CIS 105 Chapt. 13 & 3 Notes
CIS 105 Chapt. 13 & 3 Notes CIS 105
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brigette Maggio on Monday January 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CIS 105 at Arizona State University taught by Wood, McCarthy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Computer Appls&Info Technology in Computer Information Systems at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 01/04/16
CIS 105 10/20/15 Tuesday McCarthy Chapter 13 &3 Chapter 13: Information Technology Careers Some people simply choose a career they want to pursue early on, and others fall into careers by happenstance. Information technology as a career choice is unique in that it arguably offers broader opportunities throughout business because it courses throughout every aspect of the business world. *sometimes “career picks you” *highest paying career is CIS *starting pay is $74,000 a year CIS is gender neutral/ race neutral and has broad opportunities women get hired much more quickly than men in CIS Often times the IT professional has an easier time changing careers than many other types of business professional. The reason: information technology is everywhere in every aspect of business, so in a sense, IT professionals have seen and done it all. *A common axiom for IT professionals is “know the business”. IT professionals need a deep understanding into the inner workings of how a business works and what it does before they can start applying information technology solutions. *IT professionals are business professionals first that can be found throughout all core business functional behaviors and attempt to improve these business processes through valueadded activities. *Value added refers to the added value of a product or service over the cost of products and services used to produce it from the previous stage of production. Lecture Story: *accountants jobs are to reconcile her checkbook and make sure their bank accounts are good *he took her 12 spreadsheets and put them into 1 data table *data tables have a key field, which doesn’t allow a duplication *most important thing you can do to a data base= ask a question *What do you do with the 10 employees? fire them *What do she really do? It was about 1:00 PM and she told him to go home and not speak about it Business Information Technology Perception Although many businesses have IT departments, they remain outside of the core business functional behaviors. Information technology departments are responsible for servicing and enhancing all computing and technical assets and intellectual property of a business organization. Some aspects of IT departments are responsible for simply servicing and maintaining computer assets while others employ business analysts that serve as a type of business IT consultants throughout an organization. There are typically two types of IT professionals. *Many organizations have people that serve both roles simultaneously (service and IT consulting). Many times, this can cause confusion. For instance, the human resources department of the organization may have misplaced expectations of a service individual that only deals with hardware concerns or answers phones at a help desk and can’t answer a business problem. The opposite can happen as well. Information technology has a symbiotic relationship with all departments. Departments don’t function without IT, and business IT doesn’t exist with the departments to service. Chief Information Officer (CIO) is a job title for the board level head of an information technology department within a business organization. The CIO normally reports to the Chief Operations Officer (COO) or Chief Executive Officer (CEO). Head Applications Developers are in charge of software application development teams that development, design, program, and test software applications. Head applications developers use software development tools and techniques like SDLC and UML *SDLC is an acronym for System Development Life Cycle which is a process for creating and altering computer applications through a systematic approach. Head applications developers are given the task of modifying an existing system, which are called legacy systems. Legacy systems are more difficult to deal with that developing a brand new system because they are typically already in use by an organization which means the system needs to keep working to support the business. *UML is an acronym for Unified Modeling Language which includes a set of graphical notation techniques to create computer models and applications. UML is sort of a “blueprint” for developing an application, and can be used with the team or outsourced. *RFP (Request for Proposal)= blueprint (Ex.: traffic light system making light turn left) exGov. Janet Napolitano made it so she only sends out RFP’s to those in Arizona many times outsourcing is attached to UML Applications Architects design parts of applications like screen interfaces, middleware and programming infrastructure that complies with head applications developer’s design principles. Middleware is the computer programming and software that connect the components an applications architect designs and programming infrastructure are the actual programming language components that help and application work correctly and as designed. Database Administrators (DBAs) categorize data requirements and create the database entities and models that ensure accurate and smooth flowing data. Network Administrators are directly responsible for the smooth operations and maintenance of the business’ networks and networking technology which includes its hardware and software. *(have to be the most trusted person in your company)* Network Administrators work in partnership with network engineers and network architects to implement and deploy new networks, expand old ones, or integrate an existing network with another existing network. Networks are one of the most important aspects of business computing in that they connect people and resources so network administrators are highly paid and in high demand. *copy machine is part of a network Information Technology Auditors sometimes called Senior IT Auditors make sure computing systems are being used correctly in specific industries within given set of regulations and compliance issues. IT auditors develop, test and evaluate computer systems for efficiency, accuracy, and security. Often IT auditors will be challenged by their clients to break into their systems to see were security flaws exist. *Big Four accounting firms like KPMG often hire and pay IT auditors very well to help their clients and their computing systems become *SarbanesOxley compliant (SOX) Senior Web Developers prepare, plan and implement webbased software applications. These applications include everything from shopping carts for online stores to advanced intranet deployment. Senior web developers differ greatly from web designers that typically only deploy websites. Many times a business will identify a legacy system and ask senior web developers to rewrite it completely and make it browser based so it can be deployed on the World Wide Web for worldwide distribution. Senior web developers are one of the most sought after and highly paid positions in the IT field. Business Intelligence Analysts make sense out of an organizations’ data and information, as well as external data and information to present to senior staff for the purpose of making tactical and strategic decisions. Business intelligence analysts must have a very strong analytical background as well as sharp business knowledge. They are required to know what data and information a business needs and how to format it so it makes sense, and have an eye for detail to make sure their reports are always accurate. *business intelligence is when you a grab a bunch of data and you predict things with it (data warehousing) *80% of all data is unstructured data hadoop: pull out data that you need Information Technology Staff Consultants Know the Business Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software is a businesswide computer system used to administer and organize all the computer resources and information for functional departments of a business from shared data stores, or database residing on a local area network. myasu is an ERP *centralize your data in an ERP *4 parts of UML: 1. Use Case Scenarios are an explanation of a computer system’s behavior as it receives and responds to requests that start off from outside of that system. Essentially, a use case says "who" can do "what" with the system. Use cases capture a system's behavioral requirements by detailing what will happen when a computer program runs. 2. Object Oriented Analysis (OOA) requires the computer programmer to start analyzing what a new system will need and applies objectmodeling techniques to analyze the functional requirements for a system. OOA is focused on what a computer system does. 3. Object Oriented Design (OOD) takes the OOA diagrams and information and expands it to make implementation specifications. OOD is focused on how a computer system does what it does. 4. Sequence Diagrams are a kind of relational illustration that shows how computer processes relate and interact with each another and in what order. Sequence diagrams are sometimes called timing diagrams because they visually represent what should happen in a computer program and in what order. System Development Lifecycle (SDLC) 1. Initiation starts with highlevel brainstorming of an intended project that tries to determine the goals of the project and whether it is even feasible 2. Concept Development is a stage in the SDLC that is only started if initiation is complete and determined feasible 3. Planning stages are for developing a project management plan. It is common to use Microsoft Project that allows a project manager to allocate resources and make sure who is in responsible for completing each step of the overall project. 4. Requirements stages often break the intended or existing system down to analyze problems or even potential problems by employing diagrams like the ones produced in the unified modeling language (UML). 5. Design is the stage where a computer system starts to look like a computer system. 6. Development takes the subsystems from the design stage and converts them to an overall system by installing them on their appropriate operating system and conducting preliminary testing. 7. Testing and Integration. Chapter 3: Operating Systems: *system software turns itself on/ application software does not Understanding Operating Systems •Configures the computer •Collection of computer programs •Administers hardware and software •Controls and allocates memory •Administers input and output •Manages the filing system •Often called a ‘platform’ Common Business Computing Platforms •Microsoft Windows •Mac OS •Unix •Linux What an Operating System provides •Processes / Multitasking •The ability to run more than one process at a time. •Memory Management / Storage •CPU Cache •Random Access Memory (RAM) •Registers •Virtual Memory •Disk Storage Processing / Multitasking In the early days of computing, computers could only do one thing at a time. If you were working with a spreadsheet, printing a document in a word processor meant having to save your spreadsheet, exit the spreadsheet software, turn on the word processor, etc. Multitasking lets you run both, or many application software at once. *virtual memory moves stuff in and out of RAM parts (elf) Virtual Memory: Used to coordinated, track, and allocate CPU cache, RAM and disk storage. Virtual memory is not really a memory, rather a technique that lets application software use fragmented pieces of large memory to use physical memory. Memory Management / Storage Operating system coordinate and arrange the computer’s memory which includes cache, RAM, registers, and virtual memory. Platform also facilitate disk storage. CPU Cache: Small, very quick memory that stores copies on information that is most regularly used. Example: If a user frequently uses Adobe Photoshop, common parts of Photoshop will be stored in CPU cache so it loads faster. RAM: Primary storage that can be accessed in any order without physical movement which makes it very fast, and where “work’ is done. Information in RAM must be saved to secondary storage to be used again. Registers: Very fast, small amounts of memory used to quicken computer programs to access calculated values. Disk Storage: Nonvolatile secondary storage like an internal hard drive, an optical disk, or even a hard drive in the Cloud. Hard drives have spinning platters, like a record player that record positive or negative charges that represent ‘1s’ and ‘0s’, a binary system. when you write to a hard drive, it is like laundry thrown all other the floor
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