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Week 7 Introduction to Sociology SOCI 111

by: Samantha Fore

Week 7 Introduction to Sociology SOCI 111 SOCI 111

Marketplace > Ivy Tech Community College > Sociology > SOCI 111 > Week 7 Introduction to Sociology SOCI 111
Samantha Fore
Ivy Tech Community College
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover week 7 (chapters 7 and 10) of an introductory sociology course.
Introductory Sociology
Class Notes
SOCI 111, SOCI 101, Intro to sociology, sociology, Introduction to Sociology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Fore on Monday December 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 111 at Ivy Tech Community College taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Ivy Tech Community College.

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Date Created: 12/28/15
Chapter 7­ Stratification   Stratification­ refers to the systematic inequalities between groups of people that arise as  intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships  In the 18  century, Jean­Jacques Rousseau argued that private property creates social  inequality and this inequality ultimately leads to social conflict  Ferguson and Millar agreed with Rousseau but they also argued that this is good because  it means that some people are getting ahead and creating assets  Thomas Malthus­ viewed inequality favorably but only as a means for controlling  population growth; thought that a more equal distribution of resources would increase the world’s population to unsustainable levels and ultimately bring about mass starvation and conflict  Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s Master­Slave dialectic­ most social relationships were  based on a master­slave model; over time, society would have more and more free people and the master­slave model would die out as the primary social relationship  Ontological equality­ everyone is created equal in the eyes of God  Equality of opportunity­ inequality is acceptable so long as everyone has the same  opportunities for advancement and is judged by the same standards  Equality of condition­ idea that everyone should have an equal starting point from which  to pursue their goals  Equality of outcome­ everyone in society should end up with the same “rewards”  regardless of starting point, opportunities, or contributions   Estate system­ politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social  mobility  Caste system­ system of stratification based on hereditary notions of religious and  theological purity and generally offers no prospects of social mobility  Class system­ an economically based system of stratification with somewhat loose social  mobility based on roles in the production process rather than individual characteristics   Karl Marx­ society was divided into two classes; the proletariat (working class) and the  bourgeoisie (employing class)   Erik Olin Wright­ developed the concept of contradictory class locations which I sthe  idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure that fall between the two  “pure” classes defined by Marx  Max Weber­ concept of class is based on grouping people according to the value of their  property or labor in the commercial marketplace  Status hierarchy system­ system of stratification based on social prestige  Elite­mass dichotomy system­ system stratification that has a governing elite­ a few  leaders who broadly hold the power of society  Socioeconomic status­ refers to an individual’s position in a stratified social order  Income gap between high and low income individuals has increased dramatically over the last 30 years  Social mobility­ movement between different positions within a system of social  stratification in any given society, can be either horizontal or vertical and can take place  on the individual or group level  Structural mobility­ mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy, such as the  expansion of high­tech jobs in the past 20 years  Exchange mobility­ occurs when people essentially trade positions­ the number of overall jobs stays the same, with some people moving up into better jobs and others moving  down into worse ones  Race­based affirmative action has resulted in a much more diverse group of college  graduates; one criticism of these policies is that they often end up helping those racial  minorities who it least­ those who are already privileged by class.  Status­attachment model­ looks at changes in the occupational status between generative,  but it includes factors such as educational attainment, income, and the prestige of a  person’s first job Chapter 10­ Poverty  Poverty­ condition of deprivation due to economic circumstances that is severe enough  that the individual in this condition cannot live with dignity in his or her society  At the middle of the debate about poverty in U.S., is the question of whether poverty is  the cause of social ills such as crime, poor educational outcomes, divorce, and so on, or  whether it is their result.  The culture of poverty theory argues that poor people adopt certain practices, which  differ from those of middle­class “mainstream” society, in order to adapt and survive in  difficult economic conditions.  William Julius Wilson turned the focus from welfare to factors like deindustrialization,  globalization, suburbanization, and discrimination as causes of urban poverty.  In the past 20­30 years, policies to combat poverty have focused on encouraging work  and offering benefits that particularly serve children.  In her book, “What Money Can’t Buy”, Susan Meyer writes that she found hardly any  evidence to support the widely held belief that parental income has a significant effect on  the children’s outcomes.  In “The Bell Curve”, Charles Morman and Richard Hernstein argued that it’s not poverty  or education are parenting that ultimately has the biggest impact on children’s outcomes,  but instead their genes.  James Rosenbaum’s study of the Gaureax Assisted Living Program in Chicago and the  Moving to Opportunity study began in 1994; it was designed to see if moving to less  impoverished areas might affect quality of life; Moving to Opportunity study seemed to  show that living in a quieter, less stressful environment did have very positive effects on  children.  Absolute poverty­ when a household’s income falls below the line to purchase food to  physically sustain its members  Relative poverty­ based on a percentage of the median income in a given location  The official poverty line in the U.S. is calculated using a formula developed in the 1960s  by Millie Orshanky; estimates food costs for minimum food requirements to determine  whether a family can “afford” to survive; can be problematic because the coast of food as decreased but the cost of living as increased.  Theories on how poverty affects children­ One focuses on the material deprivations  caused by a family’s low socioeconomic status; One focuses on bad parenting practices  related to a family’s low socioeconomic status; One focuses on differences between poor  parents and higher­income parents, but without much faith that anything can be done to  effect these differences.


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