Seventh Week of PSY 2012
Seventh Week of PSY 2012 Psy 2012
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsay Everest on Monday December 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 2012 at University of South Florida taught by Jennifer Bosson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of South Florida.
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Date Created: 12/28/15
PSY 2012 Bosson Introduction to Psychology Chapter Seven Notes Learning Section One Learning I LEARNING the acquisition of new knowledge skills or responses from experience that results in a relatively permanent Change in the state of the learner II Forms of Learning A Classical conditioning Classical and Operant Conditioning are B Operant conditioning forms of associativelearning from the field of Behavuorism Habituation and C ObserVable 1631111112 Sensitization are simpler nonassociative D Implicit learning forms of learning E HABITUATION a general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in responding eg sound of a Boeing 737 becomes less deafening if you hear it all the time F SENSITIZATION a simple form of learning that occurs when presentation of a stimulus leads to an increased response to a later stimulus eg hear noises in the night if your house was broken into previously Section Two Classical Conditioning I CLASSICAL CONDITIONING a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response via repeated pairing with that stimulus in essence it is the learning of involuntaryautomatic behaviors and reactions 11 Pavlov s experiments with the salvation of dogs shows that classical conditioning is the process by which an organism learns that one stimulus or event predicts another stimulus or event and develops an expectation III Components of Classical Conditioning A UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS US stimulus that reliably produces a naturally occurring unleamed response in an organism B UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE UR re exive reaction produced by a US C CONDITIONED STIMULUS CS neutral stimulus that produces no reliable response in an organism D CONDITIONED RESPONSE CR response that resembles a UR but is produced by a CS E Helpful Videos 1 Clip from The Office httpswwwyoutubeComwatchvnE8pFWP5ODM 2 Pavlov s Dog httpswwwvoutubecomwatchvcP51CleK PM IV Concepts of Classical Conditioning A ACQUISITION the phase of Classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together in order to form a CR B SECOND ORDER CONDITIONING conditioning where a CS is paired with a stimulus that became associated with the US in an earlier procedure in order to produce a new CS VI EXTINCTION the gradual elimination of a CR by repeatedly presenting the CS without the US SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY the tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period the ability of the CS to elicit the CR was weakened but not eliminated occurs even though there have not been any additional associations between the CS and US DISCRIMINATION tendency not to give the CR to stimuli that are similar to but distinct from the CS ex sick after eating oysters sick at the thought of eating oysters but not at the thought of eating clams or mussels GENERALIZATION the tendency to give the CR to stimuli that are similar to but distinct from the CS ex bitten by snake so you become frightened by the sight of snakes or objects that look like snakes like ropes Experimenting with Conditional Emotional Responses A The Experiment of Little Albert is an example of how phobias can be classically conditioned httppsvchologvaboutcomodclassicpsvchologvstudiesalittle albert experimenthtm A US the loud sound was paired with a CS the presence of the rat such that the CS all by itself was sufficient enough to produce the CR a fearful reaction Stimulus Generalization Little Albert became fearful at the sight of a white rabbit a seal fur coat and a Santa Claus mask ResultsGoals of the Little Albert Experiment 1 Watson wanted to show that a relatively complex reaction could be conditioned using Pavlovian techniques 2 Watson proposed that fears could be learned just like any other behavior and need not be the product of deeper unconscious processes or early life experiences as Freud and his followers had argued Elements of Classical Conditioning A B Cognitive Elements of Classical Conditioning 1 Classical conditioning occurs when an animal has learned to set up an expectation 2 Conditioning is easier when the CS is an unfamiliar event rather than when it is familiar The reason is that familiar events already have expectations associated with them making new conditioning difficult Neural Elements of Classical Conditioning 1 The cerebellum part of the hindbrain that plays an important role in motor skill and learning is active during conditioning 2 The central nucleus of the amygdala produces certain responses to stimuli through two distinct connections with other parts of the brain e g fear responses 0 If the connection to the midbrain is disrupted the person won t exhibit the behavioral freezing response hiding or remaining still 0 If the connection to the hypothalamus is disrupted the person won t exhibit the physiological response of increased autonomic nervous system activity increased heart rate and blood pressure secretion of certain hormones etc C Evolutionary Elements of Classical Conditioning 1 BIOLOGICAL PREPAREDNESS animals are biologically prepared to learn some associations more readily than others 2 Conditional responses facilitate survival if an animal associates danger with a berry that makes it nauseous because it s poisonous it won t keep eating the berry and will be more likely to survive 3 CRs taste aversions are conditioned more readily to some CSs smell taste than others visual auditory 0 Can occur after a single pairing of taste and illness 0 Occurs even with a delay of several hours between taste and illness 0 Most likely in response to novel tastes 0 Practical Application with Cancer Patients People can develop taste aversions to foods consumed prior to chemotherapy which induces nausea Some studies have shown that sampling a novel food before a session of chemotherapy would block the development of taste aversions to foods that are a regular part of a patient s diet prior to treatment httpwwwncbinlmnihgovpubmed2990286 Section Three Operant Conditioning I OPERANT CONDITIONING a type of learning in which the consequences of an organism s behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future in essence it is the learning of voluntary behaviors and responses II LAW OF EFFECT behaviors that are followed by a satisfying state of affairs tend to be repeated and those that produce an unpleasant state of affairs are less likely to be repeated III Skinner s Contribution A Skinner Box apparatus used to study effects of reinforcement and punishment on behavior of laboratory animals B OPERANT BEHAVIOR behavior that an organism produces that has some impact on the environment o REINFORCER increases the frequency of a behavior 0 PUNISHER decreases the frequency of a behavior o POSITIVE presence addition of a stimulus 0 NEGATIVE absence removal of a stimulus 0 ESCAPE remove noxious stimuli forming correct behavior form of negative reinforcement o ACTIVE AVOIDANCE behavior avoids noxious stimuli form of negative ESCAPE reinforcement POSITIW NEGATIVE C Primary reinforcers help satisfy biological needs e g food shelter warmth while secondary reinforcers derive their effectiveness from their associations with primary reinforcers through classical conditioning e g money starts as a neutral CS but it association with primary US like acquiring foodshelter cause it to take on a conditioned emotional element IV Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning A Stimulus control when a particular response only occurs when an appropriate discriminative stimulus is present 1 Discriminative stimulus a cue that provides information about whether a response will be reinforced 2 Q Dogs scratch on the door behavior to be let inside reinforcement when owner is home but not when kids are homes Their behavior is under stimulus control and the owner is the discriminative stimulus 3 Extinction tendency to stop a behavior because it s no longer reinforced B Schedules of Reinforcement 1 FIXED INTERVAL SCHEDULE reinforcement is presented at fixed time periods provided that the appropriate response is made 2 VARIABLE INTERVAL SCHEDULE reinforcement is based on an average time that has eXpired since the last reinforcement 3 FIXED RATIO SCHEDULE reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made 4 VARIABLE RATIO SCHEDULE reinforcement is delivered based on a particular average number of responses C INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT an operant conditioning principle in which only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT EFFECT operant behaviors that are maintained under intermittent reinforcement schedules resist extinction better than those maintained under continuous reinforcement D SHAPING learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behavior 1 Used when the desired behavior is compleX unlikely to occur spontaneously 2 Successive approximations are smaller behaviors that are reinforced until the overall sequence of behavior is performed reliably V The neurons along the medial forebrain bundle pathway from midbrain 9 hypothalamus 9 nucleus accumbens are dopaminergic Dopamine is likely more closely linked with the eXpectation of reward than with reward itself VI Past studies have shown that all species including humans are biologically predisposed to learn some things more readily than others and to respond to stimuli in ways that are consistent with their evolutionary history Such adaptive behaviors however evolved over extraordinarily long periods and in particular environmental contexts Section Four Observational Learning I OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING learning that takes place by watching the actions of others aka modeling II III IV The Bobo Doll Study the observational learning seen in this study has implications for social learning and cultural transmission of behaviors norms and values how children learn from adult models httpswwwvoutubecomwatchv128Ts5r9NRE VICARIOUS REINFORCEMENT increase in an observer s tendency to emit a modeled behavior based on observing that the behavior produced favorable outcomes for model combines operant conditioning processes and observational learning processes DIFFUSION CHAIN individuals initially learn a behavior by observing another individual perform that behavior and then serve as a model from which other individuals learn the behavior MIRROR NEURONS fire when observing another animal perform a behavior located in the frontal and parietal lobes facilitate the ability to learn by observation Section Five Implicit Learning I II IMPLICIT LEARNING learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process and the products of information acquisition Just need to know the definition
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