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by: Alyssa Rice

psychology Psy 449

Alyssa Rice
Western Oregon University
GPA 2.7

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About this Document

this is a test to see if it works
Psychology of creativity
Dr. David Foster
Class Notes
25 ?




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1 review
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"Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class"

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Rice on Monday January 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 449 at Western Oregon University taught by Dr. David Foster in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Psychology of creativity in Psychlogy at Western Oregon University.


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Date Created: 01/04/16
CH 7 Attitudes, Beliefs, and Consistency Attitudes VS. beliefs BELIEFS [ pieces of info. About something; facts or opinions ] ATTITUDES [ global evaluations toward some object or issue ] If you think that it is cloudy outside, that is a belief If you don’t like the clouds, that is your attitude Dual Attitudes DUAL ATTITUDES [ different evaluations of the same attitude object, implicit verses explicit ] AUTOMATIC ATTITUDES [ very fast evaluative, “gut level” responses that people don’t think a great deal about ] DELIBERATE ATTITUDES [ reflective responses that people think more carefully about ] Most measures of automatic attitudes involve measuring reaction times to stimuli. STIGMA [ an attribute that is perceived by others as broadly negative ] Why people have attitudes? Attitudes are mainly used to sort things into “good” and “bad” categories. *How attitudes are formed MERE EXPOSURE AFFECT [ the tendency for people to come to like things simply because they see or encounter them repeatedly ] if you initially dislike something, being exposed to it repeatedly will not make you like it more CLASSICAL CONDITIONING [ a type of learning in which, through repeated pairings, a natural stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response ] UNCONDITONAL STIMULUS [ a stimulus (e.g. meat powder) that naturally evokes a particular response (salivation) ] UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE [ a naturally occurring response (e.g. salivation) ] NEURTRAL STIMULUS [ a stimulus (e.g. Pavlov’s bell) that initially evokes no response ] CONDITIONED STIMULUS [ a neutral stimulus that, through repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to evoke a conditioned response ] CONDITIONED RESPONSE [ a response that, through repeated pairings, is evoked by formerly neutral stimulus ] Advertisers use classical conditioning to their advantage by linking their products with famous or attractive people OPERANT CONDITIONING (instrumental conditioning) [ a type of learning in which people are more likely to repeat behaviors that have been rewarded and less likely to repeat behaviors that have been punished ] SOCIAL LEARNING (observational learning) [ a type of learning in which people are more likely to imitate behaviors if they have seen others rewarded for performing them, and less likely to imitate behaviors if they have seen others punished for performing them ] ATTITUDE POLARIZATION [ the finding that people’s attitudes become more extreme as they reflect on them ] sometimes our attitudes about something can becomes strong or weaker, simply by thinking more about it. BALANCE THEORY (P-O-X theory) [ the idea that relationships among one person (P), the other person (O), and an attitude object (X) may be either balanced or unbalanced ] COGNITIVE DOSSONANCE THEORY [ the theory that inconsistencies produce psychological discomfort, leading people to rationalize their behavior or change their attitudes ] EFFORT JUSTIFICATION [ the finding that when people suffer or work hard or make sacrifices, they will try to convince themselves that it is worthwhile ] POST-DECISION DISSONANCE [ cognitive dissonance experienced after making a difficult choice, typically reduced by increasing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and decreasing the attractiveness of rejected alternatives ] Is the drive for consistency rooted in nature or nurture? The same basic drive for consistency can be found in very different cultures Influence of social pressures toward consistency probably strengthens the drive Do attitudes really predict behaviors? attacking attitudes: Alan Wicker (1969) it is more likely that attitudes will be unrelated to actions A-B PROBLEM [ the problem of inconsistency between attitudes (A) and behaviors (B) ] ACCESSABILITY [ how easily something comes to mind ] BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS [ an individual’s plans to perform the behavior in question ] SUBJECTIVE INTENTIONS [ an individual’s perceptions about whether significant others think he or she should (or should not) perform the behavior in question ] PERCIEVED BEHAVIORAL CONTROL [ an individual’s beliefs about whether he or she can actually perform the behavior in question ] Believing vs. doubting Believing and disbelieving are not on an equal par. cults if you wanted people to understand your cult’s ideas best, you would want them rested and alert when you present your teachings.  if you want someone to believe everything, you should present your ideas when the person is not at full mental power BELIEF PERSEVERANCE [ the finding that once beliefs form, they are resistant to change, even if the information on which they are based is discredited ] Belief and coping beliefs help people understand the world around them. COPING [ the general term for how people attempt to deal with traumas and go back to functioning effectively in life ] ASSUMPTIVE WORLDS [ the view that people live in social worlds based on certain beliefs (assumptions) about reality. ] 1 the world is benevolent: people are nice, life is safe and one can count on good things happening most of the time. Opposite belief, the world is a dangerous place full of evil, untrustworthy people. 2 the world is fair and just: the world is fair, so people generally get what they deserve. If you follow the rules and treat others with fairness and kindness, you can expect to be treated that way yourself ] 3 I am a good person: I am someone of value and therefore deserve good things to happen to me. COGNITIVE COPING [ the idea that beliefs play a central role in helping people cope with and recover from misfortunes ] DOWNWARD COMPARISON [ the act of comparing oneself to people who are worse off ] Religious belief Science cannot generally say anything about whether religious beliefs are true or false. - used to explain the world - help people cope with stress - effective way to reduce dissonance People believe lots of seemingly crazy things, even though they have no rational basis for these beliefs. If someone bets on a team to win then they win, then they feel good, if they lose by a lot they feel dumb, if they lose by a little they tell themselves they should have won and then keep the optimism to keep going in that way


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