RG ST 162C - University of California, Santa Barbara
RG ST 162C - University of California, Santa Barbara
Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 40 page Reader was uploaded by priscillaklee on Wednesday February 5, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 254 views.
Reviews for RG ST 162C - University of California, Santa Barbara
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/05/14
Lecture 1 2514 1100 PM Reader at the Alternative Digital Printing University Center The Sikhs Current Numbers 25 million 20 million in Punjab 3 million in South Asiaaaaa 2 million Overseas a Punjabi ethnic group in the process of turning into a global community Their Land The Punjab Farsi quotFive Riversquot The Punjab Its Landscape Dharti deg milai ik vera bhagu tera bhandari M1 GG 1190 The Punjab the divine cauldron holding fertile soil and water On the ancient trade routespeople on the move Ruling the Area Sikh vision of sovereignty The Punjab Sikh Sacred Land What makes the land sacred 1 The founders of the tradition traversed the area 2 The Sikhs challenged the existing political authorities and eventually built their kingdom there 3 The establishment of this kingdom was seen as divinely sanctioned 4 Its loss is engraved in Sikh memory 5 There is the constant need to retrieve it somehow Sikh Sacred Geography What constitutes Sikh Sacred Geography The Sikhs call their place of worship gurdwara place of the Guru These are of two types 1 The historic gurdwaras are built on the spots associated with the founders of the tradition and memories of fighting for Sikh sovereignty 2 The others simply serve as the meeting places for devotional worship The Darbar Sahib Center of Sikh sacred geography c 1840 What constitutes the heart of Sikh devotional life The are People of the Book 1 Adopted Punjabi as their language 2 Created a script named Gurmukhi quotof the Sikhsquot 3 Inscribed their scriptural and historical literature in it 4 Over time developed reverence for the language and script Early Texts The Guru Harsahai Pothi The Goindval Pothi 1570s The Partarpur Pothi 1604 The Guru Granth 18th Century Late 18th Century the Guru Granth Sahib Drabar Sahib Sikh Leaders 1 Nanak The founder 14691539 2 Gobind Singh The tenth and the last personal Guru 16661708 3 The Guru Granth Sikh Scripture 4 Political leadership Ranjit Singh 17891839 Jindan Ranjit Singh39s wife painted by 1862 The battle at Sabhraon Why Study Sikhism 1 The fifth largest religious community 2 The only monotheistic tradition to have emerged from the Indian soil 3 A non proseytizing community 4 A religious minority in the Indian subcontinent 5 A community with strong political orientation 6 Having been founded in the 1520s the Sikhs constitute a religious group that developed in full light of history and thus provide important information to understand how religious communities develop Manmohan Singh 1932 Prime Minister of India May 2004 The Sikh influence goes beyond their numbers They are also a community whose influence goes beyond their numbers JJ Singh with his wife They are a global community began to spread The Sikhs have been in North America since 1900s They number around three quarters of a million and have over 100 places of worship Alburquerque Boston Chicago Detroit Houston LA New York Raleigh SF Seattle Washington DC Calgary Montreal Ottawa Toronto Vancouver The Sikh contribution to the American society Bhagat Singh Thind in the US army in 1918 Punjab Physica features Indus River System Location Bridge between the East and Middle East Ancient trade routes cutting across the region Punjabi Society t39s racial make up The Indus valley people The arrival of the Aryans 1500 BCE The Greeks Alexander39s invasion 327 326 BCE The Shakas from Jaxartes Oxus region 94 BCE The Parthiansndo ranians 20 CE The KushanasChinese 78 144 CE The HunasChineseMongols 460 CE The Arabs beginning 730 CE The Mongols 12961306 ts religious make up around 1500 The HindusLocals The Jains The MuslimsImmigrants and locals The Jatt ButsNomads Lecture 2 2514 1100 PM The Hindus Hindu society comprised the followers of Vishnu Shiva and Devi Their practices included devotional singing in temples dedicated to these deities as well as pilgrimage to places associated with them Hindu Social Life The society was structured around the caste system three upper caste groups priests warriors traders All others obligated to serve these three In the Punjab the classical system was not closely followed instead the trading castes khatris represented the most powerful Hindu segment of the society The situation of women was not easy Femae infanticide Sati widow offering herself at the pyre of her dead husband was not uncommon The Jains The Jain ties with the Punjab go back to early times They were known for their ascetic practices and non vioence The pilgrimage to places associated with their teachers was the key devotional activity and their major centers in the Punjab included Thanesar Sirhind and Kangra The Muslims Constituted the majority community in the Punjab around 1500 Sectarian divisions 1 The Sunnis constituted the ruling classes so were the most influential group 2 The Shias formed the second largest group 3 he Sufi centers were spread all through the region Socio cutura divisions mmigrants Arabs Iranians Turks and they represented Nobility scholars soldiers craftsmen all lived in cities Local converts majority forced conversionslavery tribal leaders converting to Islam village leaders Sufi conversion lived in villages The Economy of the Region Centers Lahore and Multan Export Carpets cloth shawls Import Horses Lahore was larger than London Economy Early Systems of Irrigation Beginning 1200 the Persian wheel arrived With its chain of buckets and gearing mechanism it could life water from depths not accessible to earlier systems And Punjab became a major producer of grain The arrival of the Persian Wheel resulted in major sociological changes The erstwhile pastoral tribes began settled agriculture The nomads had to undergo major transformations in order to become part of settled society and the local society had to work out ways to incorporate these people Politics 1 Mohammad bin Qasim invaded Sind in 730s 2 Mahmud 9971030 annexed Lahore and ruled over the Punjab from Ghazani 3 Ghurids took over Ghazani and Mohammad of Ghur captured Lahore in 1186 and Delhi in 1193 and established himself there 4 He was followed by Mamluk dynasty 12661286 Khilji 12901320 Tughluqs 13201388 Sayyids 14141450 Lodi 14501526 Mongo 12961306 amp Timur invasions 1398 To Sum Up Around 1500 Punjabi society was thriving but with significant inherent tensions Between Shavites and Vaishnavites Sunnis and Shias Muslim and non Muslims Rural and urban The presence of the large army contingents in the area added further tension Nanak His Life 14691539 1 His village quotRae Bhoe di Tawandiquot what does it mean Muslim village its implications Thirty miles from Lahore 2 His family He came from a Hindu Vaishnava family We have references to his parents Kalu Bedi and Tripta Sister and brother in law Nanaki and Jairam Wife Sukhani parents in aw Mula Chonha and Chando Ranhi They all were landowning rural Khantris who also worked for the Afghan administration 3 His early years Went to temple pathshala and mosque schools madras Married Sulakhani and birth of two sons Srichand and Lakhmidas Employment in Sultanpur 1490s a district headquarter located on the highway connecting Lahore with Delhi He undergoes a powerful psychological experiencerevelation around 1500 He created a composition on this quotvisit to the divine court and direct experience of being assigned a mission of propagating the divine word His message to the people around him There are No Hindus No Muslaman Blind world 77 He leaves the job sends his family to his native village 4 The first phase of travels Panipat Delhi Banaras Pilibhit Baijnath manji Sakhi 28 Pakpattan Saidpur Pasrur Lahore Home Sakhi His travel undergoes suspension with Babur39s invasion of the Punjab in the 1520s He returns to his native village and attempts to start a community there But eventually moves on to establish Kartarpur 5 From Nanak to Guru Nanak At Kartarpur city of Creator He brings his family over A group of families join him in this experiment The Baba provided the model for living where all worked in the fields for sustenance and participated in congregational prayers Baba Nanak experiment at Kartarpur has a distinct character He rejected the Hindu model of leaving the familysociety behind Instead he gathered a group of families and started an experiment in collective living Unlike the Sufi masters his travels did not stop but continued on an extensive scale He went to Singh in the South Kashmir in the North Mecca in the West Distinction between two phases of travels During his early travels he may still be searching for answers to his questions and this pursuit ended in the founding of Kartarpur In his later travels he was already the Baba and intended to extend his following in distant places 6 The nomination of a successor Lecture 3 2514 1100 PM Baba Nanak His Mission 1 Sources Sites Kartarpur 15201539 Artifacts His book pothi cloak chola Texts Containing Baba Nanak39s 900 shabads Story of Baba Nanak from Beginning to the end compiled in the 1580s 2 The founding of Kartarpur A unique instance of a spiritual leader establishing a town The name Kartarpur Kartar creator epithet for God put suffix implying a large town The resources that went into its making personal cultural spiritual The significance of this location The physical environment Natural beauty economic viability fertile soil rain and subsoil water its centrality Lahore Sialkot Kalanour On pilgrimage routes Site with potential for a sef sufficient community The social environment An area where people of nomadic background were in the process of starting a sedentary phase in their history and search ways to establish their relationship with settled society around them Jat dominated area with villages such as Bains Bal Bajwa Bath Chahal Chhina Gill Goraya Hiar Kahlon Khaira Khokhar Mann Randhawa Sandhu amp Raipur Jatan Raipur of the Jats 3 And the Sikh Panth Who joined the Panth Very few Muslims and Jains Nanak39s family few upper caste Hindus Lower caste Hindus Large number of Jats and their ancillary groups What is the significance of this layout 4 Orienting its life What did these people do for a living Farming rice wheat sugarcane How does this relate to Nanak39s own background The profession of the Jats ts status in Punjabi society ts religious import A life of hard work ghal khai and productive living Beiefs God Vahiguru Word Jagat Human Beings Manas At Kartarpur 152039 How to understand the life of the town 1 The revealed word The Banhi 2 Nanak The Baba 3 The community the sang atPanth The Revealed Word The pothi of Baba Nanak He refers to himself as quotBabaquot 40 times quotGuruquot 4 times ts status new revelation new script new identity Its function singing remembering acting out its contents preparing copies is considered a devotional activity Baba Nanak His Activity The bringer of the revealed word authority Overseer of the day to day activity Receiving the visitors Heping them to join the Sikh sang at As the Kartarpur sangat firms up he travels on his missionaryjourneys to Kashmir Sindh Northwest The Sangat gt Panth 152039 How did people come to the new Panth Baba Nanak39s personal charisma His banhi and the early Sikhs The formalization of their entry The ceremony of char an pahul Turning the neophytes to SikhNam Dharik quotbearer of sikhianamquot not Nanak Panthis Daily Routine Sunrise prayers supplication ardas collective eating langar at Baba Nanak39s home Daytime work in the fields during the day Sunset prayers ardas and Iangar at Baba Nanak39s home Collective Eating langar Baba Nanak39s wife Sulakhani managed it Celebrating the divine bounty Opportunity for sharing band chhakanha service sega in helping to cook and clean up Socia gender age equality all are equal The Sikh Panth in the late 1530s A conglomeration of pilgrimage to Kartarpur is in place The Kartarpur The Satellite sangats Sangat The book pothi The texts of banhi The Baba manjis The local leaders His house Places of worship gurduaradargah Dharamsals The daily prayers The daily prayers The daily activity The daily activity Time for Baba Nanak to Leave 1539 He selects a successor Angad Buddha The ceremony of succession Five coins the formal passing on of the pothi The death rituals The post death void for the Sikhs World Jagat The universe came into being as a result of a single command kavao and it works along the design set forth by Vahiguru The make up of the universe is fundamentally different from that of the divine and hence there is no possibility for any traffic between the two no provision of divine incarnation 5LegaCY Lecture 4 2514 1100 PM Two competing Models of Legacy The Sites The Center of Authority Banhi gt pothi gt granth The Center of Authority personal The Panth at cross roads Baba Nanak s Legacy 39 The Mughal law KartarpuNanakpur goes to his sons Angad is forced to return to his native Khadur Two competing models Sri Chand an ascetic asserts his biological charisma o Wears Baba Nanak s mantel o Creates his seat on the burial place of BN s remains o Grants boons to those who visit this sacred spot and receives gifts when their wishes are fulfilled Guru Angad presents himself as the custodian of Baba Nanak s pothi o Builds a gurduara and a sangat at Khadur o Replicates the activity of Kartarpur by distributing the langar of the banhi o While Khivi his wife oversees the activity of feeding everyone who comes there Sri Chand s model fails during his own lifetime Kartarpur is washed away He establishes Dehra Baba Nanak but is thrown out and dies a lonely person at a spot at its periphery Guru Angad s model thrives in the decades ahead The Sites Their Socioeconomic profile The Khatris and some upper caste converts The lived at Sikh centers The cities in the Punjab Towns along the trade routes from Dhaka to Balakh and Kashmir to Burhanpur and Sindh Served in the Mughal army Rich segment supplying expensive gifts The J ats and other ancillary rural groups Comprised an overwhelming majority of the Panth They joined the Panth at Kartarpur in the Maj ha area and then spread into the Doaba and Malwa They provided the human power to build the early centers as well as defend the Panth against the Mughals The Center of Authority Banhi gt Pothi gt Granth Guru Harsahai Pothi 1530s Baba Nanak s writings Goindval Pothis 1570s M13 amp Bhagat banhi Kartarpur Pothi 1604 M15 Bhagat and Bhat banhi The Granth 1678 M15 amp9 Bhagat and Bhat banhi The Center of Authority personal Phase 1 From Guru Angad to Guru Ramdas 15391582 successors came from outside the Guru s familynon Sikh background At the time of the Guru s death his children established their rights to his property And the nominated successor Phase 2 From Guru Arjan to Guru Gobind Singh 15821708 the position turned hereditary and more importantly could stay on at the place of his predecessor Both internal and external pressures however resulted in the shifts from Ramdaspur to Kiratpur Kiratpur to Chak Nanaki and then to Anandpur Guru Arjan was executedmartyred in 1606 The Mughal concerns about the rising following and related political threat For the Sikh community a case of religious persecution 16061630 some peace 1630s the mainstream Sikhs take up the path of confrontation The hostilities begin and as a result the Sikh center is forced to shift to the Punjab hills Guru Hargobind establishes Kiratpur and his two descendants provide leadership from there Sikh Political Ascendance 17081839 Lecture 5 2514 1100 PM Sources Material Numismatics studycollective of currency Art Architecture gurdwaras forts Counter strike on Mughal coin of 1698 2 swords deg and the khanda in it Bandha Singh 1710 Symbolism Legend in farsi in coins Bandha Singh s Coins Coin struck in both worlds under Nanak s sword s guaranteevictory of Gobind Singh king of kings achieved under God s grace Minted at place of peacethe pic of a beautiful city the seat of the auspicious throne of the khalsa Coins symbolize language and meaning Nanak s sword and politics and religion is integrated into one Art and Architecture Portraits of the Guru Nanak and Gobind appearing in the Guru Granth Set of portraits of the gurus created in the middle decades Development of Gurumukhi calligraphy Building of Darbar Sahib Ramdspur The canonization of the Guru Granth the copying of early early manuscripts continued elaborately illuminated manuscripts develop small manuscripts created for travel New texts emerged New genres of writings The court literature at Lahore Farsi and Punjabi Other centers o Kapurthala Ram Sukh Rao o Patiala Guru Panth Binod Non Sikh sources MughalIranianAfghan East India Company Report to the British Parliament o Wilin s visit the Patna gurwara 1772 The treaties Lists of the officers killed in Sikh wars Writing of Malcom Cunningham Farsi sources created under the British patronage Khushvakat Rai Bhakhatmal Historical developments Weakening of the Mughal empire Nadir Shah the Iranian reuler invaded Delhi in 1738 Ahmad Shah Durrani d 1772 the Afghan leader annexed Punjab in the 1740s Sikh confrontation with the Mughals Iranians Afghans and their occupation of Lahore in 1765 The arrival of the Europeans in the vicinity Evolution Ideas o Personal authority tentative o The wives of the gurus o Banda Singh Bahadur 16701716 o Mani Singh Replacing the personal authority o The Guru Granth o The sangat Guru Panth Sikh belief and practice o Personal code I Dress eating work etc of men and women and children o Social ethics What is the community expected to do I The place of Langar and it larger role o War and ethics just War just means men without weapons women and children are never to be attacked I The Khalsa and the idea of new nobility Institutional Developments With the Guru Granth present all dharmsals the places of congregational worship turned into the Gurdwaras the house of the Guru New gurdwaras were constructed in villages with large Sikh populations leaving a visible mark on the landscape The village gurdwaras emerged as a site of education where Sikh children learnt Gurmukhi and Gurbanhi The places associated with the Gurus Kartarpur Khadure Goindval Ramdaspur were declared historical gurdwaras and became places of pilgrimage The Darbar Sahib moved to the center of Sikh sacred geography The gurdwaras such as Darbar S emerged as centers of learning whete the Granths were trained in rag and Rituals A set of rituals around the Guru Granth emerged Ceremonies such as birth naming death marriage involving the reading of certain compositions in the Guru Granth firmed up The birthdays of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh and the martyrdom days of Guru Arjan and Guru Tegh Bahadur appeared on the Sikh sacred calendar Sikh Political Ascendance 17801839 Politics Lecture 6 2514 1100 PM Mahara Ranjit Singh 17891839 0 His life Third generation ruler Captured Lahore in 1799 and went to create a supra regional kingdom including the Mughal provinces of Lahore Kashmir and parts of Multan and Kabul Turned 80 independent rulers in vassals Sindh and Bilaspur hills paid tribute But did not include cis Sutlej territories Institutions Khalsa government sarkar Lahore stayed on as the center Farsi the language of the administration The establishment of the just rule implied o No capital punishment o Revenue was more favorable than earlier times o Support of the religious establishments Akabar gave 2 of his revenue for this purpose of charitable grants Ranjit Singh increase in to 7 o Fresh grants came to the Sikh the descendants of the Gurus received a large part o Routine grants to Muslim and Hindu religious establishment continued Khalsa Court Darbar Compositions of ruling class inderwent a major change The Sikhs were 10 of total Punjabi population but constituted 60 of the ruling classes and clearly dominated the army The J ats an entirely new class entered this level They primarily came from the upper areas of the region o Lowest of the low come to the upper class Complex interaction The Sikhs trying to learn how nobility functions Muslims and Hindu leaders following their model Khalsa Army Fauj The size of regular army crossed over 100000 o Peace in the capital It was trained on European lines soldieries wore uniforms had drills in the morning awarded medal in the late 1830s the factories for explosives were established The Sikh J ats dominated the army and the Sikh stamp on this institution was firm o Each regiment had the Guru Granth and a Granthi o The Khalsa army mess had no caste distinctions they all shared the langar o Earlier army had shops and soldiers bought their food and cooked it themselves but in the later phase the collective dining facilities were introduced o The East India company army mess followed the caste lines Loved horses What was the imprint of Sikh beliefs on them a the Khalsa RajSikh sovereignty was seen as the fulfillment of the prophecy of Guru Gobind Singh b the land of the Pnjab was believed to be the divine gift for the Sikhs to rule sacred land c the Sikhs did not see any contradiction between monarchy and collective authority of the Guru Panth Bhangu s presentation of Ranjit Singh as the incarnation of Shahid Gurbakash Singh Sociocultural Developments With the French and Italian generals training the Khalsa army the Sikhs received their first exposure to modernity fox Expansion of cultivation Anyone able to cultivate the land and pay the revenue was permitted to do so New villages came to existence the ruling class and the army patronized the traders The isystem promissory note continued in a big way no movement of people outside of the Punjab all religious communities and sections of society identified with the Khalsa Raj there was no slavery the state discouraged prostitution o not banned but not good The spiritual stance gender equality read study guru Granth keeper of correct religious practice undergo khana e a i pahul the widows distinct birth marriage death ceremonies provisions for widow marriage Women could own property a person should divide his property between sons and daughters there were women scholars and women saints who were awarded charitable grants NOTE clearly a man dominated society but women still had a active role Lahore was the largest city in the Mughal empire but Amritsar 100000 surpassed its pop The domes of the Darbar Sahib s at the center of Amritsar were embellished with gold plates and its walls with marble and artistic designs Art and Culture The Guru Granth and the ten gurus Portraiture of the nobility Symbols of power the court scenes throne architectureL saced and secular Lecture 7 2514 1100 PM The Sources A new set of sources emerge The British records land census ethnography European painters record realistic scenes Photography comes to the Punjab beginning 1860 The Khalsa Raj The Khalsa Sarkar and the East India Company The treaties of 1806 Lahore The first encounter with the British 1809 Amritsar The Malwa Sikhs under EIC protection 1839 The death of Ranjit Singh dissentions within the Darbar controlling the army 1846 Lahore 1846 Bhairowal 1849 Annexation of the Khalsa Raj 1809 The Punjab Southeast ruled by Malwa Sikh chiefs under the British protection and the Khalsa Raj under the custodianship of Ranjit Singh After Ranjit Singh Sher Singh inheriting his father s empire Things fall apart at Lahore resulting in the East India company s decision to take over the Khalsa Raj battle at Sabhraon The British Punjab The early phase The annexation came at a very heavy price The subjugation of the Khalsa Raj cost more in British lives than all the officers killed in subjugating the rest of the subcontinent The British attitudes were mixed fear nervousness wipe outWork closely with these Warring people The Sikhs were dazed How could their divinely ordained Khalsa Raj fall With difficulty EIC officers were able to bring things under control and Delhi was captured on September 20 1857 This was accomplished with the help of the Sikh soldiers who executed the Mughal princes at the same spot where the ninth Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur was executed by the Mughals in 1675 Emperor Bahadur Shah was exiled to Andeman where he died in 1858 bringing the Mughal dynasty literally to an end After 1857 The British attitude changed resulting in the following o Selected Sikh chiefs were rehabilitated o The British reduced the land revenue which helped the peasants large number of whom were Sikhs o Open the doors of their army to the Punjabis Bringing in a period of relative prosperity and peace The development of the irrigation facilities A vast canal system was created that brought 2 million acres of erstwhile barren land under cultivation The Punjab became part of the large railway and road system connecting it to the Bay of Bengal on the east Calcutta and the Arabian sea in the south Karachi Social Developments The Khalsa Panth remained non proselytizing but not unwelcoming to new entrants As a result their numbers expanded though remained less than 10 of the total population J ats and other rural people joined the community in large numbers in the Malwa The Khatris living in the cities could practice Sikh beliefs without any fear of persecution and some of their extended families joined the community The mission of creating a justnot Sikh society No persecution of the Hindus and Muslims who were at liberty to practice their beliefs Their religious seats were fully supported They were co opted in the admin as the need arose The Issue of Political Authority 1710 the tensions between personal Banda Singh and collective authority Sarbat Khalsa The rivalries among the leaders how to deal with the Mughalsconfrontation qualified support KapurSinghJassa Singh Ram working for Adhina Begh The Religious Scene Arrival of Christian missionaries 1834 Missionary efforts resulting in schools hospitals zananas Their early successes included o Ranjit Singh s son Dalip Singh converted in 1854 o Harnam Singh of Kapurthala converted in 1860 s o At Missionary School Amritsar four Sikh boys converted in 1873 The Brahmo Samajis The society of the Brahmos Ram Mohan Roy 17741833 founded a liberal movement in Bengal The Brahmos came with the British in the 1850 s the Brahmo centers in Amritsar Lahore Shimla The Arya Samaj Swami Daya Nand 18241883 His early life his meeting with the Brahmos in 1872 His vision of the Hindu community Punjabi Muslim response to these developments The Anjumans Muslim Association The first was established in 1869 at Lahore This vision emphasized Anglo education social reforms Sir Saiyad Ahmad Khan visit to the Punjab in 1884 The Ahmadiyyas a group founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad d 1908 who declared himself to be a prophet of both Muslims and Christians His following includes some 10 million Muslims all over the world The Sikh Politicoreligious Scene What are the key issues Sikh sovereignty The Malwa ChiefsT he Khalsa Raj The Guru Granth Its centrality in Sikh life The Guru Panth Its functioningpersonal authority The Darbar Sahib The center of Sikh sacred geography Responses to the loss of Khalsa Raj Dayal Singh Majithia 18481898 Unqualified admiration for the West Western education press acceptance of new authority and thinking of Indian nationalism Baba Ram Singh 18161885 Complete rejection of modernity revival of Sikh moral values social gender equality and working to regain sovereignty Following the Malwa Model The Singh Sabha Rural gentlemen and middle class urban Sikhs coming together to form these groups Absolute acceptance of new political authority Amritsar group started in 1873 Lahore group in 1879 Essentially competing for the British attention Bhasaurh group in 1892 seeking radical changes To Sum Up The Guru Granth remained at the center of Sikh devotional life Its printed editions became available from 1865 onward the harmonium replaced the earlier instruments electricity was introduced at the Drabar Sahib in 1886 The printing press left significant impact Which texts were published and Why Opinions Vary as to what happened and its relationship with earlier Sikh history Lecture 8 2514 1100 PM Nam belief in imminence God is everywhere realization does us good Listening to the words of the Guru Granth nam Dan charity lungar work hard and share the fruit of your labor with others for your own good Ishnan personal purity Deg lungar nobody should go hungry Tegh cauldron the soul stands for divine justice Fateh khalsa raj Khem Singh Bedi Descendant of baba nanak Went to London and given warm reception by British Working with the British will be helpful for the Sikhs Bhai Narayan Singh Bagarhian Concerned about religious issues Don t talk about politics Partition of the Punjab Three possibilities considered by the British o It could pass on the authority to a government of a united India as agreed by all political parties o To provincial governments o Some other way that may seem reasonable and is in the best interest of the Indian people The Broader Context 1 As Jinnah the Muslim League leader had long recognized they could veto transferring power to a united government which would mean a weak central government with greater power at the provincial government level 2 The transfer of power to provincial governments implied the criterion of perhaps a dozen autonomous states not counting the hundreds of princely states that would be independent Such a choice went against the whole development of Indian nationhood which the NC had fostered 3 The third possibility concealed in the phrase some other way that may seem reasonable meant agreeing to the creation of Pakistan and idea that the Indian National Congress had refused to take seriously It had now become the most realistic of the choices The acceptance of partition by the INC was a wrenching decision It was a denial of the party s creed that Indian nationalism was not determined by religious affiliation but by a common culture that transcended religious differences Partition was an admission of failure a tacit acknowledgement of the old argument that India was not a nation The success of the nationalist movement in creating a self conscious awareness of Indian nationhood made the trauma of partition all the deeper 1947 August 14 1947 Creation of Pakistan August 15 1947 India declares its independence August 16 1947 Boundary award by Sir Cyril Radcliffe Bengal and Punjab divided into two halves respectively and while East Bengal and West Punjab combine to become Pakistan West Punjab and East Punjab became part of India The Demographics situation of the Punjab o Muslims 51 o Hindus 40 o Sikhs 7 o Jains and Christians 3 This partition resulted in over 10 million people having to move from their homes and they faced each other in an atmosphere of hostility and violence This is the largest migration in human history This movement carried a story of pain and agony including the death of over 250000 people Midterm Review 2514 1100 PM Timeline 1469 he birth of Nanak the founder of the Sikh tradition 1520 The establishment of Kartarpur the first Sikh community 1580 s The building of the Darbar Sahib Amritsar by Guru Arjan 1606 Guru Arjan s execution by the orders of Emperor Jahangir 1675 Guru Tegh Bahadur s execution by Emperor Aurangzeb 1699 Guru Gobind Singh s renaming of the Sikhs as the Khalsa 1708 The death of Guru Gobind Singh and the movement of Sikh scripture the Guru Granth and the Sikh Panth the center 1710 The capture of Sirhind by the Sikhs and Banda Singh 1785 The capture of Lahore by the Sikhs 1799 Ranjit Singh takes over Lahore and establishes the Khalsa Raj 1849 The annexation of the Khalsa Raj by the British 1860 The Sikhs begin to migrate outside the Indian subcontinent 1873 1920 The establishment of the Shiromani Gu Prabandhak Committee 1925 The Punjab Gurdwara Act legalized the authority of the SGPC 1947 The partition of the Punjab at the time of independence of India 1966 The creation of the Punjabi Suba 1973 1984 Indian army attacks the Darbar Sahib and other gurdwaras in Pb 1986 Declaration of Khalistan by the Sarbat Khalsa at the Darbar Sahib 1992 The Congress Party wins Punjab Legislative Assembly elections The founding of the first Singh Sabha to meet modernity The passing of Anandpur Sahib Resolution 1994 The Amritsar Declaration demanding a separate Sikh state 19997 The Akali Dal wins the Punjab Legislative Assembly elections 2002 The Congress Party wins the Punjab Legislative Assembly elections 2007 The Akali Dal wins the Punjab Legislative Assembly elections Question 1 There will be 78 ID s Choose 6 and write 56 sentences dates location historical context and significance for the Sikh tradition Question 2 There will be 2 Essay Themes Choose 1 and develop and essay around a brief introduction thesis statement specific examples and conclusion Midterm ID s Review Banda Singh 16701716 Military commander His agrarian uprising against the Mughal administration in Punjab was a critical event that led to the development Dal Khalsa and the Sikh Misls by Nawab Kapur Singh which eventually led to Ranjit Singh capturing Lahore in 1799 and establishing the Sikh Kingdom of the Punjab best known for the sack of the Mughal provincial capital Sirhind and is revered as a martyr of the Sikh army Coins symbolize language and meaning o Nanak s sword and politics and religion is integrated into one Nam Dan Ishnan The early Sikh communal life was centered on these three beliefs Nam meant holding God in constant remembrance and its concrete manifestation developed in the form of three daily prayers sunrise sunset and just before going to sleep Dan represented an important social value geared toward communal solidarity The fruits of one s labor are to be shared with one another and in the process help those that were less fortunate The institution of langar emerged from this context Ishnan marked the emphasis on personal cleanliness of the body and a bath was essential before the morning prayer Guru Granth The Sikh Scripture its text began to be formed during the period of Guru Nanak and its contents expanded over the next century and a half The Guru Granth contains the hymns of six Gurus some Sikh bards and a number of Hindu and Sufi saints With Guru Gobind Singh s closing of the line of the personal guruship the Guru Granth moved to the center of authority within the Sikh community The text serves as the focus of Sikh ritual and ceremonial life J anam Sakhi literally birth stories are writings which profess to be biographies of the first Sikh guru Guru Nanak which map important events primary sources to help us understand the nature of their beliefs also demonstrates the connection between their teachings and actions Darbar Sahib The Darbar Sahib moved to the center of Sikh sacred geography main hall within a Sikh gurdwara Ss where the holy text current and perpetual Guru of the Sikhs the Guru Granth Sahib is placed on a takhat or throne in a prominent central position The domes of the Darbar Sahib s at the center of Amritsar were embellished with gold plates and its walls with marble and artistic designs Charan Pahul The Charan Pahul lit nectar of the feet was a Hindu initiation ceremony in which the Guru s toe was dipped in a bowl of water and the disciples would drink it This would mark the pledge of allegiance In the Sikh community the details were reversed Instead of the Guru the new initiate s toe was dipped in the water and the rest of the congregation drank that This served as an opportunity for those who are already advanced in spiritual merit to show their humility Ranjit Singh 17891839 Third generation ruler Captured Lahore in 1799 and went to create a supra regional kingdom including the Mughal provinces of Lahore Kashmir and parts of Multan and Kabul Turned 80 independent rulers in vassals Sindh and Bilaspur hills paid tribute But did not include cis Sutlej territories 1799 Ranjit Singh takes over Lahore and establishes the Khalsa Raj Deg Tegh Fateh The Sikh manifesto for political action emerged in the 1690 s Deg lit cauldron represents the Sikh effort to ensure that all are fed Tegh lit sword represents the Sikh communities responsibility to administer justice and protect the meek from the political cruelty Fateh lit Victory implied that the Sikh belief that they are assigned he duty to bring divine justice to this earth Guru Panth In the 1690 s Guru Gobind Singh decided the resolve the office of the Guru and redesignated the Sikh community to be the Khalsa lit the pure This created a new structure of authority the community in the form of Guru Panth could come together in the presence of the Guru Granth and decie the course of action In doing so Guru Gobind Singh attemted to eliminate the internal divisions personal authority as well as circumvent the external threat of the Mughal persecution Dasam Granth A scripture of Sikhism containing much of the texts attributed to tenth Sikh guru Guru Gobind Singh the focus of the Dasam Granth has quotlittle to do with religious beliefquot Some compositions of the Dasam Granth like J aap Sahib Tav Prasad Savaiye and Benti Chaupai are part of daily prayers Nitnem of the Sikhs and also part of Sikh baptism Khanda di Pahul Langar Collective Eating langar Started by Guru Nanak Baba Nanak39s wife Sulakhani managed it Celebrating the divine bounty Opportunity for sharing band chhakanha service sega in helping to cook and clean up Social gender age equality all are equal Only vegetarian food is served to ensure that all people regardless of their dietary restrictions can eat as equals The tradition of langar expresses the ethics of sharing community inclusiveness and oneness of all humankind Khande di Pahul Khande di Pahul lit nectar of the double edged sword was instituted by Guru Gobind Singh as part of his declaration of the Khalsa In this ceremony Sikh sacred verses are recited while five individuals stir the water with a double edged sword turning this into nectar Individuals undertaking this ceremony are required to follow a personal code of conduct rahit regard the Guru Granth as their only spiritual guide i e no personal authority and work for the Guru Panth bringing deg tegh fateh to the Earth Essay 1 Building on Guru Nanak s life and writings discuss the details of the founding of the Sikh community at Kartarpur Please re ect on the issues such as why did he establish a new community what went in his selection of the site of Kartarpur what was the social and religious composition of his early followers and the nature of their religious and routine life How does Guru Nanak s experiment at Kartarpur compare with the founding of another religious tradition you know well He was born into a Hindu family They were land owning rural Khantris who worked for the Afghan administration They enjoyed a high degree of authority in the social hierarchy of their village He grew up going to the temple and mosque schools He had a revelation his being was in the divine presence and he has a mission of spreading the divine glory in the world that was assigned to him This spiritual experience fundamentally changed the course of his life He quit his position in the administration to sing songs of divine glory and sends his family back to his native village He travels to difference places on his pilgrimage looking for answers to his questions He began to give his mission of spreading divine glory its final form by trying to establish a community He returns to his native village and attempts to start a community there but he founded Kartarpur on a piece of land he acquired on the River Ravi The land was very fertile and it had potential for a self sufficient community Here he became the Guru and had his followers who were called the Sikhs At Kartarpur he brings his family and other groups of families to join him Everyone worked in the fields for sustenance and participated in congregational prayers He left the Hindu model of leaving the family and society behind and instead gathered a group of family to practice collective living He also continued his travels unlike Sufi masters Some muslims J ains few upper caste Hindus and lower caste Hindues and a large number of J ats and their ancillary groups joined Baba s family in the Sikh Panth At Kartarpur they farmed and lived a life of hard work They practiced prayers ardas and langar 1 NAM DAN ISHNAN basic beliefs PERIOD OF NANAK charan pahul ceremony The early Sikh communal life was centered on these three beliefs Nam meant holding God in constant remembrance and its concrete manifestation developed in the form of three daily prayer sunrise sunset and just before going to sleep Dan represented an important social value geared toward communal solidarity Fruits of one s labor are to be shared with one another and in the process help those that were less fortunate The institution of langar emerged from this context Ishnan marked the emphasis on personal cleanliness of the body and a bath was essential before the morning prayer BELIEFS ON THE UNITY OF THE DIVINITY A LIFE OF PERSONAL FAMILIAL AND SOCIAL COMMITMENT AND THE NEED FOR COLLECTIVE LIBERATION Essay 2 Like any living organism religious traditions continually change adapt and evolve over time The Sikh tradition was founded by Guru Nanak in the early 16 century and continued to develop under the guidance of successive gurus up to the time of Guru Bogind Singh in the early 18 century During these 200 years the Sikh tradition underwent periods of trial and transformation Please trace the continuities and the discontinuities in both belief and practice that would best characterize the development of the Sikh Panth during this period Using specific examples discuss how the Sikh tradition developed through the leadership of the ten gurus Is it possible to recognize the teachings of Guru Nanak in the Khalsa of Guru Gobind Singh Social and religious life that Guru Nanak created in Kartarpur The personal Guru was at the center of authority as primary medium for revelation He made no distinction of caste creed or gender for since there is a single creator how could one hold beliefs in the distinctions between high and low pure and impure strong and weak etc Baba s family served as the core of the community around which other families gathered Had congregational prayers work constituted the center of life at Kartarpur Charan Pahul is the ceremony of initiation the new initiate s toe was washed and other Sikhs drank that water Baba Nanak to Guru Angad Angad builds a gurduara and a sangat at Khadur Replicates the activity of Kartarpur by distributing the langar of the banhi His wife oversees the activity of feeding everyone who comes there His model thrives in the decades ahead Guru Angad to Guru Ramdas Successors came from outside the Guru s familynon Sikh background At the time of the Guru s death his children established their rights to his property and the nominated successor The Gurus built new towns and in these towns Sikh devotional life remained centered on congregational worship Sikh sacred literature expanded as each Guru added new compositions to the sacred text The successors elaborated on Baba Nanak s Rahit the code of belief and conduct that the Sikhs were expected to follow Community also continued to expand in number and variety of social backgrounds of newcomers Guru Arjcm to Guru Gobind Singh The position turned hereditary and more importantly could stay on at the place of his predecessor Gobind Singh renamed the Sikhs as the Khalsa the community of the pure This created a new structure of authority Doing this he attempted to eliminate the internal divisions personal authority as well as avoid the external threat of the Mughal persecution Presence of personal Guru not necessary as primary medium of revelation to the Sikhs He restructured the system of authority both within the community as well as in its relationship to the external centers of power The sacred text moved to the center of the structure of authority within the Khalsa with the personal authority of the Guru formally eliminated Guru Nanak s emphasis on the purity of the body and the need to keep it clean went further cant shave bodily hair carry a comb wear a neatly tied turban wear a pair of britches trousers and carry a sword and a steel bracelet The Khalsa assigned a clearly defined mission of punishing evil and establishing Sikh sovereignty The struggle of the Khalsa did not simply enjoy divine approval rather the Khalsa itself is divine in nature because it is executing divine justice on earth Role of Khalsa is to fight for divine victory in this earth The ritual they had to go under to prepare members of the Khalsa is khande di pahul nectar of the double edged sword Essay 3 With the establishment of the Khalsa in the late l690 s and the death of Guru Gobind Singh in 1708 a set of new centers of authority and institutions emerged to replace the personal leadership of the Guru What were these centers how were they similar andor different from earlier ones how did they facilitate the Sikh response to the external threats How did individuals like Banda Singh and later the Sikh chiefs in the eighteenth century interpret and enact the ideology of the khalsa culminating in the creation of a Sikh state under Maharaja Ranjit Singh The antecedents of the centrality of the text can be traced back to the inception of the community and the phasing out of the office of the Guru had started with the declaration of the Khalsa The absence of the Guru was compounded by the loss of the communal center after the evacuation of Anandpur Guru Granth the Sikh Scripture became the center of the structure of authority within the Khalsa with the personal authority of the Guru formally eliminated With the Guru Granth present all dharamsalas the places of congregational worship turned into the Gurdwaras the house of the Guru The village gurdwaras emerged as a site of education where Sikh children learned Emphasis on the purity of the body and the need to keep it clean went further turban etc Bhai Mani Singh leading scribe began to work toward positioning the Darbar Sahib as the center of Sikh sacred geography Bhai Mani Singh revived the tradition of Sikhs visiting the Darbar Sahib regularly as well as on the festival days of Vaisakhi and Divali While these festivals introduced vibrancy to Sikh religious life they also provided the Darbar Sahib with economic stability ni the form of tithes The Vaisakhi and Divali meetings at the Darbar Sahib also created the context for collective reflection on issues confronting the community As a part of Guru Gobind Singh s plan to return to Anandpur he had commissioned Banda Singh 16701716 a follower at Nander to go to the Punjab organize the community and wait for the Guru s return After the Guru s death Banda Singh viewed his mission in broader terms as waging war against the Mughals and establishing the Khalsa Raj The Sikhs in the Punjab received him as the bearer of the last command of the Guru and offered him their full support Under the leadership of Banda Singh the Sikhs began their political ascendancy in the eastern Punjab and were able eventually to capture Sirhind in May 1710 In the following months they went on the offensive traveling to the west across the rivers Satluj Beas and Ravi and to the east across the river Yamuna The Khalsa ideology that fired the Sikh imagination was centered on the belief that they were to supplant an illegitimate rule and herald a new era This was marked by a new set of symbols a new capital city at Mukhlispur city of the purified a new official seal new coins a new calendar a new insignia and a new ag Nishan Sahib The insignia of degh tegh fateh cauldron sword victory marked the commitment to feed the hungry and provide justice to all in the Khalsa Raj Based on a principle of justice the Sikhs were not to permit harassment of the common people Themes Review 1 Building on Guru Nanak s life and writings discuss the details of the founding of the Sikh community at Kartarpur Please re ect on the issues such as why did he establish a new community what went in his selection of the site of Kartarpur what was the social and religious composition of his early followers and the nature of their religious and routine life How does Guru Nanak s experiment at Kartarpur compare with the founding of another religious tradition you know well 1 Like any living organism religious traditions continually change adapt and evolve over time The Sikh tradition was founded by Guru Nanak in the early 16 century and continued to develop under the guidance of successive gurus up to the time of Guru Bogind Singh in the early 18 century During these 200 years the Sikh tradition underwent periods of trial and transformation Please trace the continuities and the discontinuities in both belief and practice that would best characterize the development of the Sikh Panth during this period Using specific examples discuss how the Sikh tradition developed through the leadership of the ten gurus Is it possible to recognize the teachings of Guru Nanak in the Khalsa of Guru Gobind Singh 2 With the establishment of the Khalsa in the late 1690 s and the death of Guru Gobind Singh in 1708 a set of new centers of authority and institutions emerged to replace the personal leadership of the Guru What were these centers how were they similar andor different from earlier ones how did they facilitate the Sikh response to the external threats How did individuals like Banda Singh and later the Sikh chiefs in the eighteenth century interpret and enact the ideology of the khalsa culminating in the creation of a Sikh state under Maharaja Ranjit Singh Essays 15 phase Charan Pahul ceremony nam dan ishnan Nanak 2 phase Khande Di Pahul ceremony deg tegh fateh Gobind Singh 3 phase Khalsa Panth no more Guru 9 Guru Granth Guru Panth Lecture 10 The Context Hindu Jain Muslim J at In Sikh Literature Beliefs Baba Nank In Rahit literature Around 1900 o Contemporary Issues In Sikh history Contemporary Situation Achievements and Challenges The role of goddess celebration The impurity associated with women Yogis Society Female infanticide Dowry Sati the status of Widow Patriarchal values honor etc among the upper castes The Sufis The image of a women devoted to God Some Sufi leaders were married others not From woman man is born Within woman man is conceived To woman he is engaged and married Woman becomes his friend Through woman the future generations come When a woman dies he seeks another woman To woman he is bound So Why call her bad From her kings are born From woman woman is born Without woman there would be no one at all 0 Nanak only the True Lord is without a Woman Baba Nanak Guruth Granth 473 Baba Nanak Family is the site of liberation No celibacyasceticism 2514 1100 PM Treatment of women in his poetry His concern for women and children How do we interpret this A radical development or an incremental shift through an important one providing more space for omen at that time In Sikh Literature The rahit literature a complex array of statements In Parm Marag 1700 the most authoritative text Women are assigned equality o Rituals to celebrate the birth of a female child o Expected to undergo the khande di pahul o Details as to their role in the marriage ceremony separate for widow marriage o Expected to be well versed in Sikh beliefs and help husbands in matter religious and guide children o No dealings with those who kill their daughters Rajputs Around 1900 o 1 An concerted effort to focus on gender equality o 2 The first boarding school for women started in the 1894 many more followed o 3 Women protagonists in the writings of Vir Singh d 1857 warriors and martyrs o 4 In 1925 women permitted to VOTE in the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee elections o 5 Lachhami Bai a writer of this time Contemporary Situation o 1 Nikki Guninder Kaur Singh Professor of Religion Colby College I A US trained feminist scholar Sikh belief system is great the Guru period was a golden age but Punjabi patriarchal cultural reality has not permitted it to grow I Return to old sources and cleansing the accretions o 2 The entry of the American Sikhs and their need for gender equlity brought in the issues of the rituals enacted at Darbar Sahib the singing during the prayers the washing of the floor etc Women in Skh history Baba Nanak his mother sister wife mother in law In History The Guru Period Mata Khivi Guru Angad s wife appears as the overseer of the langar in the 1540 s Khivi is a noble woman who gives soothing leafy shade to all She distributes the bounty of the Guru s Langar the rice pudding and ghee is like sweet ambrosia Guru Hargobind dedicated a pool to his wife Mata Kaulan 1620 s Guru Tegh Bahadur named his town Chak Nanaki after his mother His wife Mata Gujari sent letters of command on his behalf Mata J ito role in the ceremony of the khande di pahul Guru Bohind Singh s wives provided leadership after his death in the 1710 and the 1720s After Guru Ramdas the Gurus had more than one marriage How do you explain this fact o The traditional silence o The younger people s discomfort o Our explanation Later History Pardhan Kaur Educationist Sada Kaur leader in late 18 century Rani J indan leader in mid 19 h century Harnam Kaur Educationist 1900 s Amrita Sher Gill artist Amrita Pritam poet Gurinder Chadha film director Sikh Social Reality Is there a gender equality NO The sex ratio in the Punjab 870 to 1000 The issue of feticide Domestic Violence o It is as good or as bad as the context permits Contemporary Situation Where could they go The doctrinal sanction of more space for Women The case of 1988 Visakhi Parade in New York The feminist positions My position The foundational phase bba nanak Vahi guru the ultimate authority Other levels 1 the sacred wirtings the source of divine wisdom 2 the guru great human being bearer of revelation 3 the congregation sangat the Sikhs The Scriptural authority How is the text understood Revealed of divine orgin eternal text A closed text nothing can be taken out and nothing can be added Normative text anwers to all questions are believed to be there How does its authority manifest In Sikh worship The Gurdwara is the house of the Guru Granth Placed at the head of congregation framed in symbols of royalty canopy whisk silken robes Ceremonially opened in the morning and put to rest in the evening Congregation sits on a lower level always facing toward the text Sikh prayers are addressed to the text and the divine reply sought from it No genderclass distinction in its handling How does its authority manifest Role in life cycle rituals Serves as the center of ritual life o Naming the baby the text is opened at random and the first letter on the top left hand corner of is used to name the baby o Wedding the couple circumambulates the text four times while a special prayer is recited o Death ceremonies a reading of the text is performed and a prayer offered for the peace of the soul Reading of the text performed on a special occasions Ritual have developed around the text itself Various types of readings of the complete text48 hours continuous 7 days open no time limit Special prayers are performed at the beginning and the closing of these readings Rituals developed around the text include Special environment for its publication Ceremonial transporting of the text A special ight was chartered to bring them to Vancouver The ceremonial cremation of the text when it is thought to be too old for use
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'