ESS 210 with Sherfy Week 2/3 Notes
ESS 210 with Sherfy Week 2/3 Notes ESS 210 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michaela Humby on Saturday January 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ESS 210 001 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Andrew Conrad Sherfy (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Intro to Soil Science in Environmental Science at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 01/02/16
Week 2/3 notes for ESS 210 with Sherfy As soils age, the become more acidic and lose nutrients Pedon is the smallest 3D body of soil that allows determination of all soil properties of that soil; unique soil individual Soil organization profiles Every unique pedon has a descriptive profile and every profile is made up of layers or horizons o A horizon- surface horizon is where biological activity occurs o B horizon- subsurface horizon (reddish clay) o C Horizon- parent material Horizons differ in properties above and below Most profiles have several horizons o Solum is typically made of the A and B horizons, no parent material o Regolith is all unconsolidated material down to the bed rock(A B and C) PARENT MATERIAL ISNT SOIL BUT IS NOT ROCKS Soil is an indicator of may properties o Black= organic matter o White= high silica content or salts o Grey= reduced iron (Fe2+) which indicates poor drainage; saturated conditions and low oxygen o Reds, yellow, and tans= adequate oxygen, oxidezzed iron (Fe3+, good drainage (think about rust) Munsell Code or Munsell Notation o Used to communicat color consistently based on 3 properties 1. Hue- spectral color of the rainbow: 10YR means 10:1 mix of yellow to red 2. Value is the amount of black or lightness added to color(0 blacck or 10 white) 3. Chroma- brightness or purity; 1 high grey=low purity and 8 low grey= high purity. 2 or less indicated poor drainage. a. Grey or gleyed conditions” Mottling o Mixture of different colors o Bright colors mixed with greys means drainage problems Matrix vs mottle Matrix is the dominant color and mottle is the lesser color Depth to grey mottles- redox features (redoximorphic) Well drained is greater that 30 inches Moderately well drained is 18 to 30 inches Week 2/3 notes for ESS 210 with Sherfy Somewhat poorly drained is 10-18 inches Poorly drained is 10-18 inches (grey matrix with brown mottles Very poorly is all grey Soil Texture Percentage of sand, silt, and clay in a soil Does not include organic matter Permanent characteristic of soil (Cannot change the texture of a soil o Sand :0.05 to 2mm in diameter (single grain, gritty) o Silt: 0.002-0.05 mm diameter (smooth, slightyly cohesive, floury) o Clay: <0.002 mm (stiff, sticky, very cohesive) o EVERYTHING IS CLASSIFIED AS EITHRR SAND SILT OR CLAY IMPORTANCE OF TEXTURE Water holding capacity Water movement into and off soil Resistence to erosion Engineering applications Nutrient holding capacity Influences crop management Soil Structure Aggregation of primary soil separates into compound particles that are separated from adjoin aggregates by planes of weakness Individual aggregate = ped= structural unit 1. Granular- rounded or sphere-like a. Surface soil (as organic matter increases, granulation increases) b. Soil mixed by roots, animals, temperature c. Typical of A or surface horizons d. The organic matter makes it more held together or glued 2. Platy- flat, elongated a. Organized in thin plates b. More wide than it is tall c. Fluctuating water table, freeze-thaw, machine traffic d. Human impact 3. Prism-like- tall, relatively narrow a. More tall than it is wide b. Rounded top is called columnar c. Flat top is called prismatic d. Shrink-swell causes vertical crackers Week 2/3 notes for ESS 210 with Sherfy e. The structures are still intact 4. Blocky- roughly cubic (B horizon) a. Angular blocky- more edges intact/defined b. Sub angular blocky –less defined edges c. More or less equal dimensions d. Prisms crack horizontally to for the blocks Structure Conditions o Structureless, single grained: no cohesion, such as in a beach sand o Structureless, massive: all primary separates are cemented or bound together in one mass without any natural planes of weakness (mainly common in the C horizon)where the parent material is Parent material isn’t rock or soil because soil is defined as having structure and development Structure helps o Determine drainage of soil o Aeration of subsoil o Influences erosion o Rooting medium How do you manage good structure versus poor structure? Management of Aeration o Drainage (surface and tile drainage which is artificial) o Tillage (disrupt structure) cant change texture but you can change structure o Leave as wetlands, forest, Density is mass/volume Water is 1 g/cm^3 Density of soil is almost always going to be 2.65 g/cm^3 Because of the dominant minerals in soils (the quartz) Particle Density = Pd (dry soil weight (g) / (volume of soil solids) and Pd unless otherwise stated will always be 2.65 g/cm^3 Bulk density =Pb (dry soil weight/total volume of soil sample) o Density of soil in natural state, including pore space and organic matter, o Oven dry sample weight used o As pore space increases, density decreases and vice versa Soil % pore space o Volume of soil occupied by air and water o Depends on structure and texture o If we know pd and b then we can calculate the %. o E= 1- (Pb/Pd); as density increases porosity decreases.
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