RG ST 155 - University of California, Santa Barbara
RG ST 155 - University of California, Santa Barbara
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This 21 page Reader was uploaded by priscillaklee on Wednesday February 5, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 336 views.
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Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes this semester.
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Date Created: 02/05/14
Wilson Hubbell Part 1 2514 1109 PM Story is important because it is common ordinary All gave some some gave all Served with three women Long time ago army was mostly men Grew up in upper middle class suburbs in San Diego About 1011 became aware that almost all known male adults served in the military First half of 20 century there were 3 major wars WW1 WW2 Korean war Peace time during 1950 60 s after Korean War People of all statuses served in the army passage of right it was expected Draft military constriction compulsory military service for all male citizens for a period of two years full time Early 1960 s theoretically can be drafted along the ages of 1926 Universities and military kept contact Christmas Eve got a letter from President of US Lyndon B Johnson to report for service Federal crime if ignore summon Easiest most common way to avoid the draft was to join the service of your choice Unlike Afghanistan and Iraq the National Guard were not called up to serve in Vietnam It was easier to draft people than to call up the Reserves and National Guard Rush to join National Guard and Coast Guard Reserve Air Force Army etc Wanted to get involved in army aviation Was sent to El Paso Texas All soldiers have to go through basic infantry training Just wanted a say in what sort of job he was to be doing in Vietnam didn t really object the idea of being drafted or going to Vietnam Platoon individual groups of 100 soldiers that train together community in order to succeed collectively and individually or else they could all fail together and suffer the consequences Sent to another fort in Alabama trained in helicopters Oakland 9 put on Air Force cargo plane to Vietnam Guard duty Helicopter maintenance first calvary division Transferred to a different division with better protection larger infantry living conditions Wilson Hubbell Part 2 2514 1109 PM Sage 47 helicopter that he was working on First Calvary division Problem in Vietnam All the people were spending one year in Vietnam then go home Because of the draft the people going into Vietnam never been there constant ow of new inexperienced people going in and experienced people leaving Perpetual turnover of new people lack of institutional knowledge If you stay an extra year you get 30day paid leave vacation extra stripe higher position and you can choose any unit Volunteered for an additional six months in Vietnam but not with the same unit Went home for a month and war may be over soon supposedly Volunteered specifically for 196th assaults helicopter station Much better living conditions Lived in buildings rather than tents Hired maids Went on ight status Assigned to work with the South Korean military they did guard duty instead of American Veterans Impressions when they were there what they were doing where it was at Tet Offensive Vietnam attacked still very strong and war was not over CH 47 helicopters Vietnam War Helicopter War UH 1 PTSD very Vietnam vet hears he UH1 helicopter brings back intrusive thoughts 50 of mission is lifting helicopters that have crashed Surreal idea of coming back to a safe place of relaxation after a day in war Ice cream delivery to different army bases Lobsterice cream trade Codes of Conduct Never y away from a downed helicopter or troops in contact with enemies on the ground 1995 went back to Vietnam to where the soldiers died while he was in a helicopter watching them stuck there with all the canon shells going off Started having problems with memory and loss of appetite When he returned he didn t tell anyone he was in the military or Vietnam Vietnam veterans were spat upon basically shunned from other people Reason why is because some came back with diseases psychological diseases suspected as committing atrocities violent and dangerous etc Many major companies in America systematically and specifically excluded people who have served in Vietnam via bad employment risk Found it depressing because of the undeserved stereotypes upon Vietnam vets No recognition or honor of the war Started having medical problems Post traumatic stress disorder went to ER Graduated from a CC and went to Cal Poly Pomona majoring in urban planning and minor in architecture 1975 Fall of Saigon war ended the way it would have ended if we have never even been there only thing we did was make the war last longer Nearly 60000 casualties Agent orange sprayed around base camps everywhere by airforce cargo planes and helicopters Keith Wrights tent mate who died in battle Jim Nolan The War Part 1 2514 1109 PM Read My First 25 Days in Vietnam by Thursday Marine Corp boot camp Why is it important for us to share what we went through It is important for us to make meaning out of our experience or else it was a total waste and the lives of our friends who died would mean nothing Go from normal teenager to what A lot of people wonder why we don t talk bout experience and why we don t want our families especially our kids to know what we did or what we saw Tuesday Coming home and PTSD Personal story of my 9 month tour during 9 month got 3 purple heart and was medi vac d out of country to Okinawa 1 3 months as a Marine infantryman 2 2 months as one of a two man sniper team 3 4 months as an infantryman squad leader Died after 20 years Learning Curve of the FNG No one wants to walk behind or in front of the fckn new guy Levels of Learning and Competence Unconscious incompetence unaware of all the things you don t know Conscious incompetence understand that there is a lot to learn about Conscious competence As long as you concentrate on it you ll do the right thing Unconscious competence don t even need to think about it it s habituala reaction My First 25 Days in Vietnam Sept 23 1966 to Oct 18 1966 List of firsts growing levels of fear and slow loss of character First time being shot at First time on point First people I killed little girl and baby First death of someone close Charlie mentor teacher relied on hiim Fear goes up conscious feeling about others goes down Results in total loss of feeling and caring definition of a psychopath Hardest to adjust to were the people he killed as a sniper 2nd 3 months as one of a two man sniper team Fear of being seen Fear of being captured Terror of Walking in the dark Having to choose who to kill 3 3 months as an infantryman squad leader Being responsible for others lives Having to make choices about assignments o Who went on night ambush o Who should walk point etc Incident on the bridge Jim Nolan Coming Home and PTSD Part2 2514 1109 PM Came home at 20 years old Got out of marine corps at 21 Welcoming home memory Los Altos first thing he tried to do was pick his life up from where he left off Connect with old friends become normal again wanted to forget about Vietnam we re not talking about these things to you guys for you guys to feel sorry for us if you can t make the bridge between sympathy and empathy you re washing your time That s what it s about that s why we re here o Wow I can t believe you went through that He jumped some guy that said how many babies did you kill this was the last time in 20 years he ever told anyone he was from Vietnam Never mentioned it in job applications no questions asked There s no one that has done what you did because no matter how many times I tell you you can t say Oh I know how you feel That must have made you feel horrible You can empathize but you cannot say you understand exactly how he feels PTSD is an invention of the Vietnam war so many suicides after coming home almost equal to the number of people who died in Vietnam Need to seek psychological help Had an anger problem Threw a phone at someone at work and smashed a window because of something that person said to him Road rage US 101 The difference between infatuation and obsession is that infatuation is when you can buckle down but an obsession is with you all the time whether you like it or not The absolute weight of the water bottle doesn t matter it depends on how long you hold it The longer you hold it the heavier it becomes Think about it for a little while nothing happens This about it for a longer time it will hurt Think about it for a whole day it will paralyze you incapable of doing anything Put the glass down Lost all his jobs within that one time of his life Went to a church God has answered his prayers Put him in a community where I have previously been isolated Put me in contact with families put me in touch with male role models Medical problems Wife got a multiple melanoma maximum of 5 more years to live She wanted comfort and support Trained to channel emotions in anger Think about Vietnam always obsession it s an intrusive thought Learn how to feel Midterm 2514 1109 PM Based on presentations that we had Reading materials Materials that are on the website J im s essay Red thin scantron Go over everything Tuesday February 4 50 questions plus 3 bonus questions 100 question thin scanton and pencil Review All lectures and presentations Wilson Jim Harry Maixner Bob Brady and Hecht Review all reading assignments up through and including the fourth week Website Hecht on Why is a Class on Vietnam a Religious Studies course and Nolan on My First 25 Days in Vietnam Today s lecture The History of the Vietnam War and Diplomacy is on the Website Harry Maixner 2514 1109 PM US Navy Bob Brady 2514 1109 PM Helicopter pilot medical evacuation pilot 25 years as a lawyer of criminal defense Chronic severe PTSD Always believed that he is immune to stress About 5 years ago he tried a case and he couldn t remember words or his client s name He needs to be alone likes to be alone this is how PTSD affects him as he gets older Had a conversation about 23 months ago interview for a documentary done for Vietnam At the Vietnam memorial Looks for his own name on the wall o Young man who was 18 years old Grew up in a small town near Pittsburg Pennsylvania Company towns that were very poor Family was Catholic Draft had to meet the quotas came to areas like his town because af uent areas were able to avoid the draft Started smoking at 10 years old Brother was in Vietnam when drafted Took a test to go to ight school and passed went to Louisiana Professional pilots Aircraft commander Dust Off Pilot solely voluntary Moved to San Antonio Texas Went through medevac training Had 3 weeks off before Vietnam o Got arrested and put in confinement for drug possession Agent Orange created a completely brown surrounding where Bob lived Lived underground with only 4 beds and 4 chairs Cockroach heaven Pilots all held little guns to protect their private because they always got shot at Dust off Pilot changed the whole concept of ying helicopters Over 50 of the ight time was at night Soldiers would strike a match inside their helmet towards the sky so that they can see from the helicopter Gunship operations always had a schedule but dust off didn t Fly at low level What made them really different was that they landed no matter where they were Weather shut down ight operations but not dust off pilots They ew at night during the heaviest monsoons and rain You were always a new guy until you got shot at The first time he picked up patients he got shot at with 4060 rounds Start of losing his soul Hoist mission hover and pick up a crashed helicopter One of the most dangerous because you cannot move until hoist moves all the way down and all the way back up 2 week in started getting shot at and tail roder got shot Helicopter fell definitive experience because he was really changing From this point on he had no more feelings wasn t afraid again Has 4 eX wives never was able to attach to a human being again Everything became instinct to him he became part of this machine 9 became really good at ying He loved it adrenaline rush and what he did Never been able to have a home since because nothing he does can compare to what he feels in a helicopter He has made over 1200 pick up mission in Vietnam Became aircraft commander in 3 months 1971 There was a time that he shouldn t have been able to land a helicopter but he did and he felt disappointed because he really thought it was his time to die Was training a guy name Tony Luke ew into a mountain Priest went up to him and asked if he wanted to do a confession Said fuck you and never believed in God since The History of the Vietnam War and Diplomacy 2514 1109 PM Outline Introduction Misguided Presumptions Casualties Vietnam in PostWWII Presumptions Relationship between advisors people organizing the war and psychological states Frances Fitzgerald daughter of scholar Paul Neus Length and durability of Vietnamese history and culture Casualties 1100000 NVA killed 251000 Vietcong killed 2000000 Vietnamese civilians killed in the war in both South and North 58272 Americans service personnel killed in action 303644 Americans wounded in action 2464 American service personnel missing in action in 1975 Now 1678 MIA 725 POWs gt 660 freed 28 escaped 65 died in captivity Total Vietnamese deaths nearly 4000000 or ten percent of total population Why Did the War in Vietnam Last so Long With Few Positive Results General William Westmoreland Commanded US military operations in Vietnam from 1964 to 1968 President Johnson too many restraints escalation was too slow President Nixon abandoned our South Vietnamese alley the role of the press in poisoning the public attitude toward the war the negotiated treaty allowed the North Vietnamese troops to remain in South Vietnam during the ceasefire which began in 1973 Others military leaders counseled press censorship which both Johnson and Nixon rejected 0 Body count was very important within the media One huge di erence from Vietnam War from any other war was the involvement of the press Johnson was concerned that censoring the press would damage his social program The Great Society Nixon thought censorship would damage his political ambitions for a second term Both adopted however a policy of minimum candor Other military leaders were critical of graduated escalation and attrition We would have won the war by bombing massively and earlier American troops were ill prepared to fight in jungles and rice fields and where the enemy could not be distinguished from the local peasants we were to protect Admiral Thomas Moorer We should have fought in the north where everyone was the enemy where you did not have to worry whether or not you were shooting friendly civilians In the south you had to cope with women concealing grenades in their brassieres or in their baby s diapers But Lyndon Johns did not want to overthrow the North Vietnamese government Well the only reason to go to war is to overthrow a government you don t like Communists had complete resolve to reunify Vietnam under their control They saw the struggle against America and its South Vietnamese Allies as another chapter in their nation s thousand years of resistance to th Chinese and later French rule They were prepared to accept unlimited losses to achieve their sacred objective American strategists were wrong They had superimposed our values to the Communists General Westmoreland believed there was a point where they would break Years after the war he continued to think that attrition would be the answer He once said that General Giap who had fought the Japanese and the French would have been sacked over night if he were an American commander American exceptionalism negated an accurate evaluation of the enemy Racism gooks or soldiers who saw the huge numbers of dead after a battle might say that Asians don t think about death the way we do Vietnam in the postWWII Age Berlin Blockade 19481949 Chinese Communists drive Chiang Kai shek from the mainland of China 1949 Russia detonates its first nuclear weapon 1949 North Korea with the support of PRC invades South Korea 1950 and the beginning of the Korean War Russia detonates its thermo nuclear weapon 1953 Fallout shelters in the backyard 1954 and duck and cover Hungarian and Polish Revolts 1956 crushed by Soviets Soviet Premier Nikta Khrushchev Moscow Polish embassy speech We will bury you 1956 Cuban Revolution 19531959 and the Cuban Communist Party Sputnik 1957 Cuban Missile Crisis 19620 Robert S McNamara 19162009 President of Ford Motor Company then Secretary of Defense under Presidents Kennedy and Johnson 19611968 and then the President of the World Bank until 1981 Ted Sorenson described his role in the Cuban missile crisis as absolutely central to defusing the potential con ict between the US and the Soviet Union and the start of a nuclear war The main architect of the American strategy in Vietnam In his book In Retrospect The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam 1995 he set out the reasons Why we were drawn into the con ict the Domino Theory and also our ignorance of the history of Vietnam its people cultures and religions and also its language Mid level intelligence personnel had been shifted to other tasks involving the expansion of Communism in Asia and Latin America Part 1 The Civilizations of South East Asia Indian Expansion into South East Asia Buddhism and arya vartana Kingdom of Funan Cambodia 9 century Khmer empires and Angkor civilization ThailandSiam Laos Vietnam Each of these civilizations were forced to contend with Chinese efforts to dominate Southeast Asia and Vietnam was most exposed to Chinese in uence Part 2 A Very French Affaire Vietnam s Long Struggle for Autonomy 40 CE Trung sisters lead insurrection against Chinese and set up an independent state 1428 After a decade of revolt the Chinese recognize Vietnam s independence 1545 Civil strife splits Vietnam for nearly two centuries 1637 Alexandre de Rhodes French Jesuit missionary adapts Vietnamese language to the Roman alphabet Opens the door for extensive French in uence in Vietnam 1802 Nguyen Anh becomes emperor and unifies the country 1820 Captain John White from Salem becomes first American to visit Vietnam 1847 French forces and Vietnamese Mandarins clash in Danang 1847 Vietnamese king Tu Duc plans to eliminate Christianity in Vietnam 1852 French republic under Napoleon III commits to a series of expeditions to Vietnam to protect French missionaries and secure trade concessions 1861 French capture Saigon 1863 French control Cambodia 1873 French gain control over Tonkin 1879 Cochinchina s first French civilian governor is appointed 1887 France controls Cochinchina Annam Tokin 1914 WWI brings over 100000 Vietnamese to France as labor battalions 1932 Bao Dai The French King returns from France 1940 France falls to Germany in June in September Japanese occupy Indochina but leave the French colonial administration in place 1945 Japanese take over French administration throughout Indochina and Bao Dai proclaims the independence of Vietnam under the auspices of the Japanese and then is immediately force to abdicate Ho Chi Minh declares the independence of Vietnam Famine in the north kills more than two million 1946 China and France reach an accord which exchanges extraterritorial concessions France gives up claims in China China gives up claims in Vietnam France recognizes Vietnam as a free state within the French colonial union French troops take the place of the Chinese There will be a referendum to determine whether Tonkin Annam and Cochinchina should be reunited Ho Chi Minh goes to Paris to negotiate independence but negotiations break down and France proclaims a separate government in Cochinchina Heavy fighting between French and Vietminh around Hanoi The French Indochina War has begun 1950 US now funding French in Indochina because of fears of the Chinese Communists Vietminh being trained and supported by China 1953 Eighty percent of the cost of the French war was being paid by the US 1954 French believe they can lure the Vietminh into a battle at Dienbienphu but instead the French garrison is surrounded and seven weeks later surrenders 1500 dead 4000 wounded and 10000 POWs Part 3 The American Interlude President Eisenhower decides against American intervention to save the French 1954 The Geneva conference cessation of hostilities in Vietnam Cambodia and Laos division of Vietnam at the 17 parallel pending political settlement through nationwide elections Our man in Saigon Ngo Dinh Diem with 100 million aid Hundreds of thousands of refugees ee south 1955 Aid funneled directly to Saigon government and the US agrees to train South Vietnamese army Diem rejects the Geneva Accord and refuses to hold national elections Diem declares himself President of the Republic of Vietnam 1957 Communist insurgency in the south assassination of more than 400 minor South Vietnamese officials Thirty seven armed companies are organized in the Mekong Delta 1959 North Vietnam begins to infiltrate cadres Ho Chi Minh trail is used to bring supplies and fighters into the south 1960 John Kennedy defeats Richard Nixon for the US Presidency President Eisenhower warns Kennedy that Laos is the major crisis in South East Asia North Vietnamese form the National Liberation Front which the Saigon regime brands Vietcong or Communist Vietnamese 1961 Vice President Lyndon Johnson visits South Vietnam and proposes additional American aid to the Diem regime 1962 Maxwell Taylor and Walt Rostow State Department visit Vietnam and urge Kennedy to send combat troops disguised as ood relief workers 1963 Ngo Dinh Nhu Diem s forces attack Buddhist temples Self immolation of Thich Quang Duc and then others Coup a e tat and the Diems are executed on 1 November President Kennedy is assassinated on 22 November in Dallas Ho Chi Minh Ho Chi Minh born in central Vietnam in 1887 His father is a well known Confucian Scholar who also became a low ranking provincial adminstrator 1911 Ho leaves Vietnam and will not return for thirty years 1912 arrives in the US where he works as a baker and other menial positions in New York and then in London until 1918 After WWI he journeys to Paris where he uses the name Nguyen ai Quoc Nguyen the Patriot 1919 Ho petitions President Wilson at Versailles Peace Conference for self determination in Vietnam 1920 joins the newly formed French Communist Party 1924 Leaves Paris for Moscow then Canton and in 1930 forms the Indochinese Communist Party in Hong Kong 1941 Ho returns to Vietnam and forms the Vietminh to fight the French and the Japanese Part 4 President J ohnson s War 19631968 President Johnson s War 1963 to 1968 In 1960 there were 15 US military advisers in Vietnam By the end of the 1963 there were 15000 Aid level reaches 500 million 1964 Pentagon beings refining plans to bomb North Vietnam South Vietnamese naval operations begin against North Vietnam 2 August North Vietnamese patrol boats attack the US Maddox in the Gulf of Tonkin Dubious second night confrontation two days later 7 August Congress passes Tonkin Gulf Resolution giving President Johnson extraordinary powers to act in South East Asia Arkansas Senator J William Fulbright 19451979 Manages the Tonkin Gulf Resolution in 1964 but quickly turns against the war and the Foreign Relations Committee under his chairmanship becomes the most critical Senate committee President Johns rejects proposal to carry out bombing raids North Vietnam 1965 In February President Johnson approves plan for air raids against North Vietnam Operation Rolling Thunder sustained heavy bombing of North Vietnam begins Two marine battalions land to defend Danang airfield first US combat troops in Vietnam President Johnson offers Ho Chi Minh participation in the South East Asian development plan in exchange for peace North Vietnamese Prime Minister Pham Van Dong rejects President J ohnson s proposal Any settlement of the conflict must be based on Vietcong program Air Vice Marshall Nguyen Cao Ky becomes prime minister in a military regime in Saigon South Vietnamese combat regiments and battalions take high loses in battles with Vietcong General William Westmoreland requests forty four additional combat battalions and Johnson agrees US forces defeat NVA units in the la Drang This is the first major conventional clash of the war By the end of 1965 American troop strength was nearly 200000 President Johnson halts bombing of the north in the hope that the North Vietnamese might be willing to enter negotiations 1966 Johnson resumes bombing of the north at the end of January By Christmas there will be almost 400000 combat forces in Vietnam 1967 North Vietnam take the position that the US Must stop all bombing before negotiations can begin Nguyen Van Thieu is elected President and General Ky Vice President Robert McNamara testify in the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that American bombing of North Vietnam is ineffective By the end of 1967 American troop strength in Vietnam is 500000 and Westmoreland believes there is light at the end of the tunnel the war will be over soon 1968 The Tet Offensive begins at the end of January NVA hit major cities in South Vietnam including the US embassy It takes more than a month for the battle to end and the North Vietnamese American and South Vietnamese are caught off guard by the scope of the attack The Marine Base at Khesanh is under siege from NVA January to April 1968 Attempt to divert American resources to the isolated area Westmoreland falls for it and decides to hold Khesanh He saw the attacks on the cities as a diversion and Khesanh as much more important President Johnson announces that he will not run for election Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota runs for President Robert Kennedy announces his candidacy for the presidency Martin Luther King Jr is assassinated Robert Kennedy is assassinted Vice President Hubert Humphrey wins the Democratic nomination for President amidst rioting in Chicago Richard Nixon is elected as President Part 5 Nixon s War 19681975 General William Westmoreland is sacked and becomes Army Chief of Staff North Vietnamese diplomats arrive in Paris to begin talks on possible cease fire Nixon s successful presidential campaign features a secret plan to end the Vietnam War Appoints Henry Kissinger as National Security Adviser At the end of 1968 American troop strength has reached 540000 1969 Paris talks are expanded to include Saigon government and representatives from the Vietcong Nixon begins secret bombing of Cambodia Nixon s Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird releases the secret plan Vietnamization Ho Chi Minh dies at the age of seventy nine By December American troop strength reduced by 60000 My Lai massacre takes place 200 civilians are killed by US army Poorly trained officers Captain Medina and Lt Calley All civilians in My Lai are VC US Army helicopter pilot intervenes Initial cover up by local commanders 1969 massacre is revealed Calley goes on trial in 1970 and Found guilty of premeditated murder in 1971 Invasion of Cambodia June 1970 and ARVN alone invades Laos 1971 but must be rescued by US forces Invasion of Cambodia destabalizes Khmer government and leads to Pol Pot Invasion of Laos demonstrates that Vietnamization is not working Secret talks in Paris with Le Duc Tho and Henry Kissinger Kissinger and Le Duc Tho reach agreement on 23 January 1973 and agreement signed on 27 January 1973 Las American troops leave Vietnam on March 29 1973 and last POWs are released from Hanoi on 1 April 1973 1974 North Vietnamese violate the Paris Peace Agreement and renew war on the South Vietnamese government April 1975 Saigon falls to Communist forces 1976 Jimmy Carter is elected president and immediately upon his inauguration pardons most of the 10000 draft evaders from the War 1977 Americans and Vietnamese begin discussions exploring US recognition of Vietnam Part 6 The Home Front 19651977 American Civil Rights movement in the early 1960s sets pattern for protests The challenge of the anti war movement and the Civil Rights movement Martin Luther King Jr Draft resistance Religious resistance Anti war demonstrations escalate throughout the period Massive demonstrations in Washington 1969 Massive demonstrations throughout the US 1970 o Kent State 4 May 1970 Part 7 Lesson Learned from the Vietnam War American Security Policy Development The Weinberger Doctrine Caspar Weinberger was Secretary of Defense under President Reagan 1981 1987 o 1 Vital US interests are threatened 2 US clearly intends to Win 3 Clearly defined political and military objectives 4 Support of public and congress reasonably assured 5 OOOO Exit strategy Powell Doctrine General Colin Powell Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under President George HW Bush l989 1993 o Rejection of graduated response 1 Overwhelming force 2 Minimum loss of US lives 3 Win decisively and quickly OOOO 4 Do not operate in the margins send more than you need The Clinton Doctrine Secretaries of State Warren Christopher and Madeleine Albright o 1 Interests and values at stake 2 Clear objectives 3 Firm commitment 4 Decisive military action 5 Clear purpose and resolute execution OOOOO 6 Resist reflexive calls for premature withdrawal The Bush Doctrine o Make no distinction between terrorists and the nations that harbor them and hold both to account o Take the fight to the enemy overseas before they can attack us o Confront threats before they materialize o Advance liberty and hope as an alternative to the enemy s ideology of repression and fear o Multilateralism becomes unilateralism o Pre emptive use of force o Regime change o Global war on terrorism Barak Obama Security Principles o Global engagement and attempt to neutralize fears that the US is at war with Islam at war only with al Qaeda and its terrorist affiliates o Focus limited security Ensure US Forces can defeat more than one enemy at a time 2514 1109 PM
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