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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anne Notetaker on Friday January 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to a course at College of Charleston taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 90 views.
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Date Created: 01/01/16
November 18 Notes Biochemistry of Memory Glutamate is involved in encoding of memories -Necessary for LTP -Overexpression of glutamate receptor enhances learning and memory -Inhibiting glutamate activity impairs memory -Dopamine modulates glutamate activity Acetylcholine is essential to memory functions -High Ach activity in the hippocampus is associated with encoding of new info -Also interferes with consolidation and retrieval of memory -Low Ach during REM sleep may aid transfer of memories to long term storage. Different levels of memory strength may be due to levels of circulating stress hormones, the glucocorticoids Hormones can alter the way you remember things or how you encode them in your brain. How Stress Hormones may Alter Memory Formation Norepinephrine and glucocorticoids released by the adrenal glands as a result of stess Lateral nucleus of the amygdala is the target Amygdala activity initiates a memory formation state in the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, and the caudate nucleus -perception enhanced while you cope with stressor Residual glucocorticoid levels- memory storage state by inducing gene expression Propranolol blocks glucocorticoid activity and prevents traumatic memory formation CHAPTER 14 AGRESSION AND STRESS Agression and Violence were greatest in the past. Which types of humans are aggressive? When are humans most aggressive? Toddlers between 1-3 years old hahaha 18-24 year olds commit most murders Genetics and Aggression Aggression can be bred into animals. “Warrior Gene” MAOA -Low MAOA: enzyme activity is low-less able to break down serotonin and dopamine -Low MAOA individuals will have higher levels of monoamines. -Low MAOA makes you more aggressive Sham Rage Early studies (1920s) showed that removing the cerebral hemispheres caused animals to become violent without being provoked. Sham rage could be reversed with lesions to the hypothalamus. So, hypothalamus important in controlling rage by inhibiting other areas of the brain. Primary function of the hypothalamus: homeostasis and organization of motor repsonses that are important for emotional expression heart rate, digestion, pupil dilation, etc Stimulation of hypothalamus: depending on where this small area of brain was stimulated, it can induce a wide variety of behaviors. -lateral hypothalamus: predatory aggression -medial hypothalaumus: affective aggression
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