PSY202, Week 2 Notes
PSY202, Week 2 Notes PSY 202
Popular in Mind and Society >2
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Cochrane on Tuesday January 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Pennefather J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society >2 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
Reviews for PSY202, Week 2 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/05/16
Chapter 2: Research Methodology Scientiﬁc Inquiry: • Scientiﬁc inquiry is a way of ﬁnding answers to empirical questions (questions that can be answered through observation and measurement) • Scientiﬁc method is Scientiﬁc Attitude: • the scientiﬁc attitude is composed of curiosity (passion for exploration), skepticism (doubting and questioning), and humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong). The Scientiﬁc Method Depends on Theories, Hypothesis, and Research: • The four goals of psychological science are: 1. describe (what) 2. predict (when) 3. control (what causes) 4. explain (why) Steps of the Scientiﬁc Method: HOMER • Hypothesize • Operationalize • Measure • Evaluate • Replicate/Revise/Report Theory: • A theory is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events. ◦ Ex: low self-esteem contributes to depression Hypothesis: • A hypothesis is a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject, or revise a theory. ◦ Ex: People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed Operationalize: • Constructs ◦ Internal attributes or characteristics that cannot be directly observed ◦ Useful for describing and explaining behavior • Operation deﬁnition: ◦ Identiﬁes a measurement procedure for measuring an external behavior ◦ Uses the resulting measurements as a deﬁnition and a measurement of a hypothetical construct Research Observations • Research would require us to administer tests of self-esteem and depression. Individuals who score low on a self-esteem test and high on a depression test would conﬁrm our hypothesis. Barker, Dembo, and Lewin (1941 study) • Examined whether frustration caused aggression in children • Showed students a room full of attractive toys • Half were able to play right away and half had to wait outside the door • Children that had to wait engaged in more aggressive play styles (throwing toys, breaking them, crashing them together) Unexpected Findings Can Be Valuable • Unexpected discoveries sometimes occur ◦ Only researchers who are prepared to recognize their importance will beneﬁt from them Types of Studies: • Descriptive ◦ research method that involves observing and noting the behavior of people or animals to provide systematic and objective analysis of the behavior ▪ Naturalistic observation: observing behavior in its natural setting ▪ Ex: developmental studies of children ▪ Ex: watching ﬂirting behavior in a bar ▪ Case study: an in-depth study of one individual or group ▪ Ex: Simonton (UC Davis) study of famous people like eminent scientists to study cognitive ability, or proliﬁc painter to study creativity ▪ Ex: Buglioli & Gentry (1974) study of Charles Manson to understand murder ◦ Pros of Descriptive Method: ▪ hypothesis generation ▪ no bias of self report ◦ Cons of Descriptive Method: ▪ low generalizability ▪ observer bias • Correlational ◦ The technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them (i.e., how much one can be predicted from the other) is assessed. ◦ Expressed with a mathematical expression called a correlation coeﬃcient (r); a standardized measure of association that ranges from -1.0 to 1.0 ▪ positive correlation means that as one variable goes up, the other variable goes up ▪ Ex: height and weight are positively correlated; the taller people are, the more they tend to weight. ▪ negative correlation means as one variable goes up, the other variable goes down ▪ Ex: vaccination rate correlate negatively with disease rates: the more often people get vaccinated, the less disease there is. ◦ Scatterplot: a graph comprised of points that are generated by values of two variables. The slope of the points depicts the direction. ▪ Correlation is not causation. ◦ Survey ▪ a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people. ▪ random sampling: each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample (unbiased selection of people) ▪ Pros: ask what you want, pick the population ▪ Cons: people might lie, wording eﬀects, representativeness of the sample ◦ Illusory Correlation: ▪ The perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists. ▪ Ex: Parents conceive children after adoption. • Experimental: ◦ Like other sciences, experimentation is the backbone of psychological research. Experiments isolate causes and their eﬀects. ◦ Exploring Cause and Eﬀect: ▪ Many factors inﬂuence our behavior. Experiments (1) manipulate factors that interest us, while other factors are kept under (2) control. ▪ Eﬀects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and eﬀect relationships. ◦ Laboratory Experiments: ▪ I ndependent variable: the variable manipulated by the experimenters; the cause. ▪ Dependent variable: the variable measured by the experimenter; the eﬀect. ◦ Zimbardo (1970) ▪ Noticed a relationship between anonymity and antisocial behavior ▪ Does anonymity cause antisocial behavior? ▪ Brought participation into lab, told them they were going to deliver electric shock to other participants. ▪ Half wore their own clothes and wore name tags ▪ Half were dressed in white coats and hoods that covered their faces. ▪ Result: those who were anonymous delivered TWICE as many shocks. ▪ Independent variable: whether participants were anonymous ▪ Dependent variable: number of shocks delivered ◦ Random Assignment: ▪ Assigning participants to experimental (breast-fed) and control (formula-fed) conditions by random assignment minimizes pre- existing diﬀerences between the two groups. Data Analysis • Reliability ◦ The extent to which a measure is stable and consistent. • Validity: ◦ The extent to which the experimenter can make conﬁdent statements about cause and eﬀect. • Accuracy: ◦ The extent to which an experimental measure is free from error. ▪ Random Error: value of error diﬀers each time. ▪ Systematic Error: value of error is constant. • Describing Data: ◦ A meaningful description of data is important in research. Misrepresentation may lead to incorrect conclusions. Descriptive Statistics • Statistics used... • Central Tendency: measures that represents the typical response ◦ Mean: the arithmetic average of scores in a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores that were added together. ◦ Median: middle number in a rank-ordered distribution. (if even amount of numbers a set, add the two middle numbers together and divide by two) ◦ Mode: most frequently occurring number • Variability: In a set of numbers, how widely dispersed the values are from each other and the mean. ◦ Range: The diﬀerence between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. ◦ Standard Deviation: A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean. Inferential Statistics • Inferential statistics: Procedures used to make judgements about whether diﬀerences actually exist between two sets of numbers • When is an Observed Diﬀerence reliable? 1. Representative samples are better than biased samples 2. Less-variable observations are more reliable than more variable ones 3. More cases are better than fewer cases. External Validity: to what extent do the ﬁndings of a study generalize to other persons and situations. Generalizability Across People • The question then is, how can researchers tell whether the processes they are studying are universal? • How can we trust that a study done with only college sophomores captures everyday responses? • The ultimate test of an experiment’s external validity is replication ◦ Replication: Repeated a study, often with diﬀerent subject population or in diﬀerent settings Ethics • The American Psychological Association publishes a code of ethics that lal its members must respect ◦ This code includes being respectful to all people, treating them with dignity, and protecting them from potential harm. • Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) ◦ Groups of people (often include researchers, laypeople, and administrators) responsible for reviewing proposed research to ensure that it meets standards of protections of participants.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'