latin American gov s that were democratic or otherwise supported US interests 0 By refusing to support non democratic countries he hoped to hurt them economically amp thus force them into submission Roosevelt Corollary ofthe Monroe Doctrine asserted a right of the US to intervene to stabilize the econonimc affairs of small states in the Caribbean and Central America unable to pay their intemational debts Pan Slavism movement aimed at unifying all Slavic people Triple Entente Britain France Russia Triple Alliance Germany AustriaHungary Italy Schliffen Plan Called for attacking Russia amp following up w an attack in France through Belgium Pancho Villa prominent Mexican Revolutionary general fought against Huerta s usurpation John Pershing general officer in the US Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in WWI Lusitania Luxury US liner sank by German U Boat on May 16 1915 o Killed 128 of 1198 Americans on board 0 Began period of unrestricted sub warfare Zimmerman Telegram Intercepted by British who showed Wilson 0 German foreign minister offering Mexico the use of German forces in US ever went to war with Germany 0 Caused Wilson to ask Congress for declaration of war American Expeditionary Force US Armed Forces sent to Europe to ght alongside Britain amp France to defeat Germany Alvin York 0 Most decorated American to date 0 Sergeant of TN 0 American hero in WWI The Great Migration Many African Americans migrated North in order to nd jobs in the defense industry during the war The League of Nations Pres Woodrow Wilson s idea insure world would be safe for democracy amp that all future wars could be headed off before they start The Treaty of Versailles Wilson s 14 pts Reparations Alsace amp Lorraine JRENN Colonization 5 German limitations 6 Disarmament 7 Redrawing boundaries 0 Never passed in US 0 Dominant players David Lloyd George Georges Clemenceau Woodrow Wilson 14 Points Pres Woodrow Wilson s plan for peace at end of WWI Knox Porter Resolution 1921 Allowed US to negotiate separate peace treaties between the warring nations US nally able to put WWI behind them Warren G Harding Won the 1920 Pres Election on the platform of a return to normalcy 18 11 Amendment prohibition of alcohol repealed in 1933 19 11 Amendment women s suffrage Budget Accounting Act of 1921 0 created the Bureau of the Budget and housed it within the Department of the Treasury 0 General Charles G Dawes vice president during Coolidge39s second term was the rst director of the Bureau of the Budget under President Harding Ohio Gang group of politicians and industry leaders who came to be associated with Warren G Harding Albert Fall United States Senator from New Mexico and the Secretary of the Interior under President Warren G Harding infamous for his involvement in the Teapot Dome scandal Teapot Dom e 0 bribery incident that took place in the United States in 1922723 during the administration of President Warren G Harding 0 Secretary of the Interior Albert B Fall leased Navy petroleum reserves at Teapot Dome and two other locations to private oil companies at low rates without competitive bidding o In 1922 and 1923 the leases became the subj ect of a sensational investigation by Senator Thomas J Walsh 0 Fall was later convicted of accepting bribes from the oil companies Pink Collar Jobs women s work Mechanized Farming process of using ag machinery to mechanize the work of ag massively increasing farm output and farm worker productivity Birth Control prevention of unwanted pregnancy Abortion termination of pregnancy The Flapper in the 1920s was a term applied to a quotnew breedquot of young Western women who wore short skirts bobbed their hair listened to jazz and aunted their disdain for what was then considered acceptable behavior The League of Women Voters political organization founded in 1920 by Carrie Chapman Catt before women had right to vote The Harlem Renaissance cultural movement that spanned the 1920s and 1930s Langston Hughes American poet during HR Cab Calloway Cotton Club jazz performer Duke Ellington king ofjazz Calvin Coolidge became Pres upon sudden death of Harding 0 Elected in his own right in 1924 he gained a reputation as a small government conservative who rarely spoke N ativism favors the interests of certain established inhabitants of an area or nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants Eugenics advocates the use of practices aimed at improving the genetic composition of a population associated with Nazi racial hygiene Al Smith 0 Governor of New York 0 selected as Democratic candidate in 1928 0 mixed IrishGerman ancestry Catholic 0 Wanted to end prohibition 0 Associated with big city machine Herbert Hoover Won Election of 1928 0 Great Depression s most prominent victim o Tried to rally the nation with bold forecasts of better days ahead 0 Blamed depression on foreign causes especially unstable European banks 0 Rejected proposals for bold gov action amp relied instead on voluntary cooperation within business to halt the slide 0 Failed at overcoming Depression 0 Suffered sharpest blow in summer of 1932 when he ordered Gen Douglas MacArthur to clear out the bonus army Hoovervilles popular name for shanty towns built by homeless people during the Great Depression Franklin Roosevelt President during Great Depression after Hoover 0 New Deal 0 Folio 0 Elected Gov of NY in 1928 o Defeated Hoover in a near landslide Black Thursday October 24 1929 Rise in stock prices faltered Investors nervously began to sell Some lost half value in one day Speculators panicked as their creditors demanded new collateral Within weeks the gains of the previous 2 years had vanished The panic caused prices to plummet still further The Reconstruction Finance Corporation RFC Proposed by Hoover Established by Congress in early 1932 To help imperiled banks amp insurance companies Loaned gov money to nancial institutions to save them from bankruptcy Bank Holiday On March 6 two days after taking of ce Roosevelt issued a proclamation closing all American banks for four days until Congress could meet in a special session The action demonstrated that the federal government was stepping in to stop the alarming pattern of bank failures Nation al Recovery Act FDR s attempt to achieve economic advance through planning amp cooperation among gov business amp labor Hoped to stabilize production along with max hours and min wage Permitted companies in each major industry to cooperate in writing codes of fair competition that would set realistic limits on production allocate percentages Agricultural Adjustment Administration AAA Devised by FDR s Sect of Ag Henry A Wallace Gov would act as clearinghouse for producers of major crops arranging for them to set production limits for wheat cotton corn etc Created by Congress in May 1933 Allocate acreage among individual farmers encouraging them to take land out of production by paying them subsidies Large farmers bene ted the most from the program Found unconstitutional in 193 6 Civilian Conservation to individual Corps CCC producers amp set rm guidelines for prices Enmlled young Quickly bogged down in a huge bureaucratic mess Invalidated by Supreme Court in 1935 on constitutional grounds males from city families on relief amp sent them to work on the nation s public lands cutting trails planting trees building bridges amp paving roads More than 2 mil served contributing to family amp nation Civil Works Administration 0 Employed more than 4 mil building roads schools playgrounds athletic elds 0 Shut down in 1934 Works Progress Administration WPA 1935 0 Final commitment to idea of work relief 0 Congress authorized nearly 5 bil for emergency relief 0 Put unemployed on federal payroll so they could earn enough to meet their basic needs amp help stimulate the stagnant economy 0 Preserved skills of American artists actors amp writers 0 Helped ease burden for unemployed but failed to overcome depression Alphabet Agencies In total at least 100 offices were created during Roosevelt39s terms of office as part of the New Deal Social Security Act 0 Most signi cant reform enacted in 1935 0 Provided for oldage pensions nanced equally bMost signi cant reform enacted in 1935 0 Provided for oldage pensions financed equally by a tax on employers amp workers without gov contributions 0 Gave states federal matching funds to provide modest pensions for the destitute elderly 0 Set up system of unemployment compensation on a federalstate basis with employers paying a payroll tax amp with each state setting bene t levels amp administering the program locally 0 Provided for direct federal grants to states on a matching basis for welfare payments to the blind handicapped needy elderly and dependent children Wagner Act 1935 United States federal law that limits the means with which employers may react to workers in the private sector who create labor unions also known as trade unions engage in collective bargaining and take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands American Federation of Labor AFL 0 one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States 0 Founded in 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor a national labor association 0 John L Lewis led a group of industrial unions to break away in the 1930s to form the CIO Congress of Industrial Organizations C10 proposed by John L Lewis in 1932 was a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955 Dust Bowl period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage Minimum Wage lowest hourly daily or monthly remuneration that employers may legally pay to workers Isolationism staying out of foreign affairs Adolintler 0 an Austrianborn German politician o the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party NAZI 0 He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and head of state from 1934 to 1945 o Hitler is most commonly associated with the rise of fascism in Europe World War II and the Holocaust Nazi Party Initially Nazi political strategy focused on antibig business anti bourgeois and anticapitalist rhetoric though such aspects were later downplayed in the 1930s to gain the support from industrial owners for the Nazis focus was shifted to antiSemitic and antiMarxist themes The Washington Conference Harding rst intemational conference held in the United States and the rst disarmament conference in history Kellogg Briand Pact renounced aggressive war prohibiting the use of war as quotan instrument of national policyquot except in matters of selfdefense1 It made no provisions for sanctions The pact was the result of a determined American effort to avoid involvement in the European alliance system Nazi Soviet Non Aggression Pact the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany each pledged to remain neutral in the event that either nation were attacked by a third party It remained in effect until 22 June 1941 when Germany invaded the Soviet Union The Rape of Nanking a mass murder genocide and war rape that occurred during the sixweek period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing Nanking the former capital of the Republic of China on December 13 1937 during the Second SinoJapanese War During this period hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians and disarmed soldiers were murdered and 20000780000 women were rapele by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army
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