History of Psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by psychnstatstutor on Saturday January 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY1101 at a university taught by Marie Caltabiano in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.
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Date Created: 01/02/16
PSY1101: Exploring Psychology Chapter 1 SQ3R: Survey, question, read, retrieve, review The History of Psychology Summary Psychology as a Science. Psychologists are curious about human behaviour; how and why we do as we do, or don’t. The science is only 100 years old and developed through synthesis of science of philosophy. Ancient Greek philosophers were curious about human behaviours; Plato (nativist: behaviour is inherited); and Aristotle (empiricist: knowledge comes from experience). Renaissance Europe adopted and modified Greek philosophies: Descartes (nativist; dualist: mind and body are separate); and Locke (empiricist: we are born as blank slates and sensory experiences lead to complex ideas). In early 19 century Europe developments in medical technology and thus knowledge. For example, that nerves transmit sensory information to the brain, and the brain transmits information to move muscles in the body. Von Helmholtz demonstrated that transmission is not instantaneous, rather takes a small amount of time. Darwin introduced theories of adaption (natural selection and evolution) of animals, thus humans adapted to survive and reproduce. The late 19 century saw the first psychology lab and textbook created by Wundt (research assistant of Von Helmholtz). ‘Psychology’ as a word used two Greek terms to mean the study of the mind and soul; thus research focus was on internal processes of thought, emotion and sensation (subjective observation). Wundt used the introspection method (looking inward for answers). For 10 years scientists across the globe travelled to study and collaborate with Wundt. Ebbinghaus (student of Wundt) investigated memory using himself as the subject; Titchener and James (students of Wundt) co-wrote a wide-ranging more complete psychology textbook grounded in the introspection method. Returning to the United States, Hall founded the first psychology lab in the country, as well as the American Psychological Association (APA). Calkins (student of James) lead research in memory, dreams and personality; she was also the first female president of the APA. Freud (student of Wundt) as a neurologist focused on psychopathology and its relation to dreams and the unconscious; he developed a theory of personality and the first systematic method of psychotherapy (psychoanalysis). In the early 20 century a broad range of competing points of views existed., most calling into question the usefulness of the introspection method, as it could not be confirmed by others and was not able to be repeated (as time passes a person changes). Objectivists focused on observable behaviours that could be measured; Thorndike explored learning in animals; Washburn wrote her book on animal behaviours; Pavlov highlighted processes of classical conditioning in animals; and Watson built on Pavlov’s work to develop the science of Behaviourism: a psychology as a science of observable behaviour. Skinner expanded on Watson’s work, investigating processes of reinforcement and operant conditioning. However, in the mid-20 century re-interest in mental process arose again. Piaget studied cognitive changes across childhood and Chomsky delved into linguistics. Due to this revolution in cognitive focus, Psychology as a sciences broadened to become the study of behaviour and mental processes. Humanists such as Maslow and Rogers focused on human potential and capabilities. The 1960s-70s saw a massive shift of interest in social psychology; th social processes of group and cultural that influence the individual. Interestingly, late 20 century psychology re-engaged investigations of the foundations of psychology: physiology and evolutionary biology highlighted the importance of genetics and neuroscience. History of Psychology Revision Resources Psychology Timeline Interactive Activities http://bcs.worthpublishers.com/exploring9e/#837228__838651__ http://opl.apa.org/contributions/History%20of%20Psychology%20Timeline/HistoryO fPsych.htm Psychology Timeline Worksheets http://content.bfwpub.com/webroot_pubcontent/Content/BCS/Myers%20in%20Mod %209e/PsychSim5_PDF_Worksheets/01_PsychTimeline.pdf http://www.beckinghamteaches.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/History-of- Psychology-Worksheet.pdf http://www.somsd.k12.nj.us/cms/lib7/NJ01001050/Centricity/Domain/218/Psycholog y_1.2_-_Worksheet_1-2.pdf Psychology Timeline Flashcards https://quizlet.com/class/2287783/ Other Summaries of the History of Psychology http://www.pittsfordschools.org/webpages/mdonner/files/Mod%201%20- %20the%20History%20of%20Psychology.ppt http://www.somsd.k12.nj.us/cms/lib7/NJ01001050/Centricity/Domain/218/Psycholog y_1.2_(A)_-_A_Brief_History_of_Psychology.ppt
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