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Date Created: 01/04/16
ARTH Art in Thirteenth and Fourteenth Century Italy Lecture 1 Names: Nicola and Giovanni Pisano, Cimabue, Giotto The states of Italy during the Renaissance -After fall of Roman Empire artwork was in disrepair—much like ISIS destroying artwork today Why is St. Francis so important for the development of the Renaissance? -Made choice to give up his wealth -Gave up living in a Monestary and chose to live among the people -Had urban poverty -Ministering, walking among poor people -Very human side to him -Emphasis became much more on humans—turned focus to nature and human beings -First one to begin humanizing way of life St. Francis female counterpart -St. Claire (Santa Chiara) -Basilica-church, broadly used to mean church—Big long hall, has a nave (central isle) and 2 smaller side isles. -Trancept—arm that goes across -Apse—End of hall, piece at the end -Frontal—Figure that is facing exactly forward—tends to make painting look rather flat. Why does this church have a wooden ceiling? A series of answers -They didn’t know how to build vaulted ceilings? However the did. -It’s simply cheaper to build with wood? -It is a reflection if the values of St. Francis Nicola Pisana signed his pulpit --Up until this time, artwork was not signed. Artwork was made to worship God. Sign we are entering the renaissance period. Human beings saw their artistry as important vs. serving God Nicola Pisana—one of the first nude figures--Hercules Sarcophagus—ancient roman, big burial box *Romans loved the human body, depicting it in all kinds of action poses, nudity There are many Similarities between Pisano’s work and Byzantine art. The differences show how his art is more developed. Nativity vs. Roman Sarchphagus Takes form Roman art, alters it in his own style Painting to a certain formula—some figures are more important therefore are larger in size. 50 years later, (son’s work) things have more flow and are more naturalistic Basilica becomes much more elaborate, more apse Gothic cathedral, everything seems pushed upward. Lecture 2 Vocab: Tempera Jesus looks like shrunken adult vs. baby Cimabue. Madonna Enthroned 1280-90 Altarpiece of St. Clare 1280 Giotto, Madonna, Enthorned, c. 1310 -Flows and has space round it -Virgin sitting in throne -Looks as if you can walk up the steps and say hello to her. -Virgin looks very stiff, -You can see that the light is coming from the same source -There is a certain unity to the lighting -Difference in detail of Virgin’s robe—Giotto vs. Cimabue Giotto-simple, just detail of one knee, very realistic Cimabue-gorgeous, very detailed Similarities—heierarchical sizing Shrunken human Giotto-Interior of Arena Arena Chapel: Paintings by Giotto in three registers each containing narrative scenes representing the lives of the Virgin and Jesus—can read the entire story of Jesus and Mary, became part of the language people used to understand and describe religion Giotto understands how to make meaning out of the composition The meeting of Joachim and Anna—soft, arches Judas identifies Jesus in the garden of getheseme-vertical, more harsh Florence and Sienna were rivals—two public palaces they constructed around the same time Vocab: polyptych, pinacle, predella Wrap Up- More elegant work of Duccio in Siena Compare and Contrast: Duccio and Gotto, Duccio and Cimabue Re-birth of landscape until the black death The Black Death: reverts paintings and style backwards—destruction, death, rotting courpses, people became obsessed with salvation 5/6/15 Lecture 3 *Chapter 14 Learning Objectives—On PP slide The Black Death ravaged Europe from 1348-15 Bubonic Plague Devastating deaths, rotting bodies on the streets International Gothic style Elegant ornate Full of gold About elegance and beauty Characteristic “S” curve Interest in daily life Ivory Tabernacle with virgin and child and scenes from the life of the virgin, made in Paris late 14 century—Tiny, portable, S-curve in the virgin Unicorn Tapestries 1495-1505 Unicorn said to be an allegorical representation of Christ—people want to hunt them down, harm them Compare and Contrast Oil vs. tempera Naturalism vs. International Gothic Domestic interior vs. otherworldly setting -The naturalistic style has a lot more depth and variation in lighting: all the light seems to come from one source in naturalism and all of the image is highlighted in the tempera -The perspective is more accurate. -Naturalistic looks very realistic as if you can walk into the scene. the international gothic one seems very unlikely for you to be a part of the scene -Both share religious themes, as well both share the same subject. Wrapping Up: Aftermath of black death, and courtly life in Burgundy result in an elegant, refined style that manifests itself through a variety of mediums. Use of oil paint gives way to a new brand of naturalism. Hubert and Jan Van Eyck Ghent Altarpiece; oil on panel—open and closed. Master of jewelry. Incredible, small detail Jan Van Eyck The Arnolfini Portrait Preggo or not? Rogier van der weyden. Descent from the cross. Oil on panel. Der Weyden is master of tears Hieronymus Bosch. The Garden of Earthly Delights—Different from everything else we’ve seen 4/13/15 Feather that goes through crotch—Statue of David, favoring one foot, when eight is on one foot, the hips go in one direction and the shoulders go another Italian word for against the post Causimo ordered statue—If he didn’t, Donatello might have been in trouble given the homoerotisism Brunelleschi, Founding Hospital (ospedale degli Innocenti) Height of the columns equal to distance between them, as well as distance to the wall—proportions fit that of human body Typical of Rennaisance Architecture--You can identify yourself in space and not be overwhelmed by it. 4/15/15 Giotto found out that having light come in from one source makes things look more rounded, sillouettes are very simple. Linear Perspective—Rennaissance discovery Perspective not only helps with space, but focuses the eye in the most important part of the composition. In addition to linear perspective Masaccio also introduces atmospheric perspective (colors are lighter in the distance and details are less clear. Gives composition a sense of order Works because of the way our eye perceives light Paolo Uccello, Perspective of a Vase Artist’s awareness that the viewer is there looking in. Angel looking out at us, making eye contact Nymphs getting raped by different Gods Violence was not unusual in marriage gifts Humanism comes to a very abrupt end, the end of humanism in Florence comes with the death of The high renaissance comes after the renaissance Donatello is a renaissance artist, the three other “ninja turtles” are the great artists of the high renaissance . Leonardo Da Vinci drawing of the Vitruvian Man—dictionary on how we should think of man’s proportion in terms of art—man has become the measure of all things--Inform architecture, sculpting, painting Chiariascuro-shadow, light and dark Leonardo Da Vinci—The Last Supper—badly damaged, in bad shape 1 pt. perspective Sistine Chapel ceiling 4/24/15 High Renaissance Figura Serpintinata, S-shaped, curved, long, twisty, tortured looking figures Michelangelo. Last Judgement. Post-apocalyptic after the sack of Rome, still re-building, sense of malaise, unease Michaelangelo paints a self-portrait of just his skin, he was dying, hated painting, felt just his soul was left. Andrea Palladio, Villa Barbaro Paolo Veronese, The feast in the house of Levi, originally the last supper, then changes the title because it was not as sacred and solomn looking as the last supper should have appeared to be Sofonisba Anguissola, female artist Angnolo Bronzino. Allegory of Venus Interpretations of David Delicate, refined, elegant, sway—early renaissance or renaissance art (Donatello) Mannerists Robust, balanced, stable--High renaissance (Michaelangelo) In action, gritty, look like ordinary peasants, blood and gore—Boroque (Bernini) Tennibrism—using a dark background to bring light figures out of the dark background, all about pulling light out of the dark, using the light to have some kind of spiritual or symbolic significance Chiarascuro—using shading to make dynamic shapes (Mona Lisa around the smile, makes smile look like it’s moving) Caravaggio—liked boys, portrays them as antique figures The Musicians—mouth open, implies something passing, singing in this one Gentileschi—successful female artist Bernini—Cathedra, emotional, dramatic, hits you in the face Bernini—The Ecstacy of St. Teresa,, all real marble, life-size. Boroque--Dramatic, intense, expressive, emotional, intended to make you feel like a part of it, very over the top in terms of decoration Abduction of Percephone, Bernini Twisty, dynamic, sensuous, dynamic, marble looks fleshy, plyable Rubens: Rubens, Rape of Daughters of Leucipus, 1617—exemplifies the Baraque style of painting—sensuous, dramatic, with bold color and brushwork Rubens liked round, well-fed women Rubens is all about diagonals, they are more dynamic, when we are on diagonals, we slip, fall Exagerated expressions Alterpiece: Raising of the cross Rubens: The garden of Love—vibrant color, angels Jan Brueghel, and Rubens, Allegory of sight, LOTS of painting, absorbs other art within his art, tons of things to look at, vibrant hues Michselangelo one of the first to paint backs—muscular Cravaggio’s work also plays a part in Rubens’ art The colors used by Tintoretto and Titan influenced Rubens Rubens—Boroque Boroque style, very wavy, creates nervousness—painting of promethiums getting liver eaten out by bird *Paper anything on the second floor 1300-1850 Comparisons for Final 1. Brunelleschi and Ghiberti panels submitted for contest, both bronze, Bruhn is clearer, more distict, Ghiberti, everything flows together, same subject, sacrifice of Isaac 2. The difference between 15 century renaissance painting and high renaissance painting. Perugino (left) and Raphael (right), both good at demonstrating one-point perspective. Differences: Perugino--figures in frontground, and middle. Figures look very stiff Raphael—figures mostly in front, has much more flow 3. Michaelangelo and Raphael Both rounded, Michaelangelo utilizes all the space, figures take up the whole composition, elbow in face, doesn’t flow as well. Raphael’s has landscape as a background, figures seem to be more realistic size, eyes go in a circle and flow around the composition, figures in much brighter, more saturated colors. 4. Bellini and Raphael, both painted around the same year, feast of the gods and galatea. 5. Jan Van Eyke, and Bellini. St. Francis, always wearing brown robes. 5. Mannerism—stretched out, figura serpintinata, S-curve, sepintine, compositions both very twisty. Eggagerated leg, eggageration of leg, body of Christ Mannerism is more about style than content. The column is there to represent the length and body of the virgin 6. Michaelangelo, style evolution, one much more mannerist, other more stagnant 7. Rennaisance vs. mannerist color. Raphael vs. Pontormo, Renaissance--much more realistic color, intense, Mannerist--more pastel, unrealistic 8. Compare early renaissance, high renaissance, and the baroque, compare three statues of david. Donatello (right), early Renaissance-- one of the first representations of nude art, sensual feather going up his leg, feminine, conta posto-- leaning his weight on one leg, hips going one way, shoulder the other Michaelangelo (center)—high renaissance—more self-assured, masculine Bernini--Baroque (left)—Movement, dynamic, in the process of slaying the giant 9. Pontormo (mannerist)—refined and elegant, very abstract, can’t see yourself in it, people very light and elegant and flowy Caravaggio (baroque)—light coming out of the shadows, very regular, alighned in a strong diagonal, dynamic, dramatic expressions, attention to detail, dirt under fingernails, people look like peasants 10. Titian and El Greco, The Venitian style inspired El Greco’s, Painting of cardinal, both establish kind of psychological tension. 11. Rubens and Bernini. Baroque likes flesh, both painting an abduction, both substancial, meaty females, Rubens is s-curve, very dynamic, dramatic expressions. Bernini very fleshy, sculpture looks like real flesh 12. Carvaggio and Rubens, both dynamic, follow a diagonal shape 13. Both baroque paintings, Both lute players, both coming out of the dark, both genre painting—scenes of everyday life, not religious, not still life 14. Raphael and Poussin 15. Poussin and Rubens—Rape of the sabine women, Poussin, looks chaotic, but still follows triangle format, uses primary colors, everything regular and geometric Rubens, chaotic, disorderly, not geometric, doesn’t follow a structure, colors much less saturated 16. Rubens and Watteau 17. Remember Las Meninas 18. Ingres’ Neo-classism vs. Delacroix’s romanticism
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