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by: Janey Lyon

notes GEOG 3330

Janey Lyon
The U
GPA 3.2
Urban Environment

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About this Document

These are notes that go over things like the atmosphere and energy transfers
Urban Environment
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janey Lyon on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 3330 at University of Utah taught by Petersen in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Urban Environment in Geography at University of Utah.

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Date Created: 02/06/15
Wednesday January 14 2015 THE ORIGIN OF FIRE What is fire Burning combustion and oxidation Three necessary elements Oxygen Fuel and Ignition Oxidation chemically combined with oxygen exothermic reaction gives of heat and light like oxidation endothermic absorbs heat and light Oxygen began accumulating 2 billion years ago Earth is about 4 billion years old for the first 2 billion years there was a lot of sulfuric and carbon dioxide gasses on Earth that kept life from being able to thrive 23 billion years ago blue green algae began to bloom and produce Oxygen about 500000 million year ago those Oxygen levels filled to modern oxygen levels 400 million years ago plant life began to grow which created fuels for fire Fire did not happen until plant fuels began growing GEOLOGIC TIME Protoezaric era Oxygen begins to accumulate Paleozoic era Modern Oxygen levels at 21 Oxygen Devonian era Plant fuels begin to grow Precambrian era makes up 88 of Earth s history IGNITION sparks Volcanism There are about 1520 active volcanoes world wide so they aren t very consistent in igniting flames Meteors rarely hit the Earth these days Falling rocks which are usually human caused Wednesday January 14 2015 lightening is the biggest and most consistent ignition source LIGHTENING forms and accumulation of electrical charges in clouds Hot strikes are slow long and create more energy cold strikes are fast and rarely catch fire as clouds separate positive and negative neutrons separate that create and electromagnetic field that is attracted to the negative energy at the bottom of the clouds Florida has the most days with thunderstorms however the western states experience the most lightening ignition due to extremely dry climates South East soils are saturated so there are no fires Moisture is key to ignition Forest cover types types of fuel Fire Occurrence through time unevenVVhy Carboniferous 354248 mya Oxygen rise to 35 increased global burial of organic matters Charcoal and gas deposits Permian 24865 mya lower fire activity Dehumidified air dry land Mesozoic 24865 mya were periods of low fire Boundary between cretaceous and tertiary KT boundary is a large charcoal deposit 65 mya Present a time of high occurrence of fire Modern oxygen levels at 21 what failed to burn in the old earth is burning in the modern Trend through time is for fire to become more common but less eruptive Principles to guide interpretation of fire s history fire promotes and it purges it upsets shreds reorganizes revives and quickens Wednesday January 14 2015 plants and animals adapt to a pattern of fires fire is as ecologically powerful removed as applied Ecological factor that guides evolution organizes biota and bonds the physical world to the biological Adaptations to fire protective traits protect against fire Promotional traits promote fire The concept of fire regime fuel moisture ENSO El Nino Southern Oscillation Pacific Ocean Atmosphere Teleconnection El Nino and La Nina Sea surface temperatures Southern Oscillation atmospheric pressure Measured by pressure gradients between Tahiti and Darwin Winter Phenomena Normal Pacific conditions include convective circulation El Nino brings low pressure warmth down the coast La Nina brings high pressure cod through the polar jet stream Fuel is the ticket to fire regime ENSO and monsoons drive moisture to fuels and dry out fuels What is a fire island a place not modified by humans No fire degradation due to isolation Wednesday January 21 2015 FIRE FUNDAMENTALS Scales of fire Fundamental scale combustion process fluid dynamics and fuel chemistry Fire Behavior configuration of fire as a whole Landscape scale regional scale relationships with area Global scale atmosphere effects of emissions Combustion Process Overview fire is rapid release of the heat energy stored by photosynthesis think of it as always in motion Equa ons Photosynthesis 002 H20 solar energygt 06H1005n 0 Stores potential energy that is released in combustion Combustion 06H1005n O ignition temp gt 002 H20 heat chemical energy is transformed to thermal energy radiant energy and kinetic energy are in the rising convection column Common fuels are made up of carbon and hydrogen this makes by products of water vapor and CO2 Phases of Fire preignition dries out fuels and is endothermic ignition is the transition of fire combustion is exothermic and it is when the highest billing points are reached Extinction fire goes out Why understand these fundamentals because we can manipulate the processes with retardants fuel arrangement and prescribed fires Intrinsic fuel properties describe plant parts relates to fire fundamentals cellulose hermicellulose and lignin all effect fuel as well as density and heat content 4 Wednesday January 21 2015 Heat and Heat transfer energy moved from one source to another 3 basic mechanisms of transfer conduction molecule to molecule transfer of energy like a fire heating a pot that makes the handle hot convection movement of air masses rising expanding cooling and falling down Like water in the pot that boils up and falls back down radiation energy in waves like the sun Waves of energy decrease with distance influences fuels being cooers to each other slopes of fuels wind and fuel concenUa on Preignition radiant heat drying gt ignition convection rising gt combustion conduction maintains it Fuel consumption During combustion fuels convert to Heat smoke incomplete combustion and charcoal partial combustion Duff layer small fine organic matter Large woody fuels Duff and wood are on the horizon on the humus of the earth Within that top layer there is Oi slightly decomposed litter plants are still recognizable Oe increasing decomposition plant structure recognizable Oa highly decomposed plants unrecognizable Products of consumption smoke emissions and human health particulate matter is at 25 microns and not only gets into our lungs but also can diminish visibility and light fire and GHG s like 002


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