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Twitter Usage In America: 2010 The Edison Research/Arbitron Internet and Multimedia Study Tom Webster - Vice President, Strategy and Marketing Edison Research Executive Summary Twitter Usage in America: 2010 presents the results of a nationally representative survey of 1,753 Americans age 12 and over, administered via landline and mobile phone interviews conducted in February 2010. This study is part of the Edison Research/Arbitron Internet and Multimedia research series, now in its 18 iteration. Twitter Usage in America: 2010 encapsulates three years of tracking data on Twitter usage in the United States (2008-2010). Key Findings and Implications 1. Awareness of Twitter has exploded over the past twelve months. The percentage of Americans who are familiar with Twitter has surged from 5% in 2008 to 87% in 2010. With the percentage of Americans who have access to the Internet stalled at roughly 85%, more people are aware of Twitter than could possibly use the service. This extremely high level of awareness has likely been driven by traditional media saturation, with many mainstream television, radio and print media outlets prominently highlighting their Twitter accounts throughout the course of their programming. Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Executive Summary 2. Despite near-ubiquitous awareness, Twitter is currently used by seven percent of the population, or approximately 17 million Americans. Though the pace in Twitter’s growth in awareness has exceeded even that of Facebook (and the two services are now equally well-known), roughly six times more Americans maintain a proﬁle page on Facebook than use Twitter. Server-based reporting methods indicate that the number of user accounts in America is appreciably higher; however, the effects of multiple/duplicate accounts, SPAM accounts and user churn likely explain this differential. 3. As such, Twitter has yet to articulate its value and usage beneﬁts to the vast majority of Americans. Almost 50% of Americans 12+ maintain a proﬁle on at least one social networking site, with the vast majority using Facebook. Online social networking, therefore, is now a mainstream behavior in American society. While sites like Facebook and LinkedIn have well-deﬁned use cases and beneﬁts, Twitter has yet to establish a clear value proposition (even as a purely entertainment service) for a majority of the current users of social networking sites and services in the United States. Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Executive Summary 4. Twitter does appear to be disproportionately popular with African-Americans. The percentage of Twitter users who are African-American currently stands at roughly 25%, which is approximately double the percentage of African-Americans in the current U.S. population. Indeed, many of the “trending topics” on Twitter on a typical day are reﬂective of African-American culture, memes and topics. This segment of the U.S. population may be using Twitter more conversationally than other Twitter users, though further study would be required to characterize any differential in the nature of African-American Twitter usage. 5. One strategy to encourage Twitter adoption may be to emphasize the parallels between status updates via Twitter and SMS messaging. About 70% of Americans send and receive SMS messages via mobile phone, with 45% doing so multiple times every day. If Twitter can successfully communicate relevant features and beneﬁts to this growing majority of Americans, it may be able to stimulate user growth among mainstream Americans. Twitter itself may be thinking along these lines with its recent acquisition of SMS technology provider Cloudhopper. Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Executive Summary 6. With nearly half of all Americans maintaining proﬁles on social networks, Twitter must tap into the motivations of those Americans to maintain relevance in the face of Facebook’s continued encroachment into the real-time status updating and search spaces. With many Americans joining Facebook mainly to ﬁnd and connect with people they already know, Twitter could beneﬁt by tapping into those same motivations and behaviors by providing improved tools for mainstream Americans to ﬁnd their friends and family members on Twitter. Twitter has also not emphasized its ability to create closed networks with private Twitter pages. Improved awareness of those features, combined with improved tools to ﬁnd people that prospective users already know, may encourage usage among potential mainstream adopters. 7. The majority of Twitter users are “lurkers,” passively following and reading the updates of others without contributing updates of their own. However, most (70%) regular Twitter users do post status updates to some social networking service (likely Facebook), so the issue has less to do with any reluctance to create content per se, but more likely with a differential in how Twitter is used compared to Facebook. Twitter appears to be functioning as more of a broadcast medium compared to Facebook and many other social networking sites and services. Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Executive Summary 8. Marketing and Business use cases for Twitter far exceed similar usage for social networking Web sites in general. The percentage of Twitter users who follow brands is more than three times higher than similar behavior expressed by social networking users in general. Signiﬁcant percentages of regular Twitter users report using the service not only to seek opinions about companies, products and services, but to provide those opinions as well. Users of social media monitoring services should be aware that these behaviors may be far more prevalent on Twitter than on other monitored sites and services, which may introduce a bias into the data provided by social media monitoring platforms. As such, Twitter’s most natural path to revenue may be to commercialize these interactions, providing the “plumbing” for enterprise Social CRM (Customer Relationship Management) efforts. Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Executive Summary 9. Twitter is a natural “companion medium” to other media channels - in particular, as an accompaniment to live TV. While most Twitter users are ambivalent about television (and spend considerably more time on the Internet), Television still wins as the medium most likely to be turned to in the event of a breaking news story. Also, the top-trending television programs on Twitter in 2009 were far more likely to be live events than were the most frequently searched programs on Google (and indeed, the most frequently watched programs according to Nielsen.) 10. A signiﬁcantly higher proportion of Twitter users update their social networking proﬁles - and access Twitter - using mobile phones than the average user of other social networking sites and services. Twitter enjoys enormous popularity among users of iPhones and other smartphone devices. One in ﬁve regular Twitter users updates the service via mobile phone several times per day, while one in three do so at least daily. Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. General Internet rends Internet Access Stabilizes % with Internet Access From Any Location 2010 84% 2009 85% 2008 82% 2007 83% 2006 81% 2005 81% 2004 79% 2003 75% 2002 72% 2001 62% 2000 55% 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Base: Total Population 12+ Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Six In Seven Homes With Internet Access Have Broadband % Who Have Broadband vs Dial-Up Internet Access at Home Broadband Dial-Up 100% 82% 84% 78% 76% 75% 68% 69% 60% 58% 50% 48%48% 37% 38% 28% 28% 25% 21% 20% 15% 13% 0% 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Base: Access the Internet From Home Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. More Than Six in T en Homes with Internet Access Have a Wi-Fi Network “Do you have a wireless network setup (also known as a Wi-Fi Network) in your home?” Have Wi-FI at Home 62% Do Not Have Wi-Fi at Home 38% Base: Access the Internet from Home Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Social Networking Sees Explosive Y ear-Over-Y ear Growth % Who Currently Have a Personal Proﬁle Page on Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn or Any Other Social Networking Web Site 48% 34% 24% 2008 2009 2010 Base: Total Population 12+ Social Networking Sees Explosive Y ear-Over-Y ear Growth % by Age Group Who Currently Have a Personal Proﬁle Page on Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn or Any Other Social Networking Web Site 78% 77% 2008 2009 2010 65% 63% 64% 57% 54% 51% 44% 35% 34% 32% 31% 22% 17% 14% 13% 10% 4% 3% 3% 12-17 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ Base: Total Population 12+ Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Twitter Awareness and Usage Awareness of T witter Explodes % Who Have Ever Heard of Twitter 100 87% 75 50 26% 25 5% 0 2008 2009 2010 Base: Total Population 12+ Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Twitter Usage Stands At Approximately 17 Million Americans “Do you currently ever use Twitter?” (% saying “Yes”) 2010 7% 2009 2% 2008 0%<1% 0% 5% 10% Base: Total Population 12+ T witter Users Split Between Habitual “T weeters” and Those Who Access Occasionally “How often do you use Twitter?” Less than once/month Several times/day 15% 18% At least once/day At least once/month 15% 22% At least once/week 30% Base: Have Ever Used Twitter Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. T witter Has Caught Facebook In Awareness % Who are aware of indicated service Twitter Facebook 100 100 87% 88% 75 75% 75 50% 50 50 26% 25 25 5% 0 0 2008 2009 2010 2008 2009 2010 Base: Total Population 12+ Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Despite Equal Awareness,T witter Signiﬁcantly Lags Facebook in Usage Use Twitter 7% Have a profile on Facebook 41% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Base: Total Population 12+ Location Apps Just Beginning T o Become Known “Are you familiar with social networking services that allow you to post a status update and your current location, such as FourSquare, Gowalla or Brightkite?” Yes 7% No 93% Base: Total Population 12+ Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Twitter Users in America One in Three Monthly T witter Users Between 25 and 34 Y ears of Age Age Sex 55 + 12 to 17 45 to 54 18% 12% 18 to 24 Men 11% Women 47% 35 to 44 53% 19% 2533% 34 Base: Monthly Twitter Users Twitter Users: Race/Ethnicity African American 24% Hispanic 17% Asian 3% Other 5% White 51% Base: Monthly Twitter Users Twitter Users are Well-Educated 40% 33% 30% 30% 23% 23% 20% 19% 17% 16% 13% 12% 10% 8% 2% 3% 0% Adv. DegrSome Graduate Credits Fo1-3 Years of High School/LeRefused Monthly Twitter Users Total Population 18+ Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Twitter Users Are More Likely to Live in Higher Income Households Annual Reported Household Income Monthly Twitter Users Total Population 18+ 40% 30% 27% 23% 20% 20% 22% 20% 17% 15% 13% 14% 10% 11% 10% 8% 0% Over $100Between $75K and $100K BeBetween $25K andUnder $25K Refused Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. The “T witter Economy” Seems On The Rise “Has your ﬁnancial situation over the past year gotten...” Monthly Twitter Users 18+ Total Population 18+ Better 32% 18% 22% Worse 24% 42% Same 53% 4% Refused 5% 0% 20% 40% 60% Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. T witter Users Index As Early Adopters “Think about when you buy or try new products and services compared to other people you know. In general, would you say that you...?” Monthly Twitter Users Total Population 12+ 19% Are Among The First To Buy/Try New Products10% 25% Buy/Try New Products Before Others - Not First 12% Buy/Try New Products Same Time As Others 29% 27% Buy/Try New Products After Others - Not Last 16% 24% 11% Usually The Last You Know To Try/Buy New Products 25% 0% 10% 20% 30% Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Twitter Users Access The Internet From Multiple Locations “From how many locations do you typically access the Internet?” One Two or More 15% 85% Base: Monthly Twitter Users Four In T en T witter Users Own At Least Three Computers “How many working computers do you have in your home?” Three or More 39% Two One 35% 27% Base: Monthly Twitter Users Twitter Users Comfortable Accessing Social Networking Services Via Mobile Phone “Do you ever access social networking sites via mobile phone?” Monthly Twitter Users All Social Network Users Yes Yes 63% 34% No No 37% 66% T witter Users (Like Most Americans) Are Very Frequent SMS Users “How often do you send/receive text messages on your cell phone?” About once/day 6% Multi11% Times/Week Multi73% Times/Day About Once/Week 2% Few Times/Month or Less 3% Never 5% Base: Monthly Twitter Users Who Own a Mobile Phone Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Twitter Usage Behaviors T witter Users Far More Frequent Users of All Social Networking Sites/Services “How often do you use social networking Web sites/services?” Monthly Twitter Users All Social Network Users Nearly every day Nearly every day 20% 21% Several times/week Several times/day 21% 44% Several times/week Several times/day 13% 30% At least once/week At least once/week 9% 11% Few times/month or less Few times/month or less 13% 18% Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Regular T witter Users More Likely T o Be ‘Status Updaters’ Across All Social Networking Services “Do you ever update your status on social networking sites/services?” Monthly Twitter Users All Social Network Users Yes 70% No Yes No 45% 55% 30% Status Updating Behaviors - Online “How often do you go to the social networking Web site to update your status?” Several Times/Day 35% Never 3% At Least Once/Month 4% Several Times/Month 5% Nearly Every Day 22% At Least Once/week 15% Several Times/Week 16% BaUpdates to Social Networking Web Sitestus Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Status Updating Behaviors - Mobile “How often do you update your status on social networking sites using a mobile phone?” Never 29% Several Times/Day 19% At Least Once/Month 6% Several Times/Month Nearly Every Day 5% 14% At Least Once/week 6% Several Times/Week 21% BaUpdates to Social Networking Web Sitestus Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Status Updating Behaviors - Clients “How often do you update your status on social networking sites with a dedicated application on your computer, that is, NOT through a Web browser)?” Several Times/Day 14% Nearly Every Day 11% Never 57% Several Times/Week 3% At Least Once/Week 9% At Least Once/Month 6% BUpdates to Social Networking Web Sitesatus Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Just Under Half Of Regular Users Post Status Updates T o T witter “Do you ever post status updates to Twitter? Yes 47% No 53% Base: Monthly Twitter Users Other Attitudes/Behaviors Regular T witterers Index Very Highly For Technology Ownership “Do you own a/an...” Monthly Twitter Users Total Population 12+ 23% iPhone 7% 49% iPod 28% 40% Other MP3 Player 23% 28% BlackBerry 10% 9% Kindle/eBook 3% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Internet Most Essential T o Regular T witter Users “Which medium is MOST essential to your life?” Internet 73% 42% 13% TV 37% 11% Radio 14% 3% Newspaper 5% 0% 25% 50% 75% Monthly Twitter UseTotal Population 12+ Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Internet Usage Extremely High Among Regular Users of T witter “How much time (HH:MM) per day do you spend using...” Monthly Twitter Users Total Population 12+ 4:00 Internet 1:56 3:22 TV 3:25 2:41 Radio 2:05 Newspaper :26 :28 0 1 2 3 4 5 Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Internet More Important Than TV to Vast Majority of Regular T witter Users “Suppose you could never watch television again OR you could never access the Internet again. Which would you be more willing to eliminate from your life?” Eliminate TV, Keep Internet 79% Eliminate Internet, Keep TV 21% Base: Monthly Twitter Users Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. TV Remains Important T o T witter Users For Breaking News Updates “Which medium do you turn to FIRST to learn about a breaking news story?” Internet 46% TV 42% Radio 7% Newspaper 4% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Base: Monthly Twitter Users Most Popular TV Shows - 2009 Twitter Trends Google Zeitgeist 1. American Idol 1. Glee 2.Glee 2. Bones 3.Teen Choice Awards 3. Fringe 4.Saturday Night Live 4. NCIS 5.Dollhouse 5. Castle 6.Grey's Anatomy 6. House 7. Wipeout 7.Video Music Awards 8.Battlestar Galactica 8. Medium 9.BET Awards 9. Leverage 10. Lost 10.Kings *Sources: Twitter, Google. RED = live broadcasts Twitter Users Frequently Exchange Information About Products And Services % Using Twitter to... Learn about products/services 42% Provide opinions about products/services 41% Ask for opinions about products/services 31% Look for discounts/sales 28% Purchase products/services 21% Seek Customer Support 19% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Base: Monthly Twitter Users Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Twitter Users Far More Likely T o Follow Brands/ Companies Than Social Networkers In General “Do you follow/friend any brands or companies on social networks?” Monthly Twitter Users All Social Network Users No 49% No 84% Yes Yes 51% 16% Regular T witter Users Somewhat Sensitive T o Advertising “If Twitter were to incorporate targeted advertising into its service, how would that affect your Twitter usage?” Use Twitter Less 19% Use Twitter More 16% Stop Using Twitter 15% No Effect 50% Base: Monthly Twitter Users Copyright 2010, Edison Research/Arbitron Inc. Thank Y ou. firstname.lastname@example.org Twitter: @webby2001
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