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Lecture & Chapter Notes CH13

by: Lorelei Wong

Lecture & Chapter Notes CH13 PSY 150A1

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Psychlogy > PSY 150A1 > Lecture Chapter Notes CH13
Lorelei Wong
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About this Document

Personality Psychology Outline Notes 10, Chapter 13
Structure of Mind & Behavior
Dr. Adam Lazarewicz
Class Notes
Structure of Mind and Behavior, Psychology, personality
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorelei Wong on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Adam Lazarewicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Structure of Mind & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 04/08/16
PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz Lecture Notes Chapter 13: Personality Psychology  Personality – a person’s consistent way of thinking, feeling, and acting o Stable qualities that don’t change too often o Different for every individual  Sigmund Freud & Psychoanalysis o Anna O – first patient of Freud, treated for hysteria  Limbic paralysis randomly on right side of body  Vision, hearing, & speech issues during this time  First “therapy” sessions  Freud wondered if we are anxious about things in our unconscious o Unconscious – the collection of unacceptable thoughts and desires and memories  They have a powerful influence over our thoughts/behavior o Psychoanalysis – behaviors and attitudes are due to unconscious motives and internal conflicts  Patients may put too much pressure on the conscious mind, so things get sent to the unconscious until that can no longer hold any more  Way to release the pressure of the unconscious is by accessing it  Dreams & the unconscious – manifest vs. latent content  Free association – responding to a stimulus with the first thing that comes to mind (reaction)  Slips of the tongue – “A Freudian slip” things you really want or want to say but don’t mean to out loud or in that situation o Freud always found a deeper meaning in almost anything  Ex: dreams are the royal road to the unconscious  Manifest vs. latent content o 3 components of Freudian personality  1. Id: unconscious energy  sexual & aggressive urges  Pleasure principle – demanding immediate gratification; regardless of social norms & restraints  2. Superego: internalized ideals & standards for right/wrong  The conscience  How one out to behave  3. Ego: mediator between id and superego conflicts  Mostly conscious  Reality principle – seeks to gratify id in ways acceptable to superego o Psychosexual development  Erogenous zones – focused id energy on different parts of body as we mature  Traumatic experiences  “fixation” (lingering issues into adulthood)  Oedipus complex – boy develop unconscious attraction to mother & see father as the rival  Results in guilt, fear, and punishment  Electra complex – girls feel inferior and jealous anxiety o Criticisms of Freud: PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  Scientific shortcomings:  Based off of case studies and not group studies with vast samples  Interpretation of only his beliefs, not research and data based  Post hoc explanations  could explain anything after the fact and could not be tested  Gender & sexual identities, dreams, etc. o Importance:  Roots of modern studies of  Implicit/unconscious processing  Self-protective defenses and reactions  Motivation by sexuality  Social well-being  Talking therapy  Trait Perspectith of Personality o Early 20 century only two options:  1. Freudian psychoanalysts (negativity)  2. Slannerian behaviorists (mechanical) o Gordon Allport – founder of the modern personality psychology  Psychoanalysis  too deep, behaviorism  not deep enough  Felt a need to describe personality  Trait – characteristic pattern of behavior, how a person feels or acts o 5-factor model (aka. The “Big Five”) (CANOE, OCEAN – acronyms)  Conscientiousness – how we regulate, structure, and control our lives  High: organized, prompt, neat, meticulous structure, proactive  Low: disorganized, sloppy, careless, disorderly, impractical, prefer less structure  Agreeableness – ability for cooperation and social harmony  High: sympathetic, avoidance of conflict, understanding, warm  Low: “harsh”, blunt, sees conflict as helpful & insightful, less sympathetic  Neuroticism – tendency to experience strong negative emotions  High: insecure, moody, anxious  Low: calm, relaxed, stable  Openness – willingness to try new experiences  High: prefer new and exciting things, creative, imaginative  Low: prefer a routine & habit, less creative & imaginative, set in their ways  Extraversion – engagement with the outside social world  High: talkative, engaging, forward, outspoken, assertive, prefers to be around people  Low: shy, quiet, prefers to be alone or with a small group of people, inhibited o Who cares about the Big Five? PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  Universality cross-culturally  Generally, remains stable through adulthood  Neuroticism, extroversion, openness: drops slightly after college  Agreeableness & conscientiousness: rise slightly after college  Predicts other attributes  Morning people = more conscientious  Evening people = more extraverted  If one partner tends to be lower than the other in agreeableness, stability, and openness = marital & sexual dissatisfaction  High conscientious  best career outcomes PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz Textbook Notes  Psychodynamic approaches to personality – personality is driven by unconscious and inner forces & conflicts motivate us, but we have little knowledge of these  Psychoanalytic theory – determinants of personality are from the unconscious  Fixations – concerns/conflicts that remain long after the period when they first occur  Oral stage – infants pleasure center is in the mouth  Anal stage – 12-18 MO pleasure center on the anus  Phallic stage – begins around age 3 where pleasure center on genitals  Identification – wanting to be like someone else, imitate behaviors, adapt beliefs and values  Latency period – stage between phallic and adolescence where sexual concerns are temporarily unimportant  Genital stage – puberty to death, mature sexual behaviors  Defense mechanisms – unconscious ways of protecting oneself from things that cause anxiety by distorting the reality and concealing the issue to the unconscious  Repression – primary defense mechanism, ego pushes unacceptable thoughts and behaviors to unconscious  Neo-Freudian psychoanalysts – taught Freudian theory but later rejected it  Collective unconscious – inherited set of ideas shared among all humans  Archetypes – universal symbols among people, objects, experiences, and ideas  Social cognitive approaches to personality – cognitions influence a person’s personality  Self-efficacy – can produce positive outcomes by personally mastering a situation  Self-esteem – positive and negative self-evaluations  Biological and evolutionary approaches to personality – important parts of personality are inherited  Temperament – individual’s behavioral style and characteristics  Humanistic approaches to personality – emphasizes people’s innate goodness and craving to reach high functioning abilities  Unconditional positive reward – acceptance & respect on part of the observer that they do not care what a person says or does  Psychological tests – measures behavior  Self-report measures – people self-report their own behaviors and traits  Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) – widely used as a self-report test to predict everyday behaviors  Test standardization – used to validate questions in personality by studying the responses of people with known diagnoses  Projective personality test – vague stimulus shown and participant asked to describe it or tell a story about it  Rorschach test – series of symmetrical visual stimuli and people report what the figures represent  Behavioral assessment – used to describe personality characteristic based off of a person’s behavior


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