Note Demo 82669 - BIOL 3350 - 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Gorisek on Tuesday December 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 82669 - BIOL 3350 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Michael Sears in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Biology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 12/22/15
High temperatures produce female turtles; low temperatures produce males Lecture 16: Turtles Anapsids vs. diapsids o Modern investigation- turtles are diapsids All anapsids are extinct Consensus- sister group to archosaurs Early turtles lack neck retraction and tend to have long tails Cryptodires vs. pleurodires: o Cryptodires- vertical o Pleurodires- horizontal, southern distribution GONWANALAND 300 species o Cyrptodires more common Synapomorphies: o Shell Carapace Plastron o Limb girdles deep to ribs Grow up shallowly- bizarre Shell diversity o Hinges in shell- kinesis o Keratin or soft skin on top (aquatic) o Shape reflects habitat Flat= aquatic Dome= terrestrial Turtle feeding happens o Aquatic often carnivorous Locomotion o Flapping vs. Rowing Flapping- good because get thrust from each movement Rowing goes back a little bit but goes forward Respiration o Use abdominal muscles to expand lungs o Can breath with butts- cloacal respiration o Intracardiac shunt- helps stay under water longer TSD Sea turtle nesting o 3 cues Lecture 17: Lepidosaurs Distinguished by transverse cloacal opening Squamates- snakes and lizards Tuatara aren’t squamates because lack hemiphenes Squamates o Iguanian- o Scleroglossa- Snakes are specialized lizards o Difference is behavioral feature- scleroglossa use pheromones and are more olfactory, iguanian is more visual o Snakes 3 fang styles Different venoms Crocodilians Forward facing feet o Circulatory/respiratory features No diaphragm Make liver into diaphragm Are and food go into the same place 4 chambered heart Lecture 18: aquatic marine reptiles, taurosaurs, dinosaurs o taurosaurs and dinosaurs are sister taxa- out group is crocs o birds are in living dinosaurs? United by ankle feature Different swimming styles o Body axis o Limbs Hyperphalange Pleisosaurids- convergent evolution Taurosaurs- flying reptiles th o Skin extending over 4 digit o Sternum- powered flight Dinosaurs o Astragalus o 2 major groups Birds are part of lizard hip dinosaur Long tail is not a salamander synapomorophy- Cubis bone pointing forward is primitive Birds- feathers Consolidation of hand Furculum- spring like wishbone o Elastic recoil gives o Appears earlier in past Feathers don’t define birds What defines birds? o Short tails o Reversed hallux o Pigostyle- skeletal specialization related to o Consolidation of hand o Sysacrum o Two ankle bones fused to tibia o You have tibiotarsus and something else o Bird migration Evolution of flight Diversity of modern birds Divisions
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