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Evolution and ecolgy notes 1

by: Taylor Martin

Evolution and ecolgy notes 1 BIO_SC 3400 - 01

Taylor Martin
GPA 2.3
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notes for exam 1
Evolution and Ecology
Elizabeth King
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Martin on Wednesday December 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO_SC 3400 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Elizabeth King in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 149 views. For similar materials see Evolution and Ecology in Biological Sciences at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 12/30/15
What is Evolutionary Biology?   The study of the processes that produced the diversity of life on     Earth Major Questions:   ● Where did Earth’s organisms come from?   ●  Why are there so many different kinds?   ● Why do organisms have the features they do?     Levels of Evolutionary Biology   Microevolution:​  Evolution occurring within populations, including adaptive and neutral  changes in allele frequencies from one generation to the next     Macroevolution:​  Evolution occurring above the species level, including the origination,  diversification, and extinction of species over long periods of time     What is Ecology?  ●  “The study of relationships between organisms and their environment” –Molles  (2010)    ● “The study of the distribution and abundance of different types of organisms over  the face of the earth, and the physical, chemical, and biological features and  interactions that determine these distributions and abundances.” –Begon,  Townsend, and Harper (1996)       Levels of Ecology   Individual Organisms:​  How do sea otters thermoregulate in an ocean environment?   Populations: ​ What factors determine sea otter population growth?  Interactions:​  How does sea otter predation influence sea urchin populations?   Communities:​  What factors influence the species diversity in kelp forests?   Ecosystem:​  How does kelp harvesting influence energy cycling in the kelp forest  community?  Biosphere: ​ What role does atmospheric CO2 play in ocean acidification?    Evolution and Ecology are Closely Linked   ● Population Growth and Regulation  ● Predator – Prey Relationships  ● Ecological Niches and Adaptive Radiations     Unit 1: Introduction to Evolution   Major Topics   ●  Introduction to Nature and Process of Science   ● History of Evolutionary Thought   ● Introduction to the Theory of Evolution & Natural Selection   ● History of Life     Specific Learning Objectives  ●  Nature and Process of Science   ○ Identify the assumptions of the scientific process   ○ Define basic terminology   ○ Know the basic steps in the scientific process   ○ Apply the scientific process to a new example     History of Evolutionary Thought   ● Explain key ideas that influenced Darwin and identify the scientists associated  with them   ● Explain the two main points in the origin of species     Assumptions of the Scientific Process observations  1. Reflect real phenomena  2. These phenomena are governed by natural causes   3. Natural causes can be discovered by observation and experimentation  4. There is consistency in the causes that operate in the natural world     Science as a Way of Knowing   Guess (must falsifiable) ­­­­­­Compute Consequences of the Guess ­­­­­­­­­Compare to  Experimentation or Observation of the Natural World­­­­­­­­ If Disagrees = WRONG      Scientific Terminology   Fact: ​n objective and verifiable observation   Hypothesis: ​Educated guess   Theory/Law:​  An explanation of a natural phenomenon based on a wealth of well  documented evidence   ● Hypotheses and theories explain/ interpret facts     Doubt and Uncertainty in Science   ● Theories and hypotheses are never proved right, they can only be proved wrong   ● Theories and hypotheses are always subject to revision or rejection   ● A single experiment doesn’t disprove a well established theory (we have to check  to make sure)   Example of the Scientific Process: Peptic Ulcers   Hyperacidity Hypothesis (~1950)  1. Excess stomach acid is the primary cause of peptic ulcers   2. Reduction in stomach acid will successfully treat peptic ulcers   3. Acid reduction relieves symptoms in some patients    Inconsistent observations   ● Acid reduction is ineffective for some patients   ● Ulcers often recur following acid reduction   ● Antibiotics successfully treat peptic ulcers   ● Bacteria are observed in gastric biopsies   = WRONG   Helicobacter pylori Hypothesis (1982)   1. The bacteria, H. pylori is the primary cause of peptic ulcers   ● Antibiotics will be a successful treatment  ● Infection with H. pylori will cause peptic ulcer   2. Both 1 and 2 were confirmed   ❖ Robin Warren and Barry J. Marshall received the Nobel prize in medicine in 2005     Science as a Way of Knowing   Just a Few Examples   ● Electricity   ●  All Plastics   ●  Modern Agriculture   ● Modern Medicine   ● Weather Forecasting   ●  New Sources of Energy    ● Modern Computing   


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