Popular in Aural Skills II
Mary Catherine Wall
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Music
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Catherine Wall on Thursday December 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 118 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by TBA in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Aural Skills II in Music at University of South Carolina - Columbia.
Reviews for test
Can you just teach this course please? lol :)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 12/31/15
Final Exam – Review (Game) PSYC 460 (002) – Physiological Psychology Longterm potentiation – A longterm increase in the excitability of a neuron to a particular synaptic input caused by repeated highfrequency activity of that input Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex – the region that helps us inhibit an automatic response that is wrong. It is active when doing the stroop task. It is also smaller in people with schizophrenia and has fewer connections to other areas. Glutamate – While dopamine is usually the NT focused on in schizophrenia, it really only explains the positive symptoms. This widely distributed excitatory NT also appears to be dysregulated in schizophrenics and better accounts for the negative symptoms as well. Insular cortex part of this region of the brain is the main primary gustatory receiving area. It is also active whenever we feel disgust or even think about being disgusted. Disgust literally means bad taste. norepinephrine (NE) – this NT plays a role in arousal in that it helps us stay vigilant. The more of this particular monoamine that is in the system, the better we can respond to a new stimulus. Nondeclarative memory – this is memory for things that we can not explicitly state. So, procedural learning falls under this memory system, classical conditioning / any kind of conditioning, anything that influences our behavior or experience that we can’t state why… This is one of the functions of REM sleep. It helps with this kind of memory. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex – this brain region has been addressed in several places. It inhibits conditioned emotional responses; it helps us make decisions that require the consideration of emotional consequences; Deep brain stimulation (DBS) This treatment for depression involves stimulating parts of the brain, usually subcortical regions. So, Mayberg and her colleagues used this on the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and another group tried this type of treatment on the nucleus accumbens Bipolar disorder This major affective disorder is characterized by alternating periods of mania with periods of depression Reconsolidation When we bring up some episodic memory, it is in a labile state. It gets laid back down such that it is biochemically changed. neurogenesis – when new neurons are formed in the hippocampus (and olfactory bulb), this is called _________________ and it helps in the consolidation of memory as new connections are formed. This is apparently something that is occurring less healthily in people who are depressed. serotonin (5HT) – this NT was mentioned in several of the later chapters we’ve studied. It helps us stay awake; it plays a role in aggression; it is implicated in depression Hippocampus – this is a brain region that has been most studied when looking at long term potentiation and synaptic plasticity in response to learning. It helps us consolidate new declarative memories locus coeruleus – this is the brain area that produces NE – it helps us stay vigilant, awake, and when something grabs our attention (or our heart), this brain region releases NE raphe nuclei – this part of the hind brain hold the cell bodies that produce serotonin Basal ganglia – this group of subcortical nuclei are involved in automated movements, as well as that aspect of procedural learning. The way this brain region allows movement is by ceasing to inhibit a movement we wish to make. Damages to parts of this region (or the neurons projecting to this region) can cause Huntington’s (or Parkinson’s) Your book talks about Instrumental conditioning and how it involves a motor component. It actually involves perceptual memory, a stimulusresponse component, a reward, and can involve motor learning. I called this motor learning procedural memory. This takes place in this brain region. REM Sleep – this is called paradoxical sleep because the person’s eyes are moving and brain activity is similar to being awake. Slowwave sleep – these stages of sleep go together and involve neurons all being active at the same time, and all resting at the same time in a synchronized manner. This synchronicity leads to delta wave activity Insomnia – this sleep disorder is characterized by a difficulty falling asleep after going to bed or after awakening some time during the night. It is difficult to truly diagnose. It involves not getting enough sleep, but many people underestimate the amount of sleep they get during the night Dopamine – this appears to be one of the key NTs dysregulated in schizophrenia. It is also sent through the basal ganglia from the substantia nigra as part of that movement system. They sometimes target this NT for depression, but less often than the other monoamines Association areas / cortices Perceptual shortterm memory activates which areas of the cortex? You might keep in mind that perceptual shortterm memory has been studied mostly with visual information, but has also been studied with auditory information (and less often with the other three senses). Acetylcholine – this helps to keep us stay awake. It is an excitatory NT that is also between motor neurons and their muscles. Narcolepsy – this sleep disorder is usually associated with sleep attacks, so excessive sleepiness during mundane tasks during the day and/or cataplexy – some amount of muscle weakness, sometimes causing momentary paralysis as well as other symptoms that suggest that aspects of REM sleep are entering other sleep stages as well as when people are awake. This appears to be due to a lack of the neurons that produce orexin. Sleep spindles – occur in Stage 2 sleep? And these correlate with measures on nonverbal IQ Cerebellum – this subcortical area is involved in the timing of movements. It is also involved in the timing of attention and cognitive and social aspects of navigating the world Stage 1 Sleep – this stage of sleep involves theta waves, which are just slightly slower than the beta waves of being awake and busy and the alpha waves of being awake and calm. Reticular formation – a low level brain region involved in speciesspecific movements – programmed patterns of movements amygdala – overall, this brain region plays an important role in emotion and emotional expression. It is active during fear responses. It is active when we hear crying or laughing. It is involved in recognizing the expression of fear. It appears like it is most active in emotionally ambiguous situations as it communicates to other brain areas about how to respond. REM sleep behavior disorder – in this sleep disorder, people may act out their dreams, basically they fail to exhibit the typical paralysis that occurs with REM sleep. It’s actually quite dangerous. Episodic memory – this type of declarative memory refers to memory of our autobiographical experiences. It includes context. Semantic memories – this type of declarative memthy refers to our memory for learned facts. For example, Jimmy Carter was the 39 president of the U.S. Electroconvulsive therapy – This therapy for depression involve inducing an electrical seizure by delivering a jolt of electricity to the scalp. These days usually just on the right side of the brain. Ventricles – In schizophrenics, these fluid filled cavities are enlarged, because of loss of tissue or gray matter. Hypothalamus this is another brain region that is important when talking about emotions. It receives input from the amygdala and it communicates to the autonomic nervous system about necessary physiological changes as well as to the periaqueductal gray matter Associative longterm potentiation – Classical conditioning is a type of learning that occurs because of this phenomenon. Longterm depression – Not only do we need to strengthen synapses that are successfully being used, but we need to weaken synapses that are when the postsynaptic membrane is either being weakly depolarized or hyperpolarized. NMDA receptor – this glutamate receptor is particularly important for longterm potentiation and synaptic plasticity, since it lets in calcium, which causes changes in the cell – growth of dendritic spines, movement of AMPA receptors, etc. the periaqueductal gray matter – this brain region controls some aggressive behaviors, particularly species specific muscle movements like hissing, posturing, growling, showing teeth testosterone – this hormone is involved in aggressive behavior. It looks like the move of this hormone in the system (as long as we consider other chemicals), the higher the likelihood of aggressive behavior Histamine is a NT that projects from the hypothalamus and helps us stay awake. It is a lesser known monoamine. We sometimes take drugs for our sinuses that block this NT. Anterograde amnesia amnesia for events after a surgery, trauma, or any kind of damage to the brain is called ______________. This involves damage to the hippocampus and so it usually just affects declarative memory. Nitric oxide this soluble gas appears to be released and the cause changes in the presynaptic neuron which strengthen a synapse, so lowering the action potential threshold and causing it to release more NT. medial preoptic area – receptors in this brain region respond to testosterone and influence aggressive behavior Adenosine – when this nucleoside accumulates, as it does throughout the day as we use our brain, we feel sleepy. suprachiasmatic nucleus –this hypothalamic nucleus controls circadian rhythms. While it has its own rhythm, it is also affected by zeitgebers, light being the main zeitgeber. Orexin – this neuropeptide is an excitatory NT that affects many other NTs involved in staying awake. It is art of the ON/OFF of sleep (keeping us awake) and part of the ON/OFF of REM (keeping us OUT OF REM sleep) retinal ganglion cells – these neurons that line the back of the eye take in information about light and communicate to the hypothalamus the central nucleus When this area of the amygdala is active, it elicits a variety of emotional responses: behavioral, autonomic, and hormonal. It is in direct communication with regions of the hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, and medulla. Retrograde amnesia – amnesia for events that occurred before the surgery, trauma, or any kind of damage to the brain is called _____________. This involves damage to the outer cerebral cortex, usually parts of the temporal lobe. Declarative memory – this is memory for things that we can consciously recall. Autobiographical events, facts… This is one of the functions of slowwave sleep. It helps with this kind of memory. Mirror neurons – there is a subset of neurons that are active not only when we are performing an action, but when we see someone else perform that action. These are called ________________. We are not quite sure of the purpose of this system – whether it is to help us learn, understand people’s intentions, understand how to interact with people, or for a sense of empathy. Retinohypothalamic pathway Retinal ganglion cells communicate to the suprachiasmatic nucleus via the ______________ pathway. Globus pallidus This is one of the brain regions included in the basal ganglia. Basically, it is spontaneously sending out inhibitory signals to the thalamus, and other parts of the basal ganglia either excite it (to inhibit movement) or inhibit it (when we choose to make a voluntary movement) the lateral nucleus – physical changes in this area of the amygdala are responsible for classical conditioning of conditioned emotional responses. (It communicates to the central nucleus.) Beta activity – this is the brainwave activity we see when someone is awake and busily doing something. It is the fastest of the brainwave activity at 1330, suggesting desynchronous neural communication. This type of brainwave activity is also seen during REM sleep, which is why it is sometimes called paradoxical sleep Alpha activity – this is another type of brainwave activity that occurs when someone is awake, but we see it more when people are resting quietly and being calm – perhaps during meditation Positive symptoms – Hallucinations, delusions, and disordered / disorganized thoughts and speech are considered what kind of symptoms of schizophrenia? Negative symptoms – A blunted affect or flattened emotions, a poverty of speech, and a lack of self care or ability to respond appropriately to social cues are considered what kind of symptoms of schizophrenia? Monoamine hypothesis – Many antidepressants target either serotonin, serotonin and norepinephrine, or dopamine. The effects of antidepressants and what we have learned about how they affect depression has led to the ______________. A hypothesis of what is dysregulated in the brains of depressed people Mesencephalic locomotor region – this is the region of the reticular formation of the midbrain that causes alternating movements of the limbs normally seen during locomotion Circadian rhythms These refer to one thing that appears to often be dysregulated in depressed people. They are part of what helps us have basically a 24 hour (24.3 – 24.4, maybe 25 hour) clock. Pineal gland This gland secretes melatonin when the light level is low enough for a period of time. Threat behaviors Postures or gestures that warn an adversary to leave or it will be the target of an attack are often called ______________. (The SNS is active during these behaviors) Predation – the attack of a member of one species on a member of another. Usually the latter is serving as food. (The SNS is often not active during this behavior.) Submissive behaviors
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'