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feb 5 notes

by: Polina Vulikh

feb 5 notes PSYCH355

Polina Vulikh
GPA 2.7
Adolescent Psychology
Prof. Scherer

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About this Document

Adolescent Psychology
Prof. Scherer
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Adolescent Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Polina Vulikh on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH355 at University of Massachusetts taught by Prof. Scherer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 145 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 02/06/15
In recent years considerable attention has been focused on how neighborhood experiences and community resources affect adolescents and the transition into adulthood There are several features about neighborhoods and communities that in uence development SES socioeconomic status ethnic diversity immigrant concentration and residential stability all have significant in uence on the development of children and adolescents So for example neighborhood SES has been correlated with adolescent achievement and emotional and behavioral outcomes As a community SES increases academic achievement increases and as 2192015 SES decreases poorer educational outcomes occur These effects get transmitted to youth in a variety of ways Some neighborhoods have more resources for kids Organized sports and recreation quality schools good medical and social services employment opportunities The negative effects of neighborhoods may be augmented by family stress and dissolution that weaken family relationships Neighborhoods and communities foster social norms The social norms in impoverished neighborhoods may leave teens perceiving limited opportunities and accepting substandard conditions and behavior as normative Adolescence may be the first time many ethnic minority adolescents begin to consciously re ect on their ethnic or racial background Ethnic minority adolescents become aware of how they may be perceived by the majority white culture Family Process and the Affects of Family Structure during Adolescence Culture and social norms are transmitted and ltered through families and families have been the focus of an enormous amount of research on adolescence For decades theory and research on adolescents and family relationships were dominated by the idea that adolescence was a period of storm and stress These theories emerged largely from psychoanalytic understandings of adolescence based on observations of troubled teens We now know there is much more continuity in parent adolescent relationships Epidemiological and psychological studies reveal that adolescents do NOT automatically experience tumultuous upheaval and alienation from family Most adolescents find considerable identity and security through their involvements with their families Most adolescents share values that are very similar to their parents This continuity is due in part to how parents and children develop attachments Researchers observed how primates engaged in infant parent bonding Contemporary researchers discovered that humans have different attachment styles Some people have secure attachments while others are anxious and ambivalent or anxious and dismissive Warm sensitive and consistent parenting promotes attachment security Attachment security liberates an adolescent and fosters the development of autonomy In theory these patterns of attachment become semipermanent characteristics Will be on test Children develop an internal working model of what to expect from caregivers and is the template by which future relationships are formed Generally speaking children and parents with positive attachments before adolescence continue to feel positively attached to one another during adolescence Another factor that lends itself to relationship stability is parenting style Research by Baumrind has established the existence of different types of parenting depending on parental expectations and responsiveness High Expectations and Few Expectations and Low Demandingness Demandingness Very Authoritative Parenting Indulgent Parenting Responsive These parents set high goals These parents spoil their and for their children but provide children they give them Supportive them with the psychological whatever they want and don t support they need to achieve ask for much in return them best kind of parenting for teenagers Little Support Authoritarian Parenting NegligentUninvolved Parenting and These parents are bossy and These parents provide little in Responsitivit demanding and do not express the way of psychological y much caring or empathy support and don t seem to care about expectations In general the most positive parentchild outcomes and best parental confidence occurs when parents employ authoritative parents Authoritative parenting strikes a balance bw control and freedom An authoritative parenting style is apt to be more reciprocal and bi directional less parent or child dominance and as a rule results in the most positive parent child outcomes and greater parental confidence Authoritative parenting exercises adolescents cognitive skills and prosocial engagement This seems to contribute to the development of autonomous responsible behavior advanced identity development and connectedness Authoritative parenting promotes parentadolescent understanding and affection Despite the relative stability that tends to characterize parentadolescent relationships parent and adolescent relationships transform as children pass through adolescence Ordinarily families go through stages of development much like individuals do For families there are about five transitions 1 Coupling 2 Families With young children 3 Families With adolescent children 4 Launching 5 Later Life Raising Adolescents requires some finesse Developing new discipline tactics that emphasize supervision and monitoring joint decisionmaking and negotiation The family must adjust to the increasing importance of peer groups and peer relationships for the adolescent Launching is a time in family life With the greatest number of exits and entries into the family adolescents mature leave home and initiate families of their own elders age and die Some parents react to their own aging and the stresses that go With it by having a midlife crisis While their adolescents are entering into the fullness of their youth parents are grieving the loss of their youth Lastly is later life and retirement often resulting in a role reversal With parents becoming dependent on offspring Families are generally stable in the midst of a stageits the transitional times that test a families mettle Beyond this families may experience more than one stage simultaneously Recent evidence indicates that adolescents spend less time with their family daily routines But not because they are repelled by processes internal to the family or adolescent but because of pulls or incentives from the external social environment sports jobs etc


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