AHI 1B Week 1 Lecture Notes
AHI 1B Week 1 Lecture Notes AHI 001B
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Dillard on Saturday December 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AHI 001B at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. Ch'ien in Winter 2015. Since its upload, it has received 211 views. For similar materials see Medieval and Renaissance Art in Art History at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 12/26/15
1/5/16 Lecture 1 Septimius Severus and his family from Egypt, 200 CE • tempera on wood • Staatliche Museen, Berlin • Severan dynasty • yellow disk (1 ft diameter) with 3 faces (the other son’s face is scratched off)—family portrait • Septimius Severus, his wife, and their two sons • hierarchical size, the sons are smaller • the son who’s face is showing (Caracalla) murdered his brother (Geta) and later had his face erased from the painting Bust of Diocletian, end of 3rd century CE, 284-305 CE Istanbul,Archaeological Museum • • Diocletian was an expert military general • he divided the Roman empire in half into the western and eastern empire Four Tetrarchs, 305 CE • 2Augustus emperors and 2 Caesar emperors • Diocletian appoints himself as anAugustus emperor • they all clutch their swords • display of imperial unity because they are physically connected, are dressed alike, are all portrayed in the same action, all the same height and size, are all mad out of the same stone, were not painted—all the same color • not in the original location “*not* in situ” • they used to be positioned higher than people so people would have to look up to see them • statue was stollen from Constantinople during the fourth crusade • porphyry: purple, hard, durable stone found only in one stone quarry in Egypt—very very rare • use was reserved for imperial purposes • was very hard to carve and one of the feet was left behind • details cannot be carved into porphyry because it is so hard • still is in prime condition because it does not deteriorate easily Basilica San Marco, begun 1063 Restored view of Diocletian’s Palace • was built like a military fortress • 28-306 CE Split, Croatia • heavy fortified walls around the whole outside, had water access on one side • had a temple of Jupiter (king of Olympian gods) • has mausoleum Aula Palatina • Trier, Germany, early 4th century • large audience hall, basilica • 190x95ft • has a large chancel arch (used to separate the sacred part of the building from the non scared part) and an apse (curved space in the back) • was used during the time of the tetrarchs • 2 stories of windows on both sides, 2 stories of windows in the apse but they were smaller and higher up to make the emperor look bigger—visual manipulation to maintain hierarchy (emperor is bigger, higher, more important) Colossus of Constantine • 315-330 CE, Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori marble head is 8’6” (whole statue is over 30ft high) • • made with a brick core and had marble and bronze on the outside • arrears seated, enthroned, not wearing much clothing—aligning himself with Jupiter • he remained pagan and affirmed his devotion to Mithras (a mystery cult deity) • Christianity spread rapidly from 300-600 CE in the Roman empire • was on an axis to be seen from outside if standing under the arch of Constantine Mithraeum in Basilica San Clemete • 4th and 12th c. Rome • Mithras rides a bull used for sacrifice Basilica Nova aka Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine • 306-312 CE Rome, Italy • started by Maxentius (Constantine’s rival) and finished by Constantine • luxury project • 400ft in length, has 2 isles, columns in grey Egyptian granite, ceiling was covered in plates of gilded bronze • the giant Colossus of Constantine was in it • shown as eternally youthful, clean shaven Arch of Constantine • 312-315 CE, Rome, Italy • very similar to arch of Septimius Severus 203 CE, Rome, Italy • had 3 barrel vaults • was built from taking pieces from the other good emperor’s arches (Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius) • described Constantine as the “bringer of peace” and other Christian metaphors • had medallions from Hadrian’s rule (131-138 CE)—one portrays the common theme: the ruler kills an animal, the other shows him making a libation to Diana • had the heads of the emperors received to look like him • beneath the medallions is theAdlocutio relief “Constantine Distributing Largesse” • frieze • Constantine is the largest 1/7/16 Lecture 2 Legal to Official, Christianity Goes Establishment LateAntiquity to Byzantium Two Coins of Constantine demonstrates paganism and Christianity • • 307 CE coin tries to give Constantine legitimacy as a ruler after his father dies—he is depicted with a beard, his head is turned sideways • 315 CE coin shows him with youth as a sign of stability, his head faces out and makes eye contact with the viewer, he is in armor—militaristic, ready to fight (but the helmet is too ornate to be used in battle so it is ceremonial), there is a sign of a cross—Christianity, there is a picture of the she wolf suckling the twins—paganism • establishes Constantine as the correct ruler, rather than establishing Christianity or paganism as the correct religion Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus • 359 CE • marble, 8’long • minor official who converted to Christianity right before his death • entire sarcophagus (stone coffin) is highly decorated in high relief • there are 5 scenes on both the upper and lower register • the man who died does not appear in any of the scenes • there are biblical scenes instead of battle scenes • Jesus between Peter and Paul • Jesus is enthroned while the others stand on his sides and his foot is resting on a greek god who is trying to hold up the sky (idea that Christianity is the true religion and is squashing the false religion) • Entry of Jesus into Jerusalem • is very similar to the panel of MarcusAurelius on horseback (formal entry to the city) • He enters the city from the left • Adam and Eve • prefigure the sacrifice of Christ • Some of the other scenes prefigure important moments in Christianity as well • one prefigures God sending his son to die for the people’s sins Catacombs of San Callisto • underground locations for religious purposes • dark, damp, no windows, but useful during times of persecution because Roman law protected people that were in them—people could not be killed inside them Menorahs andArc of the Covenant, wall painting in a Jewish catacomb Catacomb of St.s Peter and Marcellinus Christ as the Good Shepherd • Jonah and the whale—prefiguration of Christ’s death and resurrection • Jonah is swallowed by a whale when he tries to run away from God and then is spit out after 3 days • good shepherd is depicted in the center Christ as Good Shepherd, 300-350 CE • is only about 3 ft tall • relatively small because people are not supposed to worship the statue itself and become pagan accidentally by confusing the image for the god Old St. Peter’s, begun 319 CE • Rome, Italy • basilica to commemorate the tomb of St. Peter • became the center of Catholicism, it’s so important because it is where St. Peter is said to be buried • St. Peter is said to be the first pope in Catholic religion (Jesus said to him “you are the rock upon which I will form my church”) • type of building used to be for law and they kept the ideas of order • longitudinal space—move from the atrium into the building and to the altar at the end Basilica of Santa Sabina • 422-432 CE, Rome, Italy • very similar to theAule Palatina, early 4th century CE • was built not too long after Rome was sacked for the first time in 800 years • they blamed the Christians for abandoning the pagan gods the building does not stand out as different from other basilicas • Santa Costanza • 337-351 CE, Rome, Italy • started out as a mausoleum for the emperor’s daughter not a church • used to have a purple porphyry tomb in the center for her—not there anymore b/c it has been moved • central plan church • the columns are positioned alined towards the epicenter and asks people to walk around the circle • there are very small tiles to create mosaics around the whole building • show extreme labor • the wine depicted in one of the scenes can go towards the pagan side or Christianity side Church of the HolyApostles • 4th century Constantinople, destroyed in 1461 • was a church in the form of a cross • dedicated to the twelve apostles Constantine made 12 fake (ceremonial) tombs (called cenotaphs) and put them all inside for • them and made a 13th one for himself (trying to make himself the 13th apostle) Justinian as world conqueror • he is crushing the barbarians on horseback while angels watch over him • he was emperor of the east and went and conquered parts of the west and put a new capitol in Ravenna in 540 when he conquers it Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Hagia Sophia • Istanbol, Turkey (formerly Constantinople) 532-537 CE • is Justinian’s project—he was ambitious • central access plan (quincunx plan—meaning 5 domes) • dominates the city—its size defies structural belief • fell down in an earthquake but it was redesigned and rebuilt 20 ft higher • central dome has visual weightlessness and light enters from above—has a metaphorical relationship to God • covered in shimmering gold, multicolored marble and it all distracts from what holds the building up and amaze people • was converted to an Islamic mosque later on Mausoleum of Galla Placidia • is a cross shaped building (cruciform) • has a pendentive dome • is covered with mosaics inside and is always shimmering • the top of the ceiling dome has a starry sky with a cross in the middle • there is a mosaic of: • Christ as the Good Shepherd • past a barrel vault, over the entrance • carries a gold cross instead of shepherd staff
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