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PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology Week 4

by: Samantha Fore

PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology Week 4 PSYC 101

Marketplace > Ivy Tech Community College > Psychlogy > PSYC 101 > PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology Week 4
Samantha Fore
Ivy Tech Community College
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover week 4 (chapter 4) for an introduction to psychology course.
introduction to psychology
Class Notes
PSYC 101, Psych 101, Psychology, Intro to Psychology, Introduction to Psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Fore on Monday December 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Ivy Tech Community College taught by in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at Ivy Tech Community College.

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Date Created: 12/28/15
Chapter 4  Consciousness­ an individual’s awareness of external events and internal sensations  under a condition of arousal, including awareness of the self and thoughts about one’s  experience  Metacognition­  thinking about your thoughts  Arousal­ physiological state of being engaged with the environment; determined by the  reticular activating system  Areas of the cerebral cortex, including association cortex, prefrontal lobes, and frontal  lobes, appear to be involved in the ways awareness goes beyond the input of sensory info  Theory of mind­ individual’s understanding that they and others think, feel, perceive, and have private experiences; undeveloped in children  There are levels of consciousness such as higher­level awareness, lower­level awareness,  altered states of consciousness, subconscious awareness, and no awareness.  Sleep­ natural state of rest for the body and mind that involves the reversible loss of  consciousness  Biological rhythms­ periodic physiological fluctuations in body that can influence  behavior  Circadian rhythms­ physiological cycle; influences sleep/wake cycles, body temperature,  blood pressure, blood sugar   Suprachiasmatic nucleus­ small brain structure using retinal input to synchronize its  rhythm with daily light/dark cycle; allows hypothalamus to regulate daily survival  rhythms  Why do we sleep? Evolutionary perspective, conserve energy, restoration, and brain  plasticity.  Beta waves (alert state)­ reflect concentration and awareness; highest in frequency,  lowest in amplitude; more inconsistent  Alpha waves (relaxed state)­ relaxed but still awake; brain waves slowed down, more  regular   Stage 1­ drowsy sleep; sudden muscle movement; slow, high­amplitude theta waves; drift in between sleep and awake  Stage 2­ decreased muscle activity; no conscious awareness; theta waves interspersed  with sleep spindles   Stage 3 & 4­ delta waves, slowest and highest­ amplitude waves; deepest sleep;  bedwetting, sleeptalking and walking; stage 3 is less than 50% delta wave; stage 4 is  more than 50% delta waves  REM sleep­ cycle transitions between stages 1 and $, than work back to stages 3 & 2;  rapid eye movement; active stage where dreaming occurs; fast wave activity; plays role  in memory  One sleep cycle involves five stages of sleep, lasts 90­100 minutes, and recurs several  times; REM gets longer as sleep goes on  Reticular formation­ core of brain stem; distinct pattern of neurotransmitter activity; role  in sleep and arousal  Neurotransmitters involved in sleep­ serotonin, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine  Freud theorized that dreams symbolize unconscious wishes; manifests on surface, and  latent content is hidden  Cognitive theory­ dreams as subconscious cognition processing; variation of  daydreaming  Activation­ synthesis theory­ dreams are a result of synthesis of neural signals; neural  activity sends signals to cerebral cortex; logical  Tolerance­ regular users of drugs will increase dosage  Physical dependence­ if they go off of drugs they will withdrawal  Psychological dependence­ they have a strong desire towards the drug  Addiction­ state of physical or psychological dependence  Psychoactive drugs increase dopamine levels in brain’s reward pathways.  Depressants­ slow down mental and physical activity; in CNS; can be fatal; works by  increasing levels of GABA neurotransmitter; include alcohol and barbiturate drugs  Stimulates­ increase CNS activity; use energy quickly; crash late; includes caffeine,  nicotine, meth, cocaine, and “uppers”  Opiates­ often included in depressant class; relieves pain; natural endorphins; includes  morphine, methadone, oxycodone, and heroin  Hallucinogens­ modify person’s perceptual experiences and produce visual images;  psychedelic drugs; include marijuana, LSD, and MDMA 


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