Week 7 Introduction to Sociology SOCI 111
Week 7 Introduction to Sociology SOCI 111 SOCI 111
Ivy Tech Community College
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Fore on Monday December 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 111 at Ivy Tech Community College taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Ivy Tech Community College.
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Date Created: 12/28/15
Chapter 7 Stratification Stratification refers to the systematic inequalities between groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships In the 18 century, JeanJacques Rousseau argued that private property creates social inequality and this inequality ultimately leads to social conflict Ferguson and Millar agreed with Rousseau but they also argued that this is good because it means that some people are getting ahead and creating assets Thomas Malthus viewed inequality favorably but only as a means for controlling population growth; thought that a more equal distribution of resources would increase the world’s population to unsustainable levels and ultimately bring about mass starvation and conflict Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s MasterSlave dialectic most social relationships were based on a masterslave model; over time, society would have more and more free people and the masterslave model would die out as the primary social relationship Ontological equality everyone is created equal in the eyes of God Equality of opportunity inequality is acceptable so long as everyone has the same opportunities for advancement and is judged by the same standards Equality of condition idea that everyone should have an equal starting point from which to pursue their goals Equality of outcome everyone in society should end up with the same “rewards” regardless of starting point, opportunities, or contributions Estate system politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility Caste system system of stratification based on hereditary notions of religious and theological purity and generally offers no prospects of social mobility Class system an economically based system of stratification with somewhat loose social mobility based on roles in the production process rather than individual characteristics Karl Marx society was divided into two classes; the proletariat (working class) and the bourgeoisie (employing class) Erik Olin Wright developed the concept of contradictory class locations which I sthe idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure that fall between the two “pure” classes defined by Marx Max Weber concept of class is based on grouping people according to the value of their property or labor in the commercial marketplace Status hierarchy system system of stratification based on social prestige Elitemass dichotomy system system stratification that has a governing elite a few leaders who broadly hold the power of society Socioeconomic status refers to an individual’s position in a stratified social order Income gap between high and low income individuals has increased dramatically over the last 30 years Social mobility movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society, can be either horizontal or vertical and can take place on the individual or group level Structural mobility mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy, such as the expansion of hightech jobs in the past 20 years Exchange mobility occurs when people essentially trade positions the number of overall jobs stays the same, with some people moving up into better jobs and others moving down into worse ones Racebased affirmative action has resulted in a much more diverse group of college graduates; one criticism of these policies is that they often end up helping those racial minorities who it least those who are already privileged by class. Statusattachment model looks at changes in the occupational status between generative, but it includes factors such as educational attainment, income, and the prestige of a person’s first job Chapter 10 Poverty Poverty condition of deprivation due to economic circumstances that is severe enough that the individual in this condition cannot live with dignity in his or her society At the middle of the debate about poverty in U.S., is the question of whether poverty is the cause of social ills such as crime, poor educational outcomes, divorce, and so on, or whether it is their result. The culture of poverty theory argues that poor people adopt certain practices, which differ from those of middleclass “mainstream” society, in order to adapt and survive in difficult economic conditions. William Julius Wilson turned the focus from welfare to factors like deindustrialization, globalization, suburbanization, and discrimination as causes of urban poverty. In the past 2030 years, policies to combat poverty have focused on encouraging work and offering benefits that particularly serve children. In her book, “What Money Can’t Buy”, Susan Meyer writes that she found hardly any evidence to support the widely held belief that parental income has a significant effect on the children’s outcomes. In “The Bell Curve”, Charles Morman and Richard Hernstein argued that it’s not poverty or education are parenting that ultimately has the biggest impact on children’s outcomes, but instead their genes. James Rosenbaum’s study of the Gaureax Assisted Living Program in Chicago and the Moving to Opportunity study began in 1994; it was designed to see if moving to less impoverished areas might affect quality of life; Moving to Opportunity study seemed to show that living in a quieter, less stressful environment did have very positive effects on children. Absolute poverty when a household’s income falls below the line to purchase food to physically sustain its members Relative poverty based on a percentage of the median income in a given location The official poverty line in the U.S. is calculated using a formula developed in the 1960s by Millie Orshanky; estimates food costs for minimum food requirements to determine whether a family can “afford” to survive; can be problematic because the coast of food as decreased but the cost of living as increased. Theories on how poverty affects children One focuses on the material deprivations caused by a family’s low socioeconomic status; One focuses on bad parenting practices related to a family’s low socioeconomic status; One focuses on differences between poor parents and higherincome parents, but without much faith that anything can be done to effect these differences.
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