New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Pych. Final Study Guide

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
by: Brigette Maggio

Pych. Final Study Guide POS 150

Brigette Maggio
GPA 3.9

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes are for the final exam.
Comparative Government
Dr. Kittilson
Class Notes
25 ?




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star
"Almost no time left on the clock and my grade on the line. Where else would I go? Brigette has the best notes period!"
August Kovacek

Popular in Comparative Government

Popular in Political Science

This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brigette Maggio on Monday December 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POS 150 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Kittilson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Comparative Government in Political Science at Arizona State University.


Reviews for Pych. Final Study Guide

Star Star Star Star Star

Almost no time left on the clock and my grade on the line. Where else would I go? Brigette has the best notes period!

-August Kovacek


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 12/28/15
Psych. Final Study Guide The exam will be comprised of 60 multiple­guess questions. The first 11­13 will be on the last unit  covered, Social Behavior (Ch. 15; 11/30­12/4 lectures).  The last 47­49 questions will cover the material from the first 4/5 of the class. This means about 4­5  questions from each unit. The questions will cover information that people who have taken an  introductory psychology course (specifically, this one) should know. The questions will not  necessarily be a re­hash of old test questions; Rather, the questions will cover important concepts that were discussed in both lecture and the text (except for Chapter 1, which will be only from the text).  You should use study guides from the old tests for review (they are all available on the web).  Syllabus (3­4 questions, all from syllabus)   Know policies about exams, grading, make­up tests, honor code, experiment  participation requirement, extra credit and Incompletes  Understand concepts from the survival guide (last section of syllabus) Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology (6­8 questions, all from the book)   What two Greek words are contained in the word psychology?  What disciplines were psychology's intellectual parents?  What is structuralism? Functionalism?  How did behaviorism change the course of psychology?  Freud: What is the unconscious? What is psychoanalytic theory?  Who were the Humanists? What did they believe? Why did they revolt against  behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory?  What is the cognitive perspective?  What trends have contributed to Psychology's modern focus on cultural diversity?  What is evolutionary psychology? Positive psychology?  Know the 9 major research areas in modern psychology and what each area studies  (figure 1.8 on page 17)  Know the 6 identified areas of specialization and what psychologists in each area do  (figure 1.9 on page 20)  Understand the 7 themes related to psychology described in the book  What are three big ways to develop sound study habits?  What are 6 ways to get more out of lectures?  Understand the tips described in the book for improving test­taking strategies and  improving performance on multiple­choice exams. Chapter 2: Research Enterprise (12­15 questions; 3­4 from lecture only, 3­4 from book  only, and the rest from both lecture and book)   What are the goals of the scientific enterprise?  Know the important points from the video on Facilitated Communication that was  shown in class on 8/26  What are the steps in a scientific investigation?  Experimental design: o What are independent and dependent variables? o What are experimental and control groups? o What are confounding and extraneous variables? How does random assignment  safeguard against their effect? o What are the advantages and disadvantages of an experimental design?  What is descriptive research?  What is a correlation? o What is its range? o What does a positive or negative correlation mean? How can you tell the  strength of a correlation? o Can you tell the cause and effect relationship between two variables if you have a correlation? Why or why not?  What are case studies, surveys and naturalistic observation? What are the strengths and weaknesses of each method?  What are the different flaws of research identified in class and in the text?  What are the 6 key ethical principles in psychological research (Figure 2.12 on page  58)? Chapter 3: Biological Bases of Behavior: (12­15 questions; 3­4 from lecture only, 3­4  from book only, and the rest from both lecture and book)   Neurons: Know the different structures and their functions  What are the all­or­nothing law, absolute refractory periods and thresholds?  What are the different neurotransmitters described in class and text, and what happens  if there is an imbalance (i.e., too much or too little)  Organization of the Nervous System: What comprises the Peripheral Nervous System? Central Nervous System? Somatic Nervous System? Autonomic Nervous System? o Which direction do afferent nerves carry information? How about efferent  nerves? o What happens when the Sympathetic Nervous System is activated? How about  the Parasympathetic Nervous System?  The brain: what are the structures (and their functions) of the hindbrain, midbrain and  forebrain? o What does it mean that the brain is wired contralaterally?  What are the different ways we study the brain?  Understand the findings of research done on split­brain patients  What are the parts of the brain that comprehend and produce speech?  What is plasticity? What is neurogenesis?  Understand the information presented in the videos shown in class (9/4, 9/9 &/or 9/11)  What are family studies, twin studies and adoption studies? o What is the difference between monozygotic and dizygotic twins?  What is the endocrine system? What are hormones? What brain structure controls  much of the endocrine system?  What is fitness, adaptation, and natural selection, and how are they related to  evolutionary theory?  Psych 101­ Study Guide #1 Syllabus (3­4 questions; all from syllabus)  policies about exams, grading, make­up tests, honor code, experiment participation  requirement, extra credit and incompletes  understand concepts from survival guide (last section of syllabus)  4 test= 40 points & final= 60 points  NO make­up tests and NO CHEATING!  have to be 18 to do research participation Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology (6­8 questions; all from book)  2 Greek words in psychology­ psych­ soul & logos­ study of a subject  pysch’s intellectual parents­ disciplines of philosophy and physiology  Structuralism­ based on the notion that the task of psych. is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related ­introspection­ careful, systematic self­ observation of one’s own conscious experience  Functionalism­ based on the belief that psych. should investigate the function or purpose of  consciousness, rather than its structure  behaviorism  changed the course of psych.­ theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psych. should study only observable behavior (abandon study of consciousness  altogether)  Freud: treated people with irrational fears, obsessions, and anxieties with psychoanalysis  unconscious­ contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of  conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior  psychoanalytic theory­ attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by  focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior  Humanists­ Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow­ said that psychoanalytic theory was  dominated by primitive, sexual urges & behaviorism was chiefly the study of simple animal  behavior ­both were “dehumanizing” ­ humanism­ theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique  qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth  cognitive perspective­ mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge (thinking or  conscious experience)  trends in modern psych. and cultural diversity­ showing renewed interest in consciousness  (“cognition”) and biological bases of behavior  evolutionary psych.­ examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for  members of a species over the course of many generations (natural selection favors passing  on genes to the next generation)  positive psych.­ uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive,  creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence   9 Major Research Areas in Modern Psych: ­developmental psych.­looks at human development across the life span (once focused on  child development, but today devotes a good deal to adolescence, adulthood, and old age) ­social psych.­ focuses on interpersonal behavior and the role of social forces in governing  behavior (attitude formation, attitude change, prejudice, conformity, attraction, aggression, intimate  relationships, and behavior in groups) ­educational psych.­ studies how people learn and the best ways to teach them (curriculum  design, teacher training, achievement testing, student motivation, classroom diversity, and  educational process) ­health psyc.­ focuses on how psych. factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of  physical health and the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness ­physiological psych.­ examines the influence of genetic factors on behavior and the role of  the brain, nervous system, endocrine system, and bodily chemicals in the regulation of behavior ­experimental psych.­ traditional core of psych. focused heavily on first­half century science  (sensation, perception, learning, conditioning, motivation, and emotion­ all areas have experiments) ­cognitive psych.­ focuses on “higher” mental processes, such as memory, reasoning,  information processing, language, problem solving, decision making, and creativity ­psychometrics­ concerned with the measurement of behavior and capacities, through  development of tests (involved with the design of tests to assess personality, intelligence, and  abilities & development of new techniques for statistical analysis) ­personality­ interesting in describing and understanding individuals’ consistency in behavior, which represents their personality (factors that shape personality & assessment)  6 Areas of Specialization: ­clinical psych.­evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of those with psych. disorders  (interviewing clients, psych. testing, and providing group or individual psychotherapy) ­counseling psych.­ similar to clinical psych. (interviewing, testing, and providing therapy)  except usually provide assistance to people struggling with everyday problems (family, marital, or  career counseling) ­industrial & organizational psych.­ tasks in business and industry (running human resources  departments, working to improve staff morale and attitudes, increase job satisfaction and  productivity, examining organizational structures and procedures, and making recommendations for  improvements ­school psych.­strive to promote the cognitive, emotional, and social development of children  in schools (in elementary or secondary schools, where they test and counsel children having  difficulties in school and aid parents and teachers in solving school­related problems ­clinical neuropsychology­ assessment and treatment of people who suffer from central  nervous system dysfunctions due to head trauma, dementia, stroke, seizure disorders, etc. ­forensic psych.­ apply psych. principles to issues in legal system (child custody decisions,  hearings on competency to stand trial, violence risk assessments, involuntary commitment  proceedings, etc.)  7 themes related to psych.: ­psych. is empirical (knowledge acquired through observation) ­psych. is theoretically diverse (theory­system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of  observations) ­psych. evolves in a sociohistorical context (leaves its mark on society) ­behavior is determined by multiple cases (multifactorial causation of behavior­ psychologists find that behavior is governed by a complex network of interaction factors referred to as this) ­behavior is shaped by cultural heritage (culture­ refers to the widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across  generations) ­heredity and environment jointly influence behavior ­people’s experience of the world is highly subjective  3 ways to develop sound study habits: 1.) set up a schedule for studying, 2.) find a place to study where you can concentrate, and  3.) reward your studying  6 ways to get more out of lectures:  1. getting info. from lectures involves active listening 2. it is a good idea to read ahead of the schedule 3. try to write down the lecturer’s thoughts in your own words 4. pay attention to clues as to what is important (repeating or “You’ll run into this again.”) 5. try to outline your notes like the prof.’s notes/ presentation 6. ask questions to become more involved and clarify points  tips for test­taking strategies & improvement in multiple­choice exams ­make mental schedule (time on clock) ­if you have no idea, guess and move on/ if takes a long time to do, come back to it later ­don’t overcomplicate questions ­review test at end if time permits ­always read each question & response carefully (may be a better answer) ­quickly eliminate options ­info. in one question may help with another test question ­if 2 are correct, you can choose “all of the above” / if you know one is wrong, don’t choose it! ­options that are broad are typically wrong (never, always, only, must completely, totally,  necessarily) ­options that have carefully qualified statements tend to be correct (often, sometimes,  perhaps, may and generally Chapter 2: Research Enterprise (12­15 questions; 3­4 from lecture only, 3­4 from book only,  and rest from both)  Goals of the scientific enterprise: 1.) measurement and description, 2.) understanding and  prediction, and 3.) application and control  hypothesis­ tentative statement about the relationship between 2 or more variables  variables­any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study  theory­ system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations (allow  psychologists to the make the leap from description of behavior to understanding of behavior  Facilitated Communication Video (8/26//15): ­used late 90’s/ early 2000’s ­facilitators guide special needs’ arms to type on keyboard ­eyes were close or not looking at keyboard (not physically possible) ­still looked down upon today­­­­> not ethical ­in 1993, came out that this Syracuse study was garbage­­­­> cases were overturned  Steps in a scientific investigation:  1. formulate a testable hypothesis, (operational definition­describes the actions or operations  that will be used to measure or control a variable) 2.) select research method and design the  study (participants/ subjects), 3.) collect the data, 4.) analyze the data & draw conclusions,  5.) report the findings (journal/ peer review process)  2 methods in psych.: experimental research methods & descriptive/ correlational research  methods  Experimental Design: ­independent variable­condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its  impact on another variable ­dependent variable­variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the  independent variable ­experimental group­consists of subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable ­control group­ consists of similar subjects who do not receive special treatment given to the  experimental group ­extraneous variables­ any variables other than independent variable that seem likely to  influence the dependent variable in a specific study  ­confounding of variables­ occurs when 2 variables are linked in a way that makes it difficult  to sort out their specific effects ­random assignment of subjects­ occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being  assigned to any group or condition in the study ­advantages of experimental design: allows conclusions about cause­ and effect  relationships between variables ­disadvantages of experimental design: experiments are often artificial & they can’t be used  to explore some research questions  descriptive/ correlational research­ permits investigators to see only whether there is a link or association between the variables of interest   correlation­ exists when 2 variables are related to each other ­range is 0 to +1 AND 0 TO ­1 ­postiive correlation­ indicates that 2 variables co­vary (change together) in the same  direction ­negative correlation­ indicates that 2 variables co­vary in the opposite direction  ­strength of correlation­ closer it is to +1 or ­1  ­although a high correlation allows us to predict one variable on the basis of another, it does  not tell us whether a cause­effect relationship exists between 2 variables        Chapter 6: Learning Through Conditioning (10­12 questions; 3­4 from lecture only; 3­4 from  book only; the rest from both lecture and book).  People to know: Pavlov, Skinner, Watson & Bandura  o Classical conditioning: what is it, be able to identify it from an example;  understand the process in terms of:  UCS, UCR, CS, & CR  Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery   Generalization & Discrimination   What is higher­order conditioning?  o Operant Conditioning­­what it is, be able to identify it from an example;  understand the process in terms of:   Reinforcement contingencies   Shaping   Extinction   Generalization & Discrimination   What is the difference between primary and secondary  reinforcers?   Schedules of reinforcement­­continuous vs. intermittent   fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval;  Which schedule leads to most/least number of responses? Is  least/most resistant to extinction?  o What do reinforcement and punishment do to behavior? What does positive  and negative mean in relation to reinforcement and punishment? o What is negative reinforcement? What is the difference between escape  learning and avoidance learning?  o What is punishment? What are the side effects associated with it? What can  make it most effective?  o What is instinctive (AKA instinctual) drift?  o Understand ways an organism’s biology can affect conditioning (e.g.,  conditioned taste aversion; preparedness and phobias) o What is observational learning? What is a model? What are four key processes  that are crucial for observational learning to take place? How does it help  explain why physical punishment of children leads to increased aggression in  children?  Chapter 7: Memory (14­16 questions; 3­4 from lecture only; 3­4 from book only; the rest from both  lecture and book).  People to know: Ebbinghaus, Sperling, Miller  3 Processes of memory: o Encoding: What is the role of attention? o Levels of processing­­what are they? What leads to better memory? o Be able to identify examples of different levels of processing, and ways of enriching  encoding o What is dual­coding theory?  Storage: o Sensory memory: how much info is held and for how long?  What are echoic and iconic memories? o Short Term Memory (STM): how much info is held and for how long?  What is Miller’s Magic Number? What is chunking? How does it help increase capacity of STM?  Long Term Memory (LTM): how much info is held and for how long? o What are procedural, declarative, semantic and episodic memories? o What are flashbulb memories? o What are the serial position effect, primacy effect and recency effect?  Why do primacy and recency effects occur? o What is a semantic network? Schema?  Retrieval: What are retrieval cues and be able to identify different types of retrieval cures o What is state dependent memory? o What is the Tip­of­the­tongue phenomenon? o What is the misinformation effect and how can it affect eyewitness testimony? o What are source monitoring errors?  Forgetting: What is the difference between retention, recall, recognition and relearning? o Why do we forget? What is the encoding specificity principle? o What is decay? Forgetting curve? o What is repression? o What is retroactive interference? Proactive interference? o Amnesia: know what retrograde and anterograde amnesia are  How can memory be improved? o What are mnemonic devices? How do they work?  What are acrostics? Acronyms?  What is prospective memory? Retrospective memory? Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception: (13­15 questions; 3­4 from lecture only, 3­4 from book only, and the rest from both lecture and book).   What are the three steps of sensation/perception?  Vision: o What physical properties of light are related to our perception of color, brightness and  saturation? o What are the structures of the eye and what role do they play in seeing? o What causes nearsightedness and farsightedness? o Why do we have a blind spot? Why don’t we usually notice it? o What do rods and cones do? Where are they located in the eye? o What are the opponent­process and trichromatic theories of color vision?  What is an illusion? Why is it important to the study of perception?  Who were the Gestalt psychologists? o What are their different principles of organization? Be able to identify them from  examples  What are the different monocular and binocular depth cues? Be able to identify them from  examples  Hearing: o What physical properties of sound are related to our perception of pitch, loudness and  timbre? o What are the structures of the ear and what role do they play in hearing? o What are the place theory and frequency theory of hearing?  What are our olfactory, gustatory, tactile, kinesthetic and vestibular sensory systems? o Where are the sensory receptors for each system?  What are the five primary tastes that are detected by the tongue?  Which sensory system does not get its information routed through the thalamus?  What is sensory adaptation?  What is a perceptual set, and how can it affect perception?  Who was George Stratton? What is perceptual adaptation?  What is a visual cliff, and what do experiments using it indicate? Chapter 12: Stress, Coping & Health: [about 10­12 questions; 2­3 strictly from lecture, 3­4 strictly  from text, the rest from both]: People to know: Holmes & Rahe, Lazarus & Folkman, Seyle  • What is stress? Biopsychosocial model? Health Psychology?  • General Adaptation Syndrome­­what are the different phases?  • What kinds of events do Holmes & Rahe consider to be stressful? What about Lazarus and  Folkman? What are better predictors of psychological/physical difficulties?  • Be able to identify examples of the three different types of conflicts described in text and  class  • What is behavioral vacillation and when does it occur?  • Be able to identify factors of situations that make them stressful (e.g., frustration, pressure,  novelty, uncontrollability, etc)  • Understand the three types of responses to stress discussed in the text and the effects of  these responses on people  • What are catecholamines and corticosteroids, and what are their effects on the body? • What  are the brain­body pathways?  • Understand the Yerkes­Dodson relationship (a.k.a. Inverted U hypothesis) between arousal  and performance, and how this relationship differs across task complexity.  • What are psychophysiological disorders?  • What is Type A personality and what (if any) health risks do Type A’s face?  • What is learned helplessness?  • What is the difference between problem­focused coping and emotion­focused coping?  • What is constructive coping? Defensive coping?  • Be able to identify different types of social support outlined in class.  • What is optimism? How is it thought to affect the relationship between stress and health?  • Understand the health­impairing behaviors discussed in the book.  • How often does noncompliance or nonadherence with medical advice occur? What are some reasons for this?  • Be able to identify the A, B, and C in Ellis' approach to understanding how stressful events  negatively impact people. Chapter 5: Variations in Consciousness: (13­15 questions; 3­4 from lecture only; 3­4 from book  only; the rest from both lecture and book).  People to know: Freud, Cartwright, Hobson, Hilgard  • What is selective attention?  • What is an EEG and what is it used for?  • What are biological rhythms?  § What are circadian rhythms? How long are they in humans and how do they explain  jet lag?  • You should know the hallmarks of the different stages of sleep, including:  § What EEG patterns look like (e.g., delta, theta waves, sleep spindles, etc.)  § Changes in the body  § When hypnogogic hallucinations, dreams, sleepwalking, sleep­talking, bedwetting  generally occur  § Different sleep disorders­­what they are, what treatments work (if appropriate)  § How does our sleep change as we grow older?  § What suggestions (from text and lecture) for a better night’s sleep would you give to people?  § Different theories of dreams (e.g., Wish Fulfillment, Problem­Solving, Activation­ Synthesis Model); What are the latent and manifest content of dreams?  • What is hypnosis, what are some effects produced by hypnosis? What are 2 major theories  of hypnosis and what evidence supports them?  • What is meditation? What are some short­term and long­term effects of meditation that have been found?  • What are psychoactive drugs?  § Know the different classes of drugs, their desired effects, health risks, etc. (Tables  5.2 and 5.3)  § What is tolerance, physical dependence, and psychological dependence?  § What is Andrew Weil’s position on drug use? Chapter 10: Human Development Across the Lifespan: (13­15 questions; 3­5 from lecture only;  7­8 from book only; the rest from both lecture and book; some will be covered in class on  Wednesday, 10/21, Friday 10/23 & Monday 10/26)  People to know: Ainsworth, Erikson, Piaget, Harlowe, & Kohlberg.  • What are the three phases of the prenatal period?  • What are the symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome?  • What is the cephalocaudel trend of motor development? Proximodistal trend?  • What is temperament? What are Thomas and Chess’s findings about temperament?  • What is cognitive development?  o Know Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development, including hallmarks of each stage  (e.g., what is object permanence, etc.).  o What are schemas? Assimilation? Accommodation? What are some criticisms or  limitations of Piaget’s theory?  • Know Kohlberg’s three levels of moral development, and some criticisms of his theory.  • Attachment: What is it? What is the cupboard theory of attachment? How did Harlowe’s  work with Rhesus monkeys change our understanding of attachment bonds? What factor did  Harlowe find was crucial for the development of attachment?  • Know Ainsworth’s work on attachment­­how did she test children’s attachment to their  mothers  o What were the three major attachment styles found? What are characteristics of each type of attachment style?  • How is culture related to attachment?  • What happens if animals (or people) are raised in isolation and don’t develop attachment  bonds with their caregivers? (remember Harlowe’s monkeys and the video on the Romanian  orphanage) Are the effects reversible?  • What is separation anxiety?  • Understand Erikson’s theory of development, including the central crisis of each of the 8  stages. Be able to identify examples of each crisis  o What is identity foreclosure? Moratorium? Identity diffusion? Identity achievement? • Understand the major adjustments that adults face when adjusting to changes in family life  • Understand physical changes associated with aging  o What is dementia? Chapter 11: Personality: Theory, Research and Assessment: (11-13 questions; 3-5 from lecture only; 3-5 from book only; the rest from both lecture and book). People to know: Freud, Skinner, Bandura, Rogers, Eysenck, McCrae & Costa • Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory ◦ 3 components of personality; 3 levels of awareness ◦ Defense Mechanisms: be able to identify examples of each ◦ Psychosexual stages of development--when do each occur, what are the hallmarks of each stage • Understand Skinner’s theory of personality • What is observational learning? How does this theory explain personality development? • What are the strengths and weaknesses of psychoanalytic, behavioral and social learning theories of personality? • What is the person-situation controversy? • How many dimensions of personality does Cattell think there are? How many dimensions of personality does McCrae and Costa think there are? Know and be able to describe all of McCrae and Costa’s factors ('Big 5'). • What is Locus of Control? Be able to identify examples of external LOC and internal LOC. • Personality Assessment: ◦ What are objective tests (a.k.a. self-report inventories)? What are some examples? What are their strengths and weaknesses? ◦ What are projective tests? What are some examples? What are their strengths and weaknesses? ◦ What is the Barnum effect? Chapter 13: Psychological Disorders: (15-17 questions; 4-6 from lecture only; 4-6 from book only; the rest from both lecture and book). People to know: Rosenhan, Seligman & Szasz. • What are the three criteria for defining behavior as abnormal? • What was Rosenhan’s (1973) study and what are the implications of its findings? • What is the medical model of psychological disorders, and what are some criticisms of this model? • What is the DSM-IV? What is it used for? How many dimensions or axes are diagnosed on the DSM-IV? • Mood disorders: What are the general symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder? ◦ What are the symptoms of a depressive and a manic episode (see Table 13.1)? ◦ Understand the different etiological theories of mood disorders ◦ What is a concordance rate? What is the concordance rate for mood disorders between identical and fraternal twins? ◦ What neurotransmitters are associated with unipolar depression? • Schizophrenic Disorders: What are the general symptoms of Schizophrenia? ◦ What are delusions and hallucinations? What is meant by affect being flat or inappropriate? ◦ What are the four subtypes of schizophrenic disorders and what are the hallmarks of each? ◦ Understand the differences between positive symptoms and negative symptoms ◦ Understand the different etiological theories of schizophrenia ◦ What are the concordance rates of schizophrenia in identical and fraternal twins? ◦ What neurotransmitter has been most associated with schizophrenia? ◦ What are communication deviance and expressed emotion, and how are they thought to be related to schizophrenia? • Anxiety Disorders: What are the general symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Phobic Disorder, Panic Disorder, Agoraphobia, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder? ◦ Understand the different etiological theories of anxiety disorders, including the concept of preparedness ◦ What neurotransmitters are associated with anxiety disorders? ◦ What learning theories are associated with the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders? ◦ Cognitive theories: In what ways do people with anxiety disorders tend to think differently from those without? • Dissociative disorders: What are Dissociative Amnesia, Dissociative Fugue and Dissociative Identity Disorder? • What are culture-bound disorders? • What are Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa? Understand different etiological theories of eating disorders Understand the important points from Connor Jones’ guest lecture on Substance Abuse Disorders from 11/13/15. Chapter 14: Treatment of Psychological Disorders: (about 11-13 questions: 4-6 strictly from lecture, 4-6 strictly from text, the rest from both): People to know: Freud, Rogers, Wolpe, Ellis, and Beck. • What are the different types of mental health providers? What are their credentials and what can they do? • Psychological therapies: ◦ Psychoanalytic, Humanistic (a.k.a. Client-Centered), Behavioral, Group & Cognitive therapies: what assumptions does each approach make about the causes of psychological problems and what are each of their methods? ◦What is transference? Resistance? Free Association? Why are they important components of psychoanalytic/psychodynamic therapies? ◦According to Rogers, what are the three characteristics that are essential to be an effective therapist (or to create a supportive emotional climate in therapy)? ◦What is systematic desensitization and aversion therapy? What learning principles do they utilize? ◦What do cognitive therapists focus on changing?  What are some therapies that have been inspired by positive psychology? ◦What is spontaneous remission? • Biomedical therapies: ◦4 classes of medication (a.k.a. psychopharmacotherapy)-- what are some basic examples of the medications in each class; what do they do (what symptoms do they alleviate); what are the side effects of each class of medication. ◦ECT--what psychological disorder was it originally used to treat? What disorder is it sometimes used to treat currently? What is Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation? Deep Brain Stimulation? What disorders have they been used to treat? o What are some of the less invasive biologically-based therapies and what are they used to treat? •Why do members of minority groups tend to underutilize psychological services? What would increase the probability that members of minority groups would seek and receive treatment? •What is deinstitutionalization? What are some positive and negative effects of it? Social Psychology: (about 11­13 questions; 3­4 strictly from lecture, 3­4 strictly from text, the rest  from both):  People to know: Asch, Milgram, Festinger, Kitty Genovese, Darley & Latané  Stuff to know inside and out:   What is social psychology?  What is person perception? How does physical attraction affect our perceptions of others? o What is an illusory correlation? o What are social schemas and how do they relate to stereotypes?  What are attributions? Why do people make them? Know the difference between internal  and external attributions, and between stable and unstable attributions. o What is the Fundamental Attribution Error? Self­serving Bias? What variable has been found  to reduce the tendency to make the Fundamental Attribution Error?   What are individualism and collectivism? How does individualism vs. collectivism relate  to patterns of attribution?  What factors contribute to liking? What is the matching hypothesis? What is the  difference between passionate love and companionate love? How are patterns of  attachment from infancy related to quality of romantic relationships in adulthood?  What is dissonance theory? Cognitive dissonance?  What is the Bystander Effect? o What factors increase or decrease our likelihood to help? o What is meant by diffusion of responsibility?  Conformity: What factors increase or decrease conformity o What are normative social influence and informational social influence?  Milgram’s studies on obedience o What factors increase and decrease the probability of obedience? o Are Milgram's and Asch's obedience and conformity effects seen across cultures?  Understand what social loafing, group polarization and groupthink are o Know the important points from Andres Munoz’s guest lecture on Evolutionary  Psychology


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.