Practice Notes Upload
Practice Notes Upload DIE4244
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adrienne Notetaker on Sunday January 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to DIE4244 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Maier in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Medical Nutrition Therapy II in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/03/16
O VVVVVV V Metab Study Guide 1 v History of dietary recommendation 1St british merchant seaman s act lemon juice required on ships 2nd Dutch protein requirement for soldiers 3rd British council gave recommendations for protein and calories close to accurate Find out that vitaminsminerals important too mostly for soldiers during WWIampII USDA sets standards for nutrients kcal pro Ca Fe P Vit A amp C Standards for thiamin and ribo avin The Experimental Station Record 1St dietary records published I Father of Nutrition Wilbur Atwater 0 1St period of Experimental Station Record Atwater period 0 Indirect calorimeter alcoholenergy dietary intake of regular people Agricola superseded it I The Bibliography of Agriculture Mother of nutrition Hazel Stiebeling I Term dietary allowances vit D in bone standards for Ca P Fe vit CampA 3 DRIs and other dietary guidelines gt gt DRI dietary reference intake I Assess diet and plan for individual adequate not excessive amounts of nutrients EARestimated average requirements I Avg daily nutrient intake level to meet 12 of healthy pop I Helps develop RDA I Assess diet of groups RDA recommended dietary allowance I Avg daily intake level for 97 98 of healthy pop I EAR 2 stnd deviations I Approx for individual AIadequate intakes I Recommended avg intake based on estimates from group of healthy pop I Used when don t have RDA can t determine EAR ULtolerable upper intake levels I Highest avg daily intake to prevent adverse health risk for macros AMDRacceptable macronutrient distribution range of total intake energy intake for reduced risk of chronic disease for macros EERestimated energy requirements prediction to maintain energy balance Changes in DRIs I Monitoredupdated by DRI Committee for the Scientific Evaluation of the Dietary Reference Intakes I New ones made every 5 years I Changed from prevention of deficiencies e g vit c for scurvy to prevention of chronic diseases e g vit c as an antioxidant for cancer 0 Now there is bioavailability synergism ect 0 Recs for individualsper day instead of groups no longer for such a specific healthy population 39339 Minerals in General gt Macro and micro I Macromajorfound in body in gt1 g 60 70kg body ANDOR more than lOOmgday required to consume 0 Na Cl Ca K P S Mg I Microtracefound in body lt1g 60 70kg body ANDOR less than lOOmgday required to consume gt Essential minerals I Required to support adequate growthreproductionhealth when all other nutrients are optimal I Withdrawal from dietphysiological impairment Adding it backphysiological function I Deficienciesbiochemical abnormality adding it back corrects abnormality I only 4 of total body weight gt Bioavailability proportion of an element in food able to be absorbedutilized compared to pure standard I Decreased chelation competition antagonists I Increased other food constituents intestine environment synergism gt Interaction of minerals gt General roles I Caskeletal structure signal transduction I Pskeletal structure phospholipidsphosphoproteinsnucleic acids regulates enzymes phosphorylationdephosphorylation I Mg catylstregulator of enzymes I NaClKosmotic pressure water balance membrane potential action potential I Fecatalytic function cytochromes enzymes for electron transport hemoglobin protein component I Cucatalytic function deficiency causes cuproenzyme problems I Mncatalytic function reproductive failure skeletal deformities ataxia component of enzymes I Zn deficiency gtstunted growth skin lesions reproductive difficulties finger proteins in transcription gene eXpression component of enzymes I Moxanthine amp sulfite oxidase I Sedeficiency gtcardiomyopathy amp skeletal muscle defects component of proteins I Co vit b12 component I I thyroid glandhormones deficiency gtgoiter creteinism I Fstructure to teeth bones gt GI tract I Oral cavity esophagus I Stomach I food digestive enzymes digestive juices pH 2 I small intestine pH 8 bile intestinal juice pancreatic juice 0 duodenum O secretions from pancreas liver gallbladder I jejunum amp ileum O enterocytes villi microvilli crypt cells turn over 3 5days gtendogenous secretions O maX surface area I large intestine I Accessory organs pancreas liver gallbladder gt Absorptive pathways I Diffusion pass through I Facilitated diffusion need integral proteins I Passive transport permeability of cell membrane I Active transport energy needed I Pinocytosis cell membrane pinches Calcium gt Most abundant nutrient in body gt Divalent cation Ca2 gt 99 in bonesteethosseous gt 1 in plasmasoft tissue non osseous I Muscle contraction pH balance blood coagulation process excitability of nervous system muscle fibersneurons cell membrane permeabilitystability VCaANa permeability in Kidney I 50 ionized biologically active I 40 protein bound 80 to albumin 20 to globulin I 10 complexed citrate phosphate sulfate VVV lOOO l300g in body Calcium homeostasis regulating blood Ca 85 105mgdl Sources I Dairy products seafood tofu molasses almonds orange juice dark leafy greens I Not good oxalates phyates bind spinach rhubarb swiss chard Absorption I Children 75 adults 20 40 pregnant women 50 elderly 10 I Duodenun jejunum 0 Active transport saturable uses calbindin binding protein vit D dependent 0 Passive transport diffusion nonsaturable crosses mucosal membranes vit d independent no energy 0 Paracellular through tight junction between mucosal cells I Colon 0 Mostly from Ca released from bacterial actionfermenting fiber Loss pregnancy lactation urine endogenous dermal Intracellular very low concentrations I Sarcoplasmic reticulum calsequestrin increase Ca concentration I Secondary messenger calmodulin protein w 4 binding sites regulates biochemrxns Deficiency osteomalacia soft bones osteoporosis loss of bones increase blood pressure increased body fat muscle cramps irritable nervous tissue tetany muscle contractions I lessvit d less blood Ca Toxicity hercalcemia extra deposits in soft tissue kidney stones constipation
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