PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology Week 3
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology Week 3 PSYC 101
Ivy Tech Community College
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Fore on Monday December 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Ivy Tech Community College taught by in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at Ivy Tech Community College.
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Date Created: 12/28/15
Chapter 3 Sensation process of receiving stimulus energies from external environment biological process Perception process of organizing and interpreting sensory information psychological process Sensory receptors specialized cells that detect stimulus information and transmit it to sensory afferent nerves and brain openings which the brain and nervous system experience the world Photoreception detection of light perceived as sight Mechanoreception detection of pressure vibration and movement perceived as touch hearing and equilibrium Chemoreception detection of chemical stimuli perceived as smell and taste Absolute threshold minimum amount of detectable stimulus energy needed to reliably trigger a sensory receptor Difference threshold degree of difference that must exist between two stimuli before the person can notice that a difference exists Bottomup processing stimulation works its way from the environment up to the level of the brain brain takes first stab at understanding information Topdown processing kicks in once bottomup has taken place based on cognitive processing at higher levels of brain brain uses previous experiences and memories to organize information Selective attention the act of focusing on a specific stream of info while ignoring everything else Sensory adaptation a change in responsiveness of the sensory system based on the average level of stimulation Rods sensitive to light not very useful for color vision function well under low illumination Cones used for color perception require more light than rods Fovea tiny area in center of retina at vision in best contains only cones in high concentration less concentrated outside the fovea Blind spot place on retina containing no rods or cones where optic nerve leaves eye Signals travel from optic nerve via the optic chiasm to the visual cortex Visual cortex operates using parallel processing simultaneous distribution of info across different neural pathways Trichromatic theory 3 types of cones are sensitive to different ranges of wavelength Opponent process theory cells in the visual system respond to complementary pairs of redgreen and blueyellow colors Gestalt psychologists how people naturally organize perception how we organize parts into a whole Binocular cues those that combine images from 2 eyes the distance between 3 eyes means each retina receives a slightly different image difference is called retinal disparity Monocular cues available from image in 1 eye examples are familiar size height in field of view linear perspective relative size overlap shading relies on topdown processing Perceptual constancy understanding that objects are constant even though sensory input is changing Structure of ear outer ear pinna middle ear eardrum hammer anvil stirrup and cochlea Place theory each frequency produces vibrations at a certain spot explains high frequency not lowfrequency Frequency theory perception of frequency depends on how often auditory nerve fires single neurons have maximum firing rates Volley principle modification of frequency theory clusters of nerve cells can fire neural impulses in rapid succession Papillae rounded bumps above the tongue s surface that contain taste buds Olfactory epithelium lining of roof of the nasal cavity Kinesthetic senses provide info about movement posture and orientation Vestibular senses provide info about balance and movement Semicircular canals 3 uidfilled tubes in the inner ear containing sensory receptors that detect head motion caused When a person tilts or moves the head andor body Fast pathways fibers connect directly With the thalamus and then to the motor and sensory areas of the cerebral cortex Slow pathways pain info travels through the limbic system a detour that delays the arrival of info at the cerebral cortex by seconds
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