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Set Two

by: KatieAlbritton
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

This short set of notes discusses research methods and internal and external validity.
Psychology of Human Diversity
Dr. Jackson
Class Notes
research methods, Psychology of Human Diversity, External Validity, Internal Validity, experiment
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by KatieAlbritton on Tuesday December 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 271 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. Jackson in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Human Diversity in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.


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Date Created: 12/22/15
Set Two: Science and Psychology Katie Albritton Study Soup The Scientific Method Developing research questions Designing studies Empirical Evidence Analyze the Data Drawing conclusions Each research design has strengths and limitations. It is the body of evidence that is crucial, and  it is often a societal issue if there is enough evidence for a policy to be implemented.  Why Understand Research Methods? Basis for evidence in psychology and other fields, and we need to be able to critically evaluate  such evidence.  We are all consumers of science We will all be informal scientists Some Basic Research Designs Correlational or observational or non­experimental quantitative studies look for the relationship  among variables.  Experimental studies involve the manipulation of a variable or variables, the attempt to hold all  other variables constant, and the random assignment of subjects to conditions. The idea is to see if the manipulated independent variable causes differences between the experimental groups in  the measured dependent variables.  Correlational/Observational Method Able to study issues where practical and/or ethical factors limit experiments.  Study how several variables interrelate Can use for unobtrusive studies Correlation implies prediction, NOT causation.  Third variable problem Modern multivariate techniques help with the causal puzzle.  Experiments Manipulate independent variables, randomly assign participants, control situations. Can look at  the cause of things.  Short term, low impact experience Novel environment subject to experimenter effect and demand characteristics.  Volunteers are not representative of the whole population Cyber Ball: An Example Participants played a virtual game of “cyber ball” where a virtual ball was passed from player to player. In one condition participants were rejected by not having the ball thrown to them. In the other they were part of the game.  All were playing the game while having a brain scan.  For the rejected group, the brain centers associated with pain lit up.  Internal­External Validity Trade Off Internal validity deals with whether observed differences result from manipulation of the  independent variable.  External validity deals with generalizability Usually studies high in one are low in the other, requiring trade­offs in study designs.  Animal studies are generally high in internal validity. Elegant Experiment  Highly organized, high on internal validity. Some are high in external validity.  Both types are important


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