PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology Week 1
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology Week 1 PSYC 101
Ivy Tech Community College
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Fore on Monday December 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Ivy Tech Community College taught by in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at Ivy Tech Community College.
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Date Created: 12/28/15
Chapter 1 Psychology scientific study of behavior and mental processes Percentage of people in the psychology workforce consists of 24% clinical, 12% industrial, 22% private practice, 4% in schools, 34% academic, and 4% are in other. Mental processes thoughts, feelings, and motives that people experience privately but that cannot be observed Empirical method gaining knowledge through the observation of events, collection of data, and logical reasoning Structuralism identifies elements of mental processes; strongly influenced by the industrial revolution (as machines become significant in culture, so this first major school of thought took a mechanistic view of psychology); primary research method was introspection; Wilhelm Wundt Wilhelm Wundt German philosopher/physician; established first psychology lab (1879) in University of Leipzig Functionalism identifies purposes, functions of the mind; influenced by “On the Origin of Species” by Charles Darwin, which proposed that species evolve characteristics that help them adapt in the environment; studied natural flow of thought and consciousness; William James William James American psychologist and philosopher; wrote “Principles of Psychology”, one of the first major textbooks in the field Biological approach approach to psychology focusing on the body, mostly the brain and nervous system Behavioral approach focuses on the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants; John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner Psychodynamic approach focuses on unconscious impulses and thoughts; conflict between biological drive and society; childhood family experiences; how these can be applied in psychotherapy through Freud’s model of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud built his model through study of people he was treating with “mind cures” approach; theorized sexual and aggressive impulses buried deep within the unconscious mind influence the way people think, feel, and behave Humanistic approach emphasizes a person’s positive qualities, the capacity for growth , and the freedom to choose one’s destiny; against Freud’s approach; Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow Cognitive approach emerged as a rebellion; focused on the mental processes involved in knowing how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems; Ulric Neisser Evolutionary approach adaption, reproduction, and natural selection Sociocultural approach examination of ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior; focuses on comparisons of behavior across countries and across ethics and cultural groups within countries; early history of psychology was mostly Western in approach and often made general statements about human nature that didn’t apply to people from all cultures Variable anything that can change Theory a general idea or set of closely related ideas that attempt to explain observations and to make predictions about future observations Hypothesis testable prediction that derives logically from a theory Operational definition provides an objective description of how a variable is going to be measured and observed in a study Descriptive research describing some phenomenon, without answering questions of how and why; observations, surveys, interviews, and case studies Correlational research examines whether variables are related and change together; correlation coefficient is a statistic, labeled “r”, represented by a number between; strength of the correlation is represented by how far the number is from zero; sign (+ or ) shows direction of relationship (plus means both numbers go in same direction together and minus means both numbers go in the opposite direction together); correlation does not mean causation Longitudinal designs obtaining measures of variables of interest in multiple waves over time Experimental research manipulations of one or more variables that are believed to influence some other variable; measure Y under different condition sof X if values of Y change under X, then we conclude that changes in X cause changes in Y Independent variables those that are manipulated Dependent variables those that are measured Experimental groups experience the manipulations of the independent variable and control groups serve as a baseline for comparisons Experimenter bias the influence of the experimenter’s expectations on the outcome of research Placebo effect situation where the participants’ expectations, rather than the experimental manipulations, produce the experimental outcome Populations larger groups in the world that you are trying to describe Samples smaller groups of people you’re actually testing Lab research affords more control Naturalistic observations has advantage of realworld setting, but harder to manipulate independent variable Informed consent all participants must know what their participations will involve and what risks might develop Psychology in everyday life avoid overgeneralizing based on little information, distinguish between group results and individual needs, looks for answers beyond a single study, avoid attributing causes where none have been found, and consider source of psychological information
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