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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zack Bauman on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MSC462 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Liza Merly in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 169 views. For similar materials see Marine Biomedicine in Marine Science at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
MSC 462 22615 Endosymbionts Broadly de ned as a permanent association between two individuals of different species Marine ecosystems contain many functionally critical symbioses True symbionts may be shielded from sponge consumption due to speci c recognition mechanisms or surface characteristics eg slime capsules What makes a symbiont 0 First genomic insight Future genomic studies of sponge symbionts will revolutionize our understanding of a range of hostsymbiont phenomena 0 Signaling between partners 0 Metabolic interdependencies 0 Possible symbiont genome reductiondiversi cation Spongemicrobe symbioses lead to symbiotic relationships with their hosts 0 Advantages to the host 0 Nutrition 0 Transportation of chemicals throughout sponge tissue 0 Assistance in chemical defense and removal of waste products from sponge 0 Structural rigidity Using the microbes as overall structure 0 Complexity of spongesymbiont relationship 0 Many different bacterial species permanently inhabit sponges 0 Contribute to total sponge biomass Some examples 0 Cyanobacterial symbionts can contribute up to 40 of the sponge tissue Produce many active compounds including anti microbials 0 Host sponge likely bene ts because it keeps the sponge free of other bacteria 0 Three broad types of microbial associates in sponges o Abundant populations of spongespeci c microbes in the sponge mesohyl 0 Small populations of speci c bacteria occurring intracellularly Speci c enough to one side of a reef on the species ofsponge o Populations of nonspeci c bacteria resembling those in the surrounding seawater These are the ones that appear to be transient and are similar to the surrounding seawater that the spongeisfoundin 0 Example 0 One type of bacterial isolate was recovered from 35 different sponges but not found in the seawater Why can this symbiont be such a good symbiont And why does everyone want that symbiotic relationship 0 Immunological experiments in which theses same isolates crossreacted with other spongespeci c bacteria but not with seawater isolates were taken as further evidence of sponge speci city 2 big questions 0 Where do they come from 0 Vertical transmission and environmentally acquired is the main hypothesis 0 Vertical transmission and environmentally impacted separately are other hypothesis but they seem to be ruled out o How are they maintained 0 Less is known about the maintenance of the symbionts Future research in sponge microbiology Accessing bioactive compounds from sponge symbionts by metagenomics and cultivation strategies 0 De ning the members of the stable versus transient microbial communities 0 Can be very stable in a petite subbiome 0 Could be found in different species around the world with many varying parameters Coevolution of sponges and microorganisms symbioses by de nition Physiology of sponge symbionts Hostsymbiont interactions l signaling Usefulness to bioactive compound search and discovery Obvious bene t to drug development from bioactive compounds 0 Beyond that bene t of studying oldest metazoanmicrobe symbioses 0 Insight into microbiomes in higher animals and their role in overall physiology and health Endosymbionts continued Localization of metabolites cell separation techniques 0 First establish which cell types are responsible for metabolic activity Separation techniques Sponge tissue can be easily disassociated Use of ow cytometry to separate sponge cells from their cyanobacterial symbionts and other associated microbes 0 Sample cells mixed when going into the ow cytometer in suspension Put into ow cell one after another in the pathway Arranged in a line moving single le Laser light source strikes sample as it crosses the path Measure light scattered forward and side scatter 0 Based on auto uorescence Separation due to tissue size and density 0 Sponge cells 0 Unicellularcyanobacteria o Unicellular heterotrophic bacteria 0 Filamentous heterotrophic Early evidence suggested that both host and symbiont are sources of bioactive compounds 0 Three major types of known metabolites from this sponge 0 Two found exclusively inside 0 spongeiae cells 0 One was con ned to sponge cells Supply issue Cultivation of relevant microbe sponge culture or expression of biosynthesis genes 0 Relevant microbe must parallel usual parameters ie temperature acidity etc o Sponge culture staining used 0 Biosynthesis used with other commonly used bacteria e coli for example 0 Challenge of ensuring continuous largescale production of bioactive compound for clinical trials and continuous supply to the market 0000
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