PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology Week 6
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology Week 6 PSYC 101
Ivy Tech Community College
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Fore on Monday December 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Ivy Tech Community College taught by in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at Ivy Tech Community College.
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Date Created: 12/28/15
Chapter 6 and 7 Memory retention of info or experience over time; encoding, storage, retrieval Memory encoding process by which info enters memory storage; whether and how well the memory is encoded depends of attention, elaboration, and use of mental imagery Selective attention brain has only limited capacity for conscious attention so it must focus this attention on specific aspects of any situation Divided attention attending to several things at once Sustained attention attention to selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time Elaboration involved making a number of different connections between the new info to be memorized and existing networks in the brain Mental imagery powerful encoding tool; which you think about the info to be processed using both verbal and visual coding Sensory memory auditory sensory memory retained up to several seconds; visual sensory memory retained only about ¼ second Shortterm memory limited capacity; info retained for 30 seconds Rehearsal conscious repetition of info; maintenance rehearsal involved repetition without additional elaboration Phonological loop Baddeley; briefly stores speechbased info Visuospatial working memory Baddeley; stores visual and spatial info Central executive Baddeley; integrates info Longterm memory relatively permanent memory; explicit and implicit Explicitly (declarative) memory conscious recollection of info that can be verbally communicated; hippocampus, temporal lobes, and amygdala Episodic memory autobiographical info Semantic memory knowledge about the world Implicit (nondeclarative) memory nonconscious recollection of skills and sensory perceptions; memories we act on without awareness; cerebellum, temporal lobes, and hippocampus Procedural memory memory for skills Classical conditioning memory for associations between stimuli Priming activation of info already in storage Schemas used to organize the storage and retrieval of memories AtkinsonShiffrin Theory sensory memory short term longterm (Attention) (Transfer, retrieval) Connectionism memory is stored throughout the brain in connections among neurons; memory located in specific circuits of neurons; neurotransmitters play role in forging connections Retrieval cues something that can trigger a memory Recall memory task to retrieve previously learned info Recognition memory task to recognize Repressed memories defense mechanism by which a person, traumatized, forgets memories Encoding failure never encoded; info never entered into longterm memory Retrieval failure forgotten info Proactive interference material learned earlier disrupts retrieval of material learned later Retroactive interference material learned later disrupts retrieval of material learned earlier Decay neurochemical memory “trace” disintegrates over time Tipofthetongue phenomenon confident of knowing something but unable to retrieve it Amnesia loss of memory Retrograde amnesia memory loss of segment of past but not for new events Anterograde disorder that effects retention of new info Thinking involves manipulating info mentally by forming concepts, solving problems, making decisions, and reflecting Problem solving finding appropriate way to attain goal which is not readily available Subgoaling identifying intermediate steps of goals that will help you toward the final goal Algorithms strategies that guarantee a solution Heuristics shortcuts that will give us a likely solution to a problem, but not guaranteed Fixation repeatedly using prior strategy and failing to look at problem from fresh, new perspective Functional fixedness failure to solve a problem due to a fixation Reasoning mental activity of transforming info to reach conclusions (inductive and deductive) Confirmation bias the tendency to search for and use info that supports ideas Hindsight bias tendency to report falsely that outcome was accurately predicted Availability heuristic prediction about possibility of event based on recalling Representativeness heuristic tendency to make judgments about group memberships based on match to group stereotype
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