Class Notes Biology 1006
Popular in Ecology and the Evolution of Organisms
Popular in Biological Sciences
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Pacicco on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1006 at George Washington University taught by Tara Scully in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Ecology and the Evolution of Organisms in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
When does speciation occur Due to geographical isolation o Allopatric speciation 0 Ring species Without geographic isolation Sympatric speciation o Polyploidy Allopatric Speciation Geographical separation prevents two or more populations of a species from mating Evolution occurs in both populations 0 Reproductive barrier 0 When reintroduced they no longer mate Sympatric Speciation 0 Plants Genetic tricks 0 Hybrids 0 Rapid change in chromosome number polyploidy 0 Lake Victoria Cichlids o Went from 2 to 200 species in a short period of time 0 Species have also specialized their diet 0 Sexual selection is at work Sexual Selection 0 A form of natural selection 0 Sexual dimorphism Females place selective pressure on males 0 Peacock s feathers o Lion s mane Evolution Does Not Craft Perfect Organisms o What constraints exist 0 Survival and reproductive trade offs 0 Genetic 0 Developmental Natural extinction is the result of a specie s inability to adapt to adverse changes in the environment Human Mate Selection 0 What do men look for in a female mate 0 Femininity o Attractiveness 0 Health 0 Makeup and facial reconstruction o What do women look for in a male mate 0 Masculinity Large jaws Prominent brows 0 Symmetry lndicitive of health How does evolution work 0 Microevolution 0 Small scale changes How much variation exists now compared to the past What is causing this variation 0 Mutation Any change in the DNA sequence 0 Gene ow Migration of individuals which changes the genetic variation of the population 0 Genetic drift Random events that kill off individuals or allow certain individual to breed 0 Natural Selection Differential survival and reproduction of individuals with favorable traits Macroevolution 0 Large scale changes new species Is the variation that has occurred changed that population so that they can no longer mater with the original Pre Zygote o Ecological isolation Different habitats or timing of mating o Behavioral isolation Display acts which attract a mate 0 Mechanical isolation Physical structure don t t 0 Gametic isolation Egg and sperm physically don t t Post Zygote o Zygote death Viability of the zygote De ning species 0 The morphological species concept is 0 Separate and distinct group of organisms by the unique set of morphological characteristics 0 Limitations 0 Morphological 0 Biological Outcome of evolution Adaptation 0 Match maker between populations and their environment 0 Relate to complex characteristics 0 Important functions Unexpected outcomes 0 Multi drug resistant pathogens 0 Overuse of antibiotics Not taking an entire prescription of antibiotics Agricultural industrial use Overuse of other substances COO Coevolution 0 Interaction between two species strongly in uences their survival so that they evolve in tandem Why do diseases often become less sever over time Ecological Economical Problem Rabbits o Introduced into Australia 1759 o Exponential growth 0 Devastated farm land Solution biological control 0 Pathogen Myxomatosis When introduced killed 90 o What happened to the two populations Biology in the News Study Says Bones Found in Far East Are of a Distinct Species 0 Fossil remains of a small people with small heads 0 A different species Homo oresiensis Who are we 0 Animals Corates Mammels Primates o Hominids Evidence from the Past FossHs o Preserved remains or impressions of individual organisms
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