Note for SOC 205 with Professor Bryan at UA-Social Psychology
Note for SOC 205 with Professor Bryan at UA-Social Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Sociology205 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Theories and Methods in Social Psychology Social Psychology The scientific studies of how people think about influence and relate to each other Societal level of analysis 0 Used by sociologists economists political scientists and other social scientists o Attempt to understand general patterns of social behavior homicide rates voting behavior consumer spending 0 The goal is to identify links between broad social forces and general patters of social behavior Individual level of analysis 0 Used by clinical and personality psychologists o Explains behavior in terms ofa person s unique life history and psychological characteristics 0 Explains why personality traits and motives can explain why individuals behave as they do and why two people may react quite differently to the same situation Interpersonal level of analysis 0 Social psychologists use this to focus on a person s current social situation 0 This includes the other people in the environment their attitudes and behaviors and their relationship to the individual 0 The power of the situation is based on the idea that people are malleable flexible and adaptable FrustrationAggression Hypothesis Frustrating situations make people angry and increase their tendency to act aggressively Three majortheoretical perspectives in the 1900 s 0 Psychoanalytic theory 0 Behaviorism o Gestalt Psychology Psychoanalytic theory 0 Sigmund Freud 0 Behavior is motivated from within by internal drives and impulses ex sexuality and aggression 0 Adult behavior is shaped by unresolved psychological conflicts traced to childhood experiences Behaviorism o Pavlov Skinner o Focuses on the observable behavior of humans and other animals 0 Examines the way in which the environment shapes behavior 0 Current behavior is the result of past learning Gestalt psychology 0 Kohler Koffka Lewin o The way individuals perceive and understand objects events and people 0 People perceive situations or events as dynamic wholes Social psychologists recognize that behavior is influenced by personal motives and by the emotional reactions individuals have to situations and other people Social psychologists emphasize ways in which speci c situations and social relationships can create and arouse needs and motives Learning theory a person s current behavior is determined by prior experience SocialLearning Theory Learning is based on reinforcement and modeling Reinforcement Learning based on rewards Observational Learning Learning by watching others Modeling lmitating or copying the behavior of another Cognitive Theories o A person s behavior depends on the way he or she perceives the social situation 0 People tend spontaneously to group and categorize objects 0 People focus attention on the most prominent stimuli 0 Focus on current perceptions rather than on past learning DecisionMaking Theories 0 Individuals evaluate the costs and benefits of various actions and pick the best alternatives in a logical reasoned way 0 Weighs the pros and cons of the alternatives and adopts the best one ExpectancyValue Theory 0 Extends the notion of cost and bene ts by adding an assessment ofthe likelihood that each alternative will happen 0 The value of each possible outcome or alternative 0 The probability that each outcome will actually result from the decision Interdependence Theories o Focuses the analysis on the behavior of two or more individuals who interact with each other 0 When two people have mutual in uence on each other they are interdependent Interdependence The outcomes one person receives depend at least in part on the behavior ofthe other and vice versa Social Exchange Theory 0 Analyzes the interaction between people in terms of the benefits and costs the individuals exchange with each other 0 Analyzes interpersonal interaction on the basis of the costs and benefits to each person ofthe possible ways he or she can interact Sociocultural Theories analyze how people s diverse social backgrounds influence their thoughts feelings and behaviors Socialization A process where culture is taught by one generation to the next Social Norms Rules and expectations about how group members should behavior these are a building block to culture Social Role Refers to the set of norms that apply to people in a particular position Individualism Belief in the value of personal identity uniqueness and freedom sense of self gt membership in social groups Collectivism Emphasizes loyalty to the family adherence to group norms and the preservation of harmony in social relations with members of one s own group Evolutionary Social Psychology 0 Analysis of human behavior in terms of evolution and natural selection 0 Similar evolutionary principles explain the origins of many social behaviors 0 Many of the behavior tendencies that we see in humans today are the end products ofthe history of natural selection Evolved Psychological Mechanisms Human tendencies and preferences resulting from natural selection Social psychology is an empirical science uses methods to gather information Theorists seek to understand the interrelationships among behavior thoughts and feelings Theorists develop theories that can account for a certain limited range of phenomena MiddleRange Theories Theories that account for a specific aspect of social behavior Social Psychological Research 1 Description 0 Provide careful and systematic descriptions of social behavior that permit psychologists reliable generalizations about how people act in situations 2 Causal Analysis 0 Seeks to establish relationships between cause and effect 3 Theory building 0 Develop theories about social behaviorthat can help psychologists understand why people behave the way they do 4 Application 0 Knowledge can help to solve everyday social problems Random Sample Each person in the larger population has an equal chance of being included in the study This will highlight the social and cultural diversity in a population Correlational Research 0 Observing the relationship between two or more variables 0 When variable A is high is variable B high as well 0 Enables researchers to study problems in which intervention is impossible o Allows researchers to collect more information and test more relationships that they can in experiments efficiency 0 Negative does not provide clearcut evidence in causeandeffect relationships 0 Negative the possibility that neither variable A or B directly affects the other ReverseCausality Problem The direction of causality is uncertain does A cause B or does B cause A ThirdVariable Problem lftwo variables are correlated with each one is one the cause ofthe other Or is some third variable the cause of both Experiment Research that randomly assigns people to conditions varies treatment in each condition and measures effect on responses Independent Variable the factor that is systematically manipulated by the researcher Dependent Variable the response to the independent variable being manipulated Operational De nition The specific procedure or operation that is used to manipulate or measure the variable in the experiment Internal Validity The extent to which causeandeffect conclusions can be drawn External Validity The extent to which results of a study generalize to other populations and settings Laboratory Research 0 Positive 0 The control it permits over the situation 0 Control over the dependent variable and can measure results easier 0 Negative 0 Done in an arti cial situation not it s natural state 0 Lab is a controlled setting decided by the research Field Research 0 Positive 0 Research is done in it s natural setting 0 Deals with everyday life which tends to minimize suspicious by the subjects 0 Negative 0 Dif cult to assign subjects to conditions randomly o Dif cult to design pure manipulations of the independent variable Methods of data collection 1 Ask research participants to report on their own behaviors thoughts feelings 2 Observe participants directly 3 Go to an archive and use data originally collected for other purposes SelfReport 0 Most common 0 Allow investigator to measure subjective states perceptions attitudes or emotions 0 Must rely on honest answers Observational Research 0 Widely used 0 Direct observation shows honest research Archival Research 0 Analysis of existing data collect for another purpose 0 Inexpensive o Allows researchers to test hypothesis about changes in attitudes over time 0 Provides a useful source of data for social psychological research Internet Research 0 Easier to recruit participants who come from diverse backgrounds 0 Information is automatically recorded 0 Les expensive and provides social behavior as well with chat rooms 0 Impossible to monitor their behavior or to prevent distractions Experimenter Bias 0 Unintentional acts by the researcher can bias results 0 Keep the people who actually conduct the research uninformed of the hypothesis 0 Standardize the situation in every way possible Subject Bias 0 Aspects of research that make people aware that they are being studied can bias their behavior 0 Guarantee participants that their responses will be anonymous 0 Don t let participants know they are being involved in a study Replication o Repeating a study more than once 0 Important to conduct conceptual replications MetaAnalysis Quantitative approach to summarizing results of many studies Research Ethics Participation must be voluntary Participants cannot be harmed Anonymity must be kept Deception must identify yourself Analysis amp Reporting what you did wrong and could improve Random Assignment Withholding Desirable Treatments lp F lPF Nf
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