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BIO 240 Week 1 Notes

by: Miriam Valenzuela

BIO 240 Week 1 Notes BIO 240

Miriam Valenzuela
GPA 3.81
Second Semester Biology
Dr. Andrew Swei and Dr. Dennis Desjardin

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About this Document

First week of notes. Covers everything from what we touched on for Evolution, all the way to Genetics and the Hardy Weinberg Equation. Enjoy! :)
Second Semester Biology
Dr. Andrew Swei and Dr. Dennis Desjardin
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miriam Valenzuela on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 240 at San Francisco State University taught by Dr. Andrew Swei and Dr. Dennis Desjardin in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 242 views. For similar materials see Second Semester Biology in Biology at San Francisco State University.

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Date Created: 02/06/15
BIOLOGY 240 Week 1 Nothing in Biology makes sense except in the light of evolution Theodosius Dobzhansky 1972 012615 Lecture 1 Evolution Gradualism slow transition to new form Punctuated Equilibrium sudden change to new form Philosophers Aristotle Life is perfect and permanent Linnaeus Binary classification of species Organisms are grouped by similarities Thomas Malthus The idea of carrying capacity the earth can only sustain so many of a certain population Resources are limited Georges Cuvier Father of Paleontology Fossil record contains strate with fossils which suggest that the lower the strata the older the fossil ntroduced idea of catastrophism some tragic event wiped out old species and brought new species James Hutton and Charles Lyell uniformitarianism rules that apply today have been applied in the past Changes in the environment carry biological changes JeanBaptisteLamarck Life evolves as the environment changes use and disuse EX Giraffes with shorter necks not reaching the leaves dying off Giraffes with longer necks survived for their ability to get food Charles Darwin Diversity through different locations journey for 5 years Observation of Finches Tree Finches vs Ground Finches Proposed Adaptation characteristics that help an organism survive Natural Selection survival of the fittest selection of a specific trait that brings advantage to the organism Descent with Modification unity of life Alfred Russel Wallace Father of Biogeography the study of the distribution of species geographically Some of these organisms are related even when they re geographically far away because of Plate Tectonics Two primary ideas for the process of evolution Darwin 1 The traits that are inherited for an organism vary within a population 2 Species often have more offspring than the environment can carry carrying capacity Malthus which results in the dying off of some offspring 012815 Lecture 2 Evidence of Evolution 1 Direct evidence of evolution 2 Fossil Record inferential 3 Homology inferential 4 Biogeography inferential Ex Evolutionary arms race between garter snakes and rough skinned newts As the newts become more poisonous the snake increases their threshold for poison therefore the newts are still consumed by the garter snakes despite their dangerous content Antibiotic Resistance Alexander Fleming discovered Penicillin 1929 Bacteria became desensitized to penicillin so scientists developed Methicillin which the bacteria became resistant to as well Why The medicine wasn t changing the bacteria but was changing the gene frequency therefore only the stronger resistant bacteria remained after the medicine wiped off the weaker strains Fossil Record Fossils remains of ancient organisms Relative Dating position of strata Superposition the fossils closer to the top are newer the further you go down the older the fossils Radiometric Absolute dating with isotopes They use the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium potassium and carbon Phylogenetic Trees Hypothesis about evolutionary relationships Comparative Biology Structures or features with common ancestry evolutionary history Morphological Traits forms and structures phenotypic characteristics within organisms Homology shared similarities between species who have a common ancestor Analogy shared structures between species with no common ancestor 013015 Lecture 3 Biogeography and Plate Tectonics Biogeography distribution of life forms over geographical areas Supports evolution because species that are said to be related are found close to each other geographically Examples Variation in species in Madagascar or Marsupials only in Australia Genetics Dominant Aees more functionally important Gregor Mendel Described the nature of inheritance Genes alleles maintain integrity even when different ones occur Microevolution change in allele frequencies in a population over generations Alleles are different versions of genes Example Gene Eye color Alleles Brown Blue Gray Black Genetic Variation caused by differences in genes Phenotype product of genotype It s what you can see Phenotypic Plasticity Same genetic background but develop characteristics due to changes in environment Genetic Variation Discrete classified as either or Quantitative varied along continuum Where does genetic variation come from Mutations Changes in DNA sequence deletion substitution Neutral or harmful Some are beneficial Gene Duplication or Rearrangement Neutral missense Harmful Sexual Reproduction new combinations of alleles Crossing over independent assortment fertilization Sexual recombination more important for mutations for adaptations Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium Null Model What would happen if evolution wasn t happening aka What would happen if we didn t have Mutations Natural Selection Large populations Random mating Gene Flow Binomial Eduation pquot2 2pq qquot2 1


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