Note for PY 101 with Professor Carroll at UA-Intro To Psychology (1)
Note for PY 101 with Professor Carroll at UA-Intro To Psychology (1)
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
302 Retrieval cue Anything that helps a person recall information from memory Explains why it is easier to recognize than to recall information Ex multiple choice tests 318 o Cryptomnesia When a person thinks he or she has come up with a new idea but really has retrieved an old idea from memory andfailed to attribute the idea to its proper source Type of misattribution 306 o Reconsolidation Neural processes involved when memories are recalled and then stored again for later retrieval When memories for past events are retrieved they can be affected by new circumstances therefore our memories change when we use them and are not accurate reproductions of what was experienced 321 0 False recognition Recalling or recognizing events that did not happen Ex list of words related to sweet asked to remember them and you say that sweet was one although it wasn t 321 o Confabulation The false recognition of an episodic memory Related to some types of brain injury Patients recall mistaken facts and when questioned try to make sense of their recollections by adding facts that make the story more coherent 202 208 o Ganglion cells Retinal first cells in the visual pathway to generate action potentials Send signals along axons from inside the eye to the thalamus by the optic nerve 215 o Dorsal and ventral stream Dorsal quotwherequot specialized for spatial perception determining where an object is and relating it to other objects in a scene Ventral quotwhatquotspecialized for perception and recognition of objects such as determining colors and shapes 219 0 Face recognition male versus female The fusiform gyrus in the right hemisphere may be responsible for perceiving faces People more quickly and accurately recognize angry faces than happy ones and recognize anger on a man s face than a woman and the reverse for happiness Women more accurately recognize faces and are most accurate at female faces Both sexes have a hard time upside down faces People are better at recognizing faces of their own race or ethnic group 162 o Transcendental meditation Involves meditating with great concentration for 20 minutes twice a day Benefits reduced blood pressure decreased stress blood lipids and insulin resistance Best known meditation procedure 167 0 Long term effects of ecstasy Memory problems and a diminished ability to perform complex tasks 166 0 Drugs and the effects of drugs Psychoactive Drugs mind altering substances that change the brain s neurochemistry by activating neurotransmitter systems Effects of each drug depend on which system is activates Marijuanamost widely used illicit drug THCproduces relaxed mental state uplifted mood perceptual and cognitive distortions First time users have weaker effects than experienced users who have learned to appreciate it Stimulants increase behavioral and mental activity caffeine nicotine cocaine amphetamines Work by interfering with the normal reuptake of dopamine allowing it to stay in the synapse prolonging its effects Cocaine inhaled powder or smoked crack Users have a wave of confidence Short term especially intense for crack users habitual use leads to paranoia psychotic behavior and violence Amphetamines synthesized in labs weight loss and staying awake Insomnia anxiety heart problems physical damage Blocks reuptake of dopamine and increases its release Damages temporal lobe memory and limbic system emotion MDMA ecstasy energizing effect similar to stimulants as well as slight hallucinations Less dopamine release and more serotonin release Users feel depressed after wears off Opiates heroine morphine codeine Used to relieve pain increase dopamine activation feelings of relaxation analgesia and euphoria Heroin provides a rush of intense pleasure similar to an orgasm Alcohol fatal car accidents suicide homicide domestic violence sex increasing risk for disease Men drink more than women factors powerdinking in large quantities is a symbol of male power Sexmen drink expecting to improve performance women refrain because of vulnerability Riskmen enjoy taking risks more than women Responsibilities men drink to ignore social responsibilities 172 o Withdrawal symptoms Failure to ingest a substance leads to symptoms of anxiety tension and craving 182 0 Absolute threshold and its relation to perception and sensation Minimum intensity of stimulation that must occur before you experience a sensation Level of intensity at which participants correctly detect a stimulus on 50 of the trials presented 196 o The ear diagram Stimuli are molecules are displaced by sound waves SW move through outer ear and make eardrum vibrate then move through middle ear causing ossicles to vibrate This vibration causes oval window to vibrate creating pressure waves in the inner ear s fluid that bend hair cell and cause neurons on the basilar membrane to fire neural signals These signals travel along the auditory nerve to the brain s auditory cortex As a result you hear the sound The wave s amplitude determines loudness frequency determines pitch 222 0 Depth and perception An object s pattern of stimulation on each of the two retinas binocular informs the brain about depth The brain uses pictorial monocular cues information about the object s appearance relative to the surroundings to perceive depth and relative motion 238 o Conditioned response A response that has been learned Dog bell experiment Conditioned response is usually weaker than the unconditioned response 257 o Evolutionary signi cance and its relation to behaviorism Animals have a hard time learning behaviors that run counter to their evolutionary adaptation biological constraints Ex raccoons are hardwired to rub food between their paws they have trouble learning to not rub objects Therefore conditioning is most effective when the association between the behavioral response and the reinforcement is similar to the animal s builtI predispositions 2460 Biological preparedness Animals are genetically programmed to fear specific objects Explains why they fear potentially dangerous things rather than objects that pose little threat 251 o The law of effect A general theory of learning by Edward Thorndike which states any behavior leading to a quotsatisfying state of affairs will more likely occur again and any behavior that leads to an quotannoying state of affairs will less likely occur 256 0 Behavior modi cation The use of operant learning techniques to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with desirable ones Most unwanted behaviors are learned and can therefore be unlearned Ex drive more safely 237 o Operant conditioning We learn that a behavior leads to a particular outcome ex studying leads to better grades 264 0 Mirror neurons and it functions Neurons that are activated during observation of others performing an action Serves as a basis of imitation learning however their firing does not always lead to imitative behavior May help us explain and predict others behavior May be a neural basis for empathy emotional response of feeling what other people are experiencing Also important for human s ability to communicate through language 168 o The nucleus accumbens Is a collection of neurons within the striatumin the brain Opiates provide enormous reward by increasing dopamine activation in the nucleus accumbens and binding with opiate receptors producing feelings or relaxation analgesia and euphoria 274 o NMDA receptor Important in producing learning involved in long term potentiation LTP llDoogie micequot modified genes to make NMDA receptors more efficientlearned novel tasks more quickly and showed increased fear conditioning 286 o Encoding storing and retrieving information Information processing model 1 Encoding occurs at the time of learning processing into neural code of info so that it can be stored 2 Storage can last a fraction of a second or a lifetime retention of encoded representations over time that corresponds to some change in the nervous system that registers the event 3 Retrieval the act of recalling or remembering stored info to use it 288 o Sperling s research on iconic memory 3 rows of letters flashed on screen for 120 sec asked to recall all letters In time it took to name the first 3 or 4 they forget the other letter Suggested they had very quickly lost their memories of exactly what they had seen To test hypothesis presented letters with high med or low pitch as soon as letters disappeared pitched corresponded to top mid or bottom row and participants were asked to recall letters from the row the pitch indicated When the tone sounded shortly after letters appeared participants remembered almost all letters Longer the delay less letters remembered Conclusion sensory memory persists for about 13 of a sec and then progressivelyfades 136 o Qualia The way things seem to us our perception of things properties of oursubjective experiences Subjective nature makes them difficult to study empirically The labels applied to an experience do not necessarily justify the experience Ex SEEING RED does red look the same to everyone who has normal color vision Projecting some type ofguality onto someone else Ex When I look at Dr Carroll I see Orange 140 o Splitbrain research Corpus Callosom is surgically cut and the two hemispheres of the brain do not receive information directly from each other Allows researchers to get info from a single hemisphere at a time Left Hemisphere get images from Right visual felid controls Right hand controls Speech Right Hemisphere get images from Left visual felid controls Left hand is mute but can act on perception spatial relationships 143 o What part of the brain is known as the interpreter Left Hemisphere attempts to make sense of events Snowy house L Chicken foot R images on screen L hemi points R hand at pic of chicken head R hemi points L hand at pic of snow shovel L hemi interprets action of R hemi as shovel is used to clean up after chickens does not ever see the house 147 o Blindsight Phenomenon in which people who are perceptually blind in a certain area of their visual field demonstrate some response to visual stimuli Caused by injury to the part of the brain responsible for vision occipital lobe Type 1 Blindsight subjects have no awareness whatsoever of any stimuli but yet are able to predict at levels significantly above chance aspects of a visual stimulus Type 2 Blindsight is when subjects have some awareness of for example movement within the blind area but no visual percept This may be caused by for example the person being aware of their eyes39 tracking motion which will function normally 288 0 Different types of memory eg STM working and iconic to mention a few Sensory iconic duration a fraction of a second capacity much of the visible world allows us to experience the world as a continuous stream rather than discrete sensations keeps info long enough to connect one image with the next in a smooth way that corresponds to the way objects move in the real world Short Term working immediate duration between 20 and 30 seconds capacity five to nine chunks a limited capacity memory system that holds info in awareness for a brief period Called working bc combines info from different sources Immediate bc consists of thoughts feelings and temporary impressions of things in the world Long Term duration potentially as long as a person lives capacity almost limitless relatively permanent storage of information 2930 Overlearned You keep rehearsing material you already know pretty well Leads to improved memory especially over long periods of time Thus material studied through distributed practicemultiple sessions over time is remembered better that material studied in a brief period massed practice cramming 300 0 Maintenance and elaborative rehearsal Maintenance simply repeating the item over and over Ex baseball pitching machine Elaborative encodes info in a more meaningful way such as thinking about the item conceptually or deciding whether it refers to oneself elaborate basic info by linking it to knowledge from long term memory Ex practicing different types of pitches with a pitcher 305 0 Different partsregions of the brain Prefrontal Cortex working memory Temporal Lobe declarative memory Hippocampus spatial memory Amygdala fear learning Cerebellum motor action learning and memory Figures of Brain 148 Areas of Awareness 155 Pineal Gland 156 Brain Regions Stimulated by Dreams 214 Primary Sense Regions 270 Pleasure Centers of the Brain
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