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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Notetaker on Tuesday January 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HS 401-02 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by Dutton, Michele G. in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Community Health Methods in Nursing and Health Sciences at Brigham Young University - Idaho.
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Date Created: 01/05/16
Health Behavior Change Model/Theory Table Assignment Directions: Develop a table with the different behavior change models/theories using the resources (I-Learn) within the course as well as your text book (McKenzie, Neiger, & Thackeray, 2013-Chapters 7-9, & 11. The table will help you to organize the models, see what types of interventions/programs they work best with and understand them better for when you develop your program interventions. Develop this table to understand the models/theories and how to use them. Avoid just cutting and pasting the information to get the assignment done. The table should include the following: 1. Description of the Model/Theory— a. Brief description of the model and its purpose. 2. Constructs— a. Each model/theory has constructs or parts (Ex. Health Belief Model—Perceived Susceptibility, Perceived Severity, etc.). List each part and explain what they are. b. Constructs from the different models that can drive your interventions (Ex. Perceived Susceptibility & Severity—Communication intervention to show College Students how they are susceptible to missing out on school and falling behind if they are out sick with the flu/”Get your Flu Shot). 3. Best Used With— a. List the types of programs or interventions the specific model/theory would best be used with (Ex. Theory of Freeing—Education or Health Belief Model-Screenings). Model/Theory Description Constructs Best Used With Intrapersonal Level -Stimulus Response (SR) This program is used to a. positive reinforcement Intrapersonal Theory explain and to modify (reward for the behavior), level programs, the behavior of a given negative reinforcement conditioning individual. It follows the(the removal of a positive behavior in a assumption that reinforcement), positive classroom learning results from punishment (adding a events that reduce negative reinforcer), physiological drives that negative punishment activate the behavior of (removing a positive an individual. reinforcer) b. positive reinforcement – intervention to encourage suicidal college students to get involved with an uplifting activity or service. -Theory of Reasoned Action This program focuses on a. Behavioral intentions Lab screenings (TRA)/Theory of Planned the problem of (the perceived probability Behavior (TPB) incomplete volitional of performing a behavior), control. It deals with the attitude (personally reasons behind evaluating the behavior), individuals making subjective norm decisions. It follows the (motivation to behave in a assumption that way that captures behavior is driven by attention of key people attitudes, intentions and beliefs about whether they beliefs. approve/disapprove) and perceived behavioral control (belief that the individual has control over performing behavior and can exercise that control) b. subjective norm – intervention to help college students feel more accepted by their peers, thus reducing risk of suicide. -Health Belief Model (HBM) This program was a. Perceived susceptibility Personal interest, designed to help explain (beliefs the individual has health education, the use of health about the chance of check-ups, services. It deals getting a condition), screenings and specifically with the perceived severity (beliefs assessments, individual’s perceptions about how serious a problem behavior of the threat of illness condition and its that invokes and the consequences are), health concerns, recommendation of perceived benefits (beliefs medical and preventative care or about how effective taking disease counsel of how to action may be to reduce prevention, social manage the problem. It risk or severity), perceived and educational follows the assumption barriers (beliefs of the programs. that certain beliefs and individual about costs of predisposing factors taking action), cues to have influence over action (factors that may whether or not action is trigger a readiness to taken. change) and self-efficacy (confidence in one’s ability to act) b. perceived benefits – intervention to help college students to get focused help for anxiety and depression therefore driving their beliefs and confidence. -Protection Motivation This program deals with a. threat appraisal (a This has been Theory (PMT) an explanation of the review of intrinsic and used in the past effects that fear has on extrinsic rewards, for breast self- health attitudes and perceived severity and examinations, behaviors. Basically how vulnerability to threat), living wills, sun the individual weighs coping appraisal (a review protection their options based on of self-efficacy, response behavior/skin beliefs and fears. cost), adaptive coping cancer, weight (positive adaptation to loss and bariatric threat), maladaptive surgery. coping (negative or no adaptation to threat) b. coping appraisal or adaptive coping – intervention to help college students understand and cope with suicidal threats by encouraging them to see what they can control. -Elaboration Likelihood The original design of a. central route (deep Predict impact of Model of Persuasion (ELM) this model was to consideration of implied health messages, explain how persuasion action), peripheral route message tailoring messages aimed at (minimal thought and changing the attitude of superficial clues,), individuals were elaboration likelihood received and processed continuum (stretching by them. It is used now from not thinking deeply to interpret and predict to careful consideration of the impact of health implied action), variables messages. (motivation or ability to think) b. central route – intervention to communicate and encourage deep positive thinking with college students. -Information-Motivation- This theory addresses a. Information (an HIV/AIDS Behavioral (IMB) Skills the need for motivating awareness of a certain preventive Model people to act on a health condition or risk), behavior specific health behavior. motivation (personal and It was designed social motivation to act), specifically as a behavior (individual’s theoretical basis for objective ability and HIV/AIDS prevention. perceived self-efficacy to perform implied act) b. motivation – and intervention to raise social motivation to participate in anti-stress activities or movements on college campuses. -Transtheoretical Model This program is a a. precontemplation (no Weight Watchers, (TTM) guideline for how intention of taking action addictions, individuals and in the next 6 months), substance abuse, populations grow contemplation (intending change in life, toward taking on and to act within the next 6 personal maintaining health months), preparation testimonies. behavior change for (intending to act within 30 their best health. days, taking some behavioral steps towards it already), action (has changed behavior for < 6 months) and maintenance (having changed behavior for > 6 months) b. contemplation stage – intervention to motivate and encourage positive rather than negative change, addressing suicide and positive alternatives for coping. -Precaution Adoption This program helps to a. Stage 1: unaware of Screening, Process Model (PAPM) explain how people issue, stage 2: unengaged immunization, formulate a decision to by issue, stage 3: deciding awareness make a specific action about acting or stage 4: and how they take that deciding not to act, stage idea and transform it 5: decided to act, stage 6: into actions. acting, stage 7: maintenance b. Intervention at stage 1 – to help students become aware of the prevalence of suicide but also of help. Interpersonal Level -Social Cognitive Theory This program deals with a. Reciprocal determinism Pain control, (SCT) the learning as an (interaction of person, dietary change interaction between the behavior and environment individual, their in which behavior is environment, their performed), behavioral cognitive decisions, and capability (knowledge/skill behavior. to act on behavior), expectations (anticipated outcomes of behavior), self-efficacy (confidence that one can take action and overcome any obstacles/barriers), reinforcements (response to a person’s behavior that will increase/decrease repetition of behavior) b. behavioral capability – intervention to increase confidence in more positive outcome than suicide, (I.e. counseling) -Social Network Theory This theory was based a. centrality & marginality Social (SNT) off of a study that (how involved the person interventions, suggested that there is in the network), social networking were beneficial effects - reciprocity of relationships in regards to health (one-way or two-way), status - of having complexity or intensity of supportive networks. relationships (between 2 people or are they multiplexed?), homogeneity or diversity (are all members of network similar or different in characteristic?), subgroups, cliques and linkages (are there concentrations of interactions and do they interact or are they isolated?), communication patterns (how information is passed between members in the network) b. communication patterns – intervention to prevent the spread of wrongful information about college adult suicide. -Social Capital Theory This theory follows the a. bonding (bringing those Epidemiology, assumption that a lack who already know each community of social capital is other closer together), projects, (not an related to poorer health bridging (bringing closer intervention itself conditions and those who did not but needs to be outcomes. previously know each considered and other) and linking social monitored – capital (individuals and chapter 7) groups in various social atmospheres in a hierarchy where power, social statues and wealth are accessed by different and various groups) b. Use this theory to construct a model for community bridging and bonding in order to raise a public awareness and produce positive outcomes for anti-stress movements on college campuses. Community Level -Communication Theory A theory based on how a. The text says what it Agenda setting, different typed of focuses on and is applied media/public/poli communication can to. It even says that it is cy agenda affect health behavior. focused on improving setting, problem health communities rather identification, than looking at the framing underlying processes of communication itself. It says its needs to represent an ecological perspective and foster multilevel strategies. However, as far as discussing its specific constructs, the information (in my perspective, unless I have overlooked important resources) is not given. b. intervention for problem identification – helping college students problem- solve by seeing underlying problems. -Community Organizing* Community groups a. empowerment (social Advancing public helped to identify action process where policies, charity common problems, people gain mastery over organizations, mobilize resources, lives and communities), community develop and implement community capacity empowerment strategies in order to (characteristics of reach collective goals. It community that can affect focuses on building the its ability to identify, individual and mobilize and address each community together to problem), participation develop capacities for (community members greater change. working together as equal partners, “never do for others what they can do for themselves” attitude), relevance (community organization where the people are), issue selection (identify immediate targets for change that may be specific and realizable that will unify the community), critical consciousness (awareness of social, political and economic forces contributing to social problems). b. empowerment – intervention to show college students their power over environment, thoughts, behavior etc regarding suicide. Participation – intervention to spread awareness etc. -Community Building Out of the given resources,a. I couldn’t locate where b. community building is discussed in great enough detail to know its constructs and purpose/application. -Diffusion of Innovations This program addresses a. innovation (idea, object Reduce cancer, how ideas, products and or practice thought to be improving social practices new by individual, programs perceived as something organization or new spread through community), society or from one communication channels society to another. Or in (means of transmitting layman’s terms how new idea from one person innovative ideas spread to another), social system throughout the (groups of individuals who community(s). adopt the innovation together), time (length of time it takes to adopt the innovation) b. innovation – intervention to bring “new” object to college that will get students excited about stress management and counseling -Community Readiness A model developed to a. key informant Alcohol and drug Model (CRM) understand the interviews (subjects abuse, nutrition individual and interviewed for readiness), topics, AIDS, community’s readiness stages and goals( stage 1: awareness, for change. no awareness, 2: denial, 3: elimination of vague awareness, 4: heart disease, preplanning, 5: depression preparation, 6: initiation,, awareness. 7: stabilization, 8: Reduction of confirmation/expansion, 9: STD’s, intimate professionalism.) and partner violence strategies (actions taken programs to address the issue) b.
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