Note for OM 300 with Professor Schmidt at UA-Intro Operations Management
Note for OM 300 with Professor Schmidt at UA-Intro Operations Management
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Statistical Quality ControlThe use of statistical tools amp analysis to control amp improve the quality of a product or serviceone of the tools for TQMquotIf you can39t describe amp measure it then you can39t control or improve itquot SQC Categories Traditional descriptive statsmeanstd dev amp range Stat process controlused to randomly inspect a batch of goods not helpful to catch inprocess problems Acceptance samplinginspect output it IS helpful Common causescant identify Assignable can identifySamplingmeasure portion at regular periodic time intervals reduces inspection time good strat in controlDif nsample size std devmeasures the amt of dispersion around mean Process quotin controlquotNo sample points are outside limits most sample points are near the process avg about an equal ft of samp pts are aboveampbelow avg samp pts appearto be randomly distrib P ChartsCalculate proportion of defective parts in each sample use for quality charyesnogoodbad of leaking caulking tubes in box of 485 of eggs in carton C Chartsmore sophisticatedCount ft of defects found in each sample or observation periodposs more than 1 defect per part of stains in carpet sample of complaints per customer hotel Control ChartsVariables are used to monitor charact That can be measureslengthweightdiamtime Attributes are used to mon charact that have discrete valuesampcan be counteddefectivestains in shirtbroken eggsCLUCLampLCL should be based on sample msrmnts when the process is incontrol ZValue Smlr Z value makes cont chart more sensitiveampmore prone to false alarms30std value 997 CI Bigger Z value wider control limits P Chart Symbols n in EACH sample Pbaravg defectiveproportion of sample defective can39t have negative proportion LCL will always be 0 and always positive C Chart Symbols Cbaravg ft of defects per sample or observ period MUST use BOTH charts 2gether to effectively monitor and control variable quality character RChart Calcnsmp size k of samples Rbaravg sample rangeD3 RbarLCL parameter D4 RbarUCL par XbarCalcA2Xbar parameter UCLXdb bar A2 Rbar LCLXdb barA2 Rbar gtor0 IF range ampavg get bigger in cntl charts that tells you you39re losing 5 Process Capability Specif LimitsDefined product or service dimensionstolerances based on how prod is to be used or on cust requirements or expecth20 btl filled to 16oz 02oz 2 processes capability measures CpCompares process variation w specif limits Cpkmore reliable msrCompares both process mean ampvariation w spec limits Supply Chain MgmtA sup chain is the network of business processes that deliver a productservice to customerraw mtrls assembly deiverySupplierDistribRetailerDistribSuppliermaterial flowampcashampinfo flow Supp chain mgmt is the business function that coordinates this network of processescoordmovement of goods thru sup chain from suppliers 2 manf to distrib promotes info sharing along chain like corecasts sales dataamppromotionsSupply Chain ComponentsComponentsmnfuring distrib retail service Facilitiesdiffquotmodesquotof transportation Transpdiffquotfunctionsquotof inventory InventonWIP raw mtrls leveraging info for oper39l improvementsampstrat advantage Mnf ing Plants Raw mtrls component parts assembly plant OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer Distribution CentersWarehousestores inventory for extended period of time Crossdock Inventory quotcrossesquot from one side to the other in a short prd of timeless than 48hrs Retail Stores Store invent for custmr purchases assist w product selectioncustom Receiveampprocess returns Transportation Problem AKA The Demand Allocation ProblemMinimize cost of satisfying fixedampknown demand multiple destinations Limited supply of product multiple sourcesObjectiveMinimize S of shipping product from each ofthe quotsourcesquot to each of the quotdestinationsquot SUBJECT to Total amt shipped out of a sourceoutbound cannot exceed its supplyTota amt shipped TO a destinbound must equal its demand requirementquotNegativequot shipmentsreturns are not allowed Manual Methods Greedy Hueristicnot guaranteed for best answeramp EXCEL solver ECOMMERCEThe use of internet to conduct business B2B lower procurement costs access to global suppliers lower invent investment quality enhanced due to earlier involve bw buyersampselers Bullwhip Effect Increase in the variance of replenishment orders farther up the supply chain away from the end customer 4Causes Demand forecast updating order batching price fluctuation rationingampgaming Advert rev model Subsc rev mod trasn fee mod sales rev mod affiliate rev model OptimizationA mathematical model that maxim or minim some quantity while satisfying a set of constraintselements of opt probdec var obj funct const Dec Variabvalues that must be chose in order to define a solutionaffect obj fun in some wayconsumer or suuply some resource Obj FunValue of solutionmeasures relative quotqualityquot of diff solutions benchmark ConstraintsInequal or equalsome limited resourceis location feasibleRighthandside definesthe amt of resource available or needed to satisfy constraint Feasibility Solutiona set of dec var values that satisfy all of the constraints Feasible regionset of all feas solutions Extreme Ptsthe quotcornersquot of the feas region Optim Sola feas solution that achieves the best possible obj func value win the feas region Location Factors Community considerationslocal comm39s attitude toward facilityprisons utility plants Site considlocal zoningamptaxes util costs access to major roads railroad access site incentives Qualityoflife issuesclimate cultural attractions commuting time Other considOpinions for future expansion local competition Site ncentivesTax creditsJob trainingInfrastructure improvementExMercedesHondaHyundai Location Analysis TechniguesCenter of grav heuridentify a point that achieves lowdecreases transp cost based on straight line distances Optimal cent of grav heurIdent a pt that minimizestransp cost based on straight line dist Location Factor Ratingpredefined locationscompareamprate specific sites based on various factors Dsgrt xxijquot2yyiquot239 Transportation Operations Managing the shipment of goods or ppl as well as the vehiclesampoperators 2 Common transp problemsTraveing Salesman ProbFind the best sequenceshortest distance in which to visit a specific set of locations Vehicle Routing ProbGroup shipments into delivery routes to minimize transp cost or distancevehicle capacity E a feas TSP solution is called a tour Nearest Neighbor Procedurestart at 0 travel next to the closest unvisited location until all locations have been visited return back to starting location Vehicle Routing ProbVRPCoordinate inbound LTL Less than truckload shipments from many suppliers automotive assembly plant Coord outbound ship to many customers deliveries from a warehouse or plant out to customers one or more constraints on the vehicle limit
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