Communication 215 Chapters 1 and 2 of ACT
Communication 215 Chapters 1 and 2 of ACT Comm 215-04
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Notetaker on Saturday January 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm 215-04 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Lacroix in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Comm, Identity and Community in Journalism and Mass Communications at College of Charleston.
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Date Created: 01/02/16
Communications 215 ACT Chapter 1 Communication is complex “Good” communication means different things to different people in different situations. Good communicators are people who can use certain skills in the appropriate moment. The everyday view of communication is different than the scholarly view of communication. o The business view of communication that communication is synonymous with information. The flow of information from one person to another. o Scholars view communication as more than just the flow of information. There is no one definition for communication. “Communication is complex process associated with sending, receiving, and interpreting messages” (2). Level of observation: are there limitations on what counts as communication? Intentionality: Do only messages sent consciously and on purpose count? Normative judgement: Does the message have to be successfully received to count as communicative. Normative judgement: is a focus on whether the definition requires an indication of success or accuracy. (4). Some beliefs are that even if people misunderstood what was be communicated it is still communication. Even though it is hard to give one single definition to communication, scholars break it down into specific contexts of communication. (check out table 1.2) o Cognitive: the influence our thoughts have on the way we communicate. Attribution theory Uncertainty reduction theory Expectancy violations theory o Individual and social: consider the nature-nurture debate; how individual differences and social roles play a role in the communication process. Social role theory of gender Emotional intelligence Message design logics An interactional perspective on workplace generations o Interpersonal: interactions between two individuals, who more than likely have a relationship with one another. Politeness Social exchange theory Dialectal perspective Privacy management theory o Intercultural: interpersonal communication when two people are from different cultures. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions Communication accommodation theory Anxiety/uncertainty management theory Face negotiation theory o Persuasive: has a variety of settings, ranging from inside one person’s mind to the mass media. Elaboration likelihood model Theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior Inoculation theory Narrative paradigm o Group Functional group decision making Groupthink Adaptive structuration theory Symbolic convergence theory o Organizational Organizational culture Organizational assimilation Organizational id and control Organizing theory o Mediated Diffusion of innovations Social network analysis Media richness theory Uses and grats theory o Mass communication Agenda-setting Cultivation Social cognitive theory Encoding/decoding theory Communication competence is a successful balance between effectiveness and appropriateness. o Effectiveness is the extent to which you achieve your goals o Appropriateness refers to fulfilling social expectations for a particular situation. Theories provide an abstract understanding of the communication process (7). A communication theory is a summary of the communication process A concept refers to an agreed-upon aspect of reality. o Time, love, color, taste. Concept is an abstract idea because it is how we individually perceive things. Not what they actually are. Another abstract term is model. There are three types of theories: (check out table 1.3!) o Commonsense theory (theory in use): created by an individual’s own personal *experiences or developed from helpful hints passed on from family members, friends, or colleagues. o Working theory: generalizations made in particular professions about the best techniques for doing something. o Scholarly theory: (focused on in this book) indicates the theory has accurate, and abstract explanations for communication than do commonsense or working to understand than commonsense or working theories. All theories have strengths and weaknesses. Look at table 1.4 to understand the usefulness of each theory. Chapter 2 The idea that research comes before theory is known as inductive theory. Deductive theory is theory that uses the scientific method. o Look at table 2.1 to better understand the deductive theory. Research is disciplined inquiry that involves studying something in a planned manner and reporting it so that other inquirers can potentially replicate the process if they choose (19). o Primary research is reported by the person who conducted it. (19). o Secondary research is reported by someone other than the person who conducted it. (19). An experiment is the only way that allows researchers to conclude that one thing causes another. o Research is concerned with two variables. The most common way of studying communication is through the use of surveys (20). o The advantage of survey research is that it is the only way to find out how someone thinks, feels, or intends to behave. (21). Communication scholars also use textual analysis o Textual analysis is used to uncover the content, nature, or structure of messages. (22). Rhetorical criticism is “a systemic method for describing, analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating the persuasive force of messages” (22). Content analysis seeks to identify, classify, and analyze the occurrence of particular types of messages. (22). Interaction analysis approaches typically focus on interpersonal or group communication interactions that have been recorded, with a specific emphasis on the nature or structure of interaction (22). Ethnography involves the researcher immersing himself into a particular culture or context to understand communication rules and meanings for that culture or context. (23). Complete participant is fully involved in the social setting and the participants do not know the researcher is studying them (23).
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