PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology Week 4
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology Week 4 PSYC 101
Ivy Tech Community College
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Fore on Monday December 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Ivy Tech Community College taught by in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at Ivy Tech Community College.
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Date Created: 12/28/15
Chapter 4 Consciousness an individual’s awareness of external events and internal sensations under a condition of arousal, including awareness of the self and thoughts about one’s experience Metacognition thinking about your thoughts Arousal physiological state of being engaged with the environment; determined by the reticular activating system Areas of the cerebral cortex, including association cortex, prefrontal lobes, and frontal lobes, appear to be involved in the ways awareness goes beyond the input of sensory info Theory of mind individual’s understanding that they and others think, feel, perceive, and have private experiences; undeveloped in children There are levels of consciousness such as higherlevel awareness, lowerlevel awareness, altered states of consciousness, subconscious awareness, and no awareness. Sleep natural state of rest for the body and mind that involves the reversible loss of consciousness Biological rhythms periodic physiological fluctuations in body that can influence behavior Circadian rhythms physiological cycle; influences sleep/wake cycles, body temperature, blood pressure, blood sugar Suprachiasmatic nucleus small brain structure using retinal input to synchronize its rhythm with daily light/dark cycle; allows hypothalamus to regulate daily survival rhythms Why do we sleep? Evolutionary perspective, conserve energy, restoration, and brain plasticity. Beta waves (alert state) reflect concentration and awareness; highest in frequency, lowest in amplitude; more inconsistent Alpha waves (relaxed state) relaxed but still awake; brain waves slowed down, more regular Stage 1 drowsy sleep; sudden muscle movement; slow, highamplitude theta waves; drift in between sleep and awake Stage 2 decreased muscle activity; no conscious awareness; theta waves interspersed with sleep spindles Stage 3 & 4 delta waves, slowest and highest amplitude waves; deepest sleep; bedwetting, sleeptalking and walking; stage 3 is less than 50% delta wave; stage 4 is more than 50% delta waves REM sleep cycle transitions between stages 1 and $, than work back to stages 3 & 2; rapid eye movement; active stage where dreaming occurs; fast wave activity; plays role in memory One sleep cycle involves five stages of sleep, lasts 90100 minutes, and recurs several times; REM gets longer as sleep goes on Reticular formation core of brain stem; distinct pattern of neurotransmitter activity; role in sleep and arousal Neurotransmitters involved in sleep serotonin, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine Freud theorized that dreams symbolize unconscious wishes; manifests on surface, and latent content is hidden Cognitive theory dreams as subconscious cognition processing; variation of daydreaming Activation synthesis theory dreams are a result of synthesis of neural signals; neural activity sends signals to cerebral cortex; logical Tolerance regular users of drugs will increase dosage Physical dependence if they go off of drugs they will withdrawal Psychological dependence they have a strong desire towards the drug Addiction state of physical or psychological dependence Psychoactive drugs increase dopamine levels in brain’s reward pathways. Depressants slow down mental and physical activity; in CNS; can be fatal; works by increasing levels of GABA neurotransmitter; include alcohol and barbiturate drugs Stimulates increase CNS activity; use energy quickly; crash late; includes caffeine, nicotine, meth, cocaine, and “uppers” Opiates often included in depressant class; relieves pain; natural endorphins; includes morphine, methadone, oxycodone, and heroin Hallucinogens modify person’s perceptual experiences and produce visual images; psychedelic drugs; include marijuana, LSD, and MDMA
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