Eighth Week of PSY 2012
Eighth Week of PSY 2012 Psy 2012
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsay Everest on Monday December 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 2012 at University of South Florida taught by Jennifer Bosson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of South Florida.
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Date Created: 12/28/15
PSY 2012 Bosson Introduction to Psychology Chapter Eleven Notes: “Development” Section One: Developmental Psychology I. DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: subfield of psychology that studies continuity and change across the life span (conception through death) II. The Nature vs. Nurture Debate A. Nature refers to genes – you are genetically “programmed” to possess certain physical traits (e.g., height, weight, agility) and psychological traits (e.g., shyness, emotionality, creativity). Nurture refers to experience – you are shaped, physically and psychologically, by environmental factors such as learning, culture, nutrition, and life events. B. The Bioecological Model – combination of nature and nurture 1. Infants are born with genetic predispositions 2. Life environments and experiences determine whether those genetic predispositions become expressed as physical and psychological traits III. HERITABILITY ESTIMATE (h ): statistical estimate of the extent to which a given trait is influenced by genes; the proportion of the population variance that can be explained by genetic differences A. The rest of variance is due to environmental factors B. “Twin studies” compare identical/monozygotic twins (that share 100% of genes) reared together with fraternal/dizygotic twins (that share, on average, 50% of genes) reared together 1. If a trait is heritable, identical twins will be more similar to each other on that trait than fraternal twins. 2. CONCORDANCE RATE: correlation between twins’ standing on the same trait 3. A heritability of 51% does not mean genes cause 51% of a trait in an individual. It means 51% of the differences between traits in a population is caused by genes. Section Two: Prenatal Development I. Stages of Development A. GERMINAL STAGE: 2 week period that begins at conception 1. ZYGOTE: fertilized egg that has chromosomes from an egg and a sperm 2. Zygote travels through fallopian tube and implants in the wall of the uterus, cells rapidly divide nd th B. EMBRYONIC STAGE: period that lasts from the 2 week until the 8 week 1. Cells of the embryo begin to differentiate 2. Certain hormones begin secreting (e.g., testosterone in males) C. FETAL STAGE: period that lasts from the 9 week until birth 1. Fetus develops organ systems 2. MYELINATION: formation of a fatty sheath around the axons of a neuron, which is important for cognitive functions II. TERATOGEN: any agent or factor that causes abnormalities in prenatal development (e.g., medications, vaccinations, diseases/infections, physical agents like radiation, ingestible like alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, or vitamins) A. Radiation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1. Within 1 mile – no fetuses survived 2. Within 4 miles – 75% of pregnancies resulted in miscarriages or stillbirths 3. Beyond 4 miles – high rates of birth defects and leukemia in infants B. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – heavy drinking can lead to facial deformities, limited attention span, stunted growth, mental retardation C. Even moderate drinking can lead to slow growth in first 6-8 months, attention and memory deficits, poorer social skills, impulsivity and aggressiveness, lower self- esteem, and poorer math/reading/spelling skills D. Tobacco can lead to small birth weights and a higher likelihood of perceptual and attentional problems in childhood III. Senses at Birth A. Vision – poor, preference for white/black contrasting images, can recognize faces, can track objects but cannot see details B. Taste – reasonably well-developed, prefer sweet tasting things C. Touch/Smell – well-developed D. Hearing – reasonably well-developed, show preference for human voices, can distinguish between mother’s voice and the voices of female strangers Section Three: Infancy and Childhood I. During the first few years of life dendritic spreading (rapid growth of dendrite connections between neurons) occurs II. Physical Development A. Newborns are visually quite responsive and respond to changes in visual stimuli – habituation is the tendency for organisms to respond less intensely to a stimulus as the frequency of exposure to that stimulus increases B. MOTOR DEVELOPMENT: emergence of the ability to execute physical actions (e.g., reaching, grasping, crawling, and walking) C. Infants are born with a small set of REFLEXES: specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation (e.g., sucking reflex – tendency to suck any object that enters their mouths) III. Cognitive Development According to Piaget A. Assumption: Cognitive development is characterized by a series of stages 1. Each stage is very different from others (abrupt progression through stages) 2. Ages for stage transitions are approximate B. People develop SCHEMAS: cognitive frameworks that organize the world C. Learning occurs via the processes of ASSIMILATION (fitting new information into existing schemas) and ACCOMMODATION (changing schemas to fit new information) D. Stages of Development 1. SENSORIMOTOR STAGE: starts at birth and lasts through infancy (about 2 years); view world as a series of unconnected sensory impressions and motor (physical) reactions Does not have vision for future No self-consciousness – no distinction between “me” and “not me” Develops OBJECT PERMANENCE (understanding that objects continue to exist, even when out of view) and DEFERRED IMITATION (ability to mimic behavior after a delay) by the end of this stage 2. PREOPERATIONAL STAGE: first half of childhood (begins at about 2 years and ends at about 6-7 years of age); develops a preliminary understanding of the physical world Develops EGOCENTRISM: failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers Lacks THEORY OF MIND: understanding of people as mental beings, each with his/her own mental states (e.g., thoughts, wants, motives, feelings, knowledge) 3. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE: second half of childhood (continues until about 12 years old) Develops CONSERVATION: idea that objects retain their physical properties despite superficial changes in appearance Develops OPERATIONS: stable set of rules about the world and its properties Develops PERSPECTIVE-TAKING: seeing things from another person’s point of view Thinking is concrete, not abstract 4. FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE: continues through adulthood Ability to apply operations to abstract thinking Sophisticated reasoning and problem-solving Ability to entertain hypotheticals E. Criticisms 1. Cognitive development proceeds gradually rather than abruptly 2. Piaget’s methods sometimes caused him to underestimate infant’s/children’s cognitive abilities Ex: Piaget thought infants had no object permanence because his experiments required fine motor skills that the infants hadn’t developed Ex: Piaget thought it took children years to overcome egocentrism but new studies have confirmed shallow levels of theory of mind in 13 month olds 3. Underestimates roles of education and culture in cognitive development IV. Cognitive Development According to Vygotsky A. Assumption: Children develop cognitively by interacting with members of their culture B. Functions of Vygotsky’s Theory 1. Joint Attention – ability to focus on what another person focuses on (e.g., infants follow gaze of adult caregivers to see what they are looking at) 2. Social Referencing – ability to use someone else’s reactions as information about the world (e.g., an infant will check their mother’s facial expression to see if a toy is dangerous) 3. Imitation – ability to mimic another person’s actions (e.g., dad pets dog so child grows up thinking petting dogs is okay and pets dogs); over-imitation occurs when children copy parents so precisely that they copy pointless behaviors V. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8nz2dtv--ok This video covers both theories of cognitive development and while Dr. Bosson stresses different concepts and those are what are explained above. This video is only included as a more interactive way of learning the content. VI. Social Development A. Harlow’s experiments with a baby Rhesus monkey raised in isolation and introduced to faux mothers which preferred comfort over food (biological need for food is less than biological drive for comfort under normal circumstances) B. John Bowlby studied relationships between infants and caregivers and developed the ATTACHMENT THEORY: children should get comforting touch and their need for comforting physical contact drives their formation of emotional bonds with caregivers, without consistent caregiving it is difficult to form attachments C. Functions of Primary Caregiver 1. SAFE HAVEN: source of physical comfort and protection when infant desires closeness 2. SECURE BASE: trustworthy, dependable base from which infant can venture out and explore the world D. STRANGE SITUATION: behavioral test used to determine a child’s attachment style by testing their interactions with their mother and strangers; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DH1m_ZMO7GU E. ATTACHMENT STYLE: person’s characteristic style of relating to attachment partners throughout life; types: secure, avoidant, and anxious-ambivalent 1. SECURE: distress when mother leaves, plays easily with stranger, but cannot be comforted by her, easily soothed when mother returns; distress is an adaptive behavior to bring caregiver back; positive feelings about self; confident in others’ love 2. AVOIDANT: ignores mother and stranger, shows no distress when mother leaves, ignores her when she returns; caregivers are often unreliable; self- reliant, avoid intimacy 3. ANXIOUS-AMBIVALENT: extreme distress when mother leaves, fearful of stranger, not easily soothed when mother returns, desires to be near mother but angry with her; often results from an inconsistent caregiver; self-doubts, concerns about others’ love and dependability F. Attachment Style and Emotion 1. Secure infants tend to rebound faster from social conflicts as adults 2. Insecure infants experience more negative emotions when trying to resolve social conflicts as adults G. INTERNAL WORKING MODEL OF RELATIONSHIPS: a set of beliefs about the self, the primary caregiver, and the relationship between them 1. Secure – act as though they’re certain that their primary caregiver will respond 2. Avoidant – certain that their primary caregiver will not respond 3. Anxious-ambivalent – uncertain about whether their caregiver will respond H. TEMPERAMENTS: characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity 1. Differences are usually stable over time 2. Ex: infants who react fearfully to novel stimuli tend to be more subdued, less- social, and less positive as older children VII. Moral Development A. Stages of Development 1. PRECONVENTIONAL STAGE: the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor 2. CONVENTIONAL STAGE: the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules 3. POSTCONVENTIONAL STAGE: the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values B. Feeling What’s Right 1. Moral Intuitionist Perspective – we have evolved to react emotionally to a small family of events that are particularly relevant to reproduction and survival, and we have developed the distinction between right and wrong as a way of labeling and explaining these emotional reactions (e.g., we are disgusted by incest and think it’s wrong because it produces genetically non- viable offspring) 2. Empathy – studies suggest our brains respond to other people’s expressions of suffering by creating within us the experience of suffering; this mechanism may have evolved because it allows us to know instantly what others are feeling
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