PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology Week 5
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology Week 5 PSYC 101
Ivy Tech Community College
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Fore on Monday December 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Ivy Tech Community College taught by in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at Ivy Tech Community College.
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Date Created: 12/28/15
Chapter 5 Learning systematic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience Observational learning observes and imitates another’s behavior Classical conditioning reflex behavior is automatic; learning is based on the building of an association through stimuli; Ivan Pavlov Unconditioned stimulus one that brings about unconditioned response Neutral stimulus one that we want to condition (associated repeatedly with unconditioned stimulus); after a number of associations, you then present the neutral stimulus by itself, without unconditioned stimulus; brings about targets behavior; has now become a conditioned stimulus that elicits a conditioned response Contiguity unconditioned stimulus and neutral stimulus are presented closely in time Contingency neutral stimulus is reliable indicator of unconditioned stimulus Generalization of classical conditioning the conditioned response is not limited only to the conditioned stimulus, stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus may elicit a similar response Discrimination of classical conditioning process of learning to respond only to some stimuli Extinction of classical conditioning weakening of conditioned response when unconditioned stimulus is absent Spontaneous recovery recurrence of conditioned response after time delay, without further conditioning Operant Conditioning the consequences of a behavior change the probability of that behavior happening again in future Thorndike’s Law of Effect positive outcomes strengthen behavior; negative outcomes weaken behavior B.F. Skinner consequences change probability of behavior; consequences are contingent on behavior Positive reinforcement adding of something pleasant Negative reinforcement taking away of something unpleasant Primary reinforce innately satisfying Secondary reinforce acquires positive value through experiences Positive punishment adding of something unpleasant Negative punishment taking away of something pleasant Generalization of operant conditioning performing reinforced behavior in different situations Discrimination of operant conditioning responding to signal that behavior will be reinforced Extinction of operant conditioning behavior no longer reinforced Continuous reinforcement behavior is reinforced every time it occurs Partial reinforcement follows behavior only a portion of the time Partial reinforcement schedules ratio tied to the number of behaviors; intervals are tied to amount of time elapsed Fixed ratio based on set number Variable ratio based on average number Fixed interval rewarding behavior after fixed amount of time passes Variable interval rewarding after variable amount of time passes Shaping rewarding approximations of desired behaviors Albert Bandura’s Model of Observation learning considers the role of internal processes, such as observation, planning, and modeling; attention to others, retention of lessons, motor reproduction, and observation of reinforcement of behavior in others
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