Chapter 2: Vocabulary Notes
Chapter 2: Vocabulary Notes PSYC 1000
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naida Adams on Tuesday January 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Christyn Dolbier in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 01/05/16
Chapter 2 Vocabulary Terms Definition Connection Biological Psychology the study between biological and Biological Biological psychological processes. processes) Psychology (Psychological processes) Neuron a nerve cell, the basic building Jimmy Neutron (sounds like block of the nervous system. Neuron , used to watch the show when I was younger and played with uilding blocks). Dendrites bushy, branching extensions that Dandruff (sounds likedendrites) receives messages and conduct makes think of hai (many short impulses toward the cell body. bushy branching extensions) When you get dandruff you receive the message that you listen (to the white flakes that have a dry scalp white flake). show in your hair) Axon one large extension that passes An axle of a wagon (sounds like messages through its branches Axon) isone large extension to other neurons or to muscles or of the wagon that youpull to glands. pass the message to the other end of the wagon to move. speak (squeaky wagon) Myelin Sheath a fatty tissue layer segmentally My eyeline (sounds likeMyelin) covering the axons of some the more Ipracticemy cat eye neurons; increases neural the more Iincrease speed in impulse speed during doing it. transmission from one node to the next. A sheet(sounds likesheath) covers a bed and goes in between the mattress and comforter as would the sheath goes in between the cell body and the axon’s terminal branches . Glial cells (glia) cells in the nervous system that Glee= Pleasure/Joy (sounds like support, nourish, and protect glia), these cellkeep the neurons; they may also play a nervous system happy with role in learning and thinking. support, protection. and *worker bees nourishment. Action potential a neural impulse; a brief Action movies (action) has a lot electrical charge that travels of explosions probably down an axon (potentially) caused by electrical charges. . Threshold the level of stimulation required Tradition to put bride in a to trigger a neural impulse. threshold to begin honeymoon. Book analogy: If the excitatory (It is t lastlevel of marriage party animals outvote the required to complete/ trigger inhibitory party poopers, the the impulse o fmatrimony ) party’s on. Synapse The crossing between the axon Snap (sounds likesynapse ) the tip of the sending neuron and the tiny space/gap in between your dendrite or cell body of the two fingers= the tiny space in receiving neuron. The tiny gap at between the axon tip of one this crossing is called the neuron and the dendrites of synaptic gap or synaptic cleft. another . *meeting point in between Ramón y Cajal: protoplasmic neurons. kisses Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that cross Jimmy Neutron (sounds like the synaptic gaps between Neuro makes love potion out of neurons. When released by the chemicals and acts like a sending neuron, neurotransmitter sends a neurotransmitters travel across message to his brain to fall in the synapse and bind to receptor love with Cindy Vortex closing sites on the receiving neuron, the gap between their friendship thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse. Endorphins “morphine within”—natural, In (sounds li en),Morphine opiatelike neurotransmitters (sounds likedorphins ) linked to pain control and to “Morphine in self” pleasure. Nervous System the body’s speedy, A Xbox is aelectronic (sounds electrochemical communication likeelectrochemical)game network, consisting of all the system isnd also can be nerve cells of the peripheral and socialcommunication network central nervous systems. if yo play onlin. Central Nervous System the brain and spinal cord The brain and spinal cord re (CNS) both laterally (lengthwise) the the center of the body. Peripheral Nervous System the sensory and motor neurons Outermost=Peripheral (like (PNS) that connect the central nervous peripheral visi)→ a type of system (CNS) to the rest of the sense (sensory neuron ) mostly body. used while driving a motor vehicle(motor neuron ). CNS and PNS are connected together by the NS. Nerves bundled axons that form neural Imagine a whole bunch of axles “cables” connecting the central of a wagon (axons) bundled nervous system with muscles, together. This wiconnect all of glands, and sense organs. the wagons CNS to the Muscles, glands, and sense organs) together. Sensory Neurons carry incoming messages from Remember the acronym (Afferent Neurons) sensory receptors to the CNS. SNICNS: SNI SNI(input) CNS CNS *afferent (starts with A) When writing a letter you put “At: (Name)”Inputting a message to someone. *inputs Motor Neurons carry outgoing messages from Remember the acronym: (Efferent Neurons) the CNS to muscles and glands. MNOCSN MNO MNO(Output) CSN CNS *Efferent (sounds like F) “From: Name)you are outputting mail/ *outputs a message . Interneurons communicate within the CNS and Remember the acronym: SNIMNO intervene between incoming and SNIMNOCSN (just thtwo CSN outgoing messages. acronyms combined/ intervene (sounds likeInter SNI(input) & MNO(output) CSN somatic nervous system: enables voluntary control of our Somatic and skeletal muscles (skeletal nervous system) skeletal muscles (PNS) starts with “. Voluntary *and is also called skeletal control of skeletal muscles. nervous system autonomic nervous system controls our glands and the Your body automatically(sounds (ANS) muscles of our internal organs, likeautonomic )/not manually influencing such functions as secrets from glands and glandular activity, heartbeat, anddigest your food. It controls digestion. muscles of things that your body *Autonomic means “selfregulating.does involuntarily. sympathetic nervous system the division of the autonomic Sympathy (sounds like nervous system that arouses the sympathetic ) is part of the body, mobilizing its energy in autonomic nervous system stressful situations. (you don’t voluntary sympathise with someone/involuntary) arises energy in a stressful *homeostasis situation. parasympathetic nervous the division of the autonomic Paralyzes (sounds likpara)the system nervous system that calms the sympathetic (is part of the body, conserving its energy. autonomic nervous system) energized feeling andreplaces it withalm conserved *homeostasis energy. Reflex a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the kneejerk response. endocrine system the body’s “slow” chemical Estrogen (sounds like communication system; a set of endocrine ) is a type of glands that secrete hormones hormone. This system into the bloodstream. secretes hormones . hormones chemical messengers that are Remember that: Estrogen is a manufactured by the endocrine type ofhormone andis created glands, travel through the by the endocrine system and bloodstream, and affect other that this system secretes tissues. hormones . adrenal glands on top of the kidneys to release As a kid (sounds lik kidneys) epinephrine and norepinephrine your adrenal(sounds like (also calledadrenaline and adrenal) used to go up when noradrenaline). playing tag or hideinseek (panting, fast heartbeat, run faster than usual to not get caught) pituitary gland the endocrine system’s most influential gland. a peasized structure located in the core of the brain, where it is controlled by an adjacent brain area, the hypothalamus. Among the hormones released by the pituitary is a growth hormone that stimulates physical development. lesion tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue. brainstem the oldest part and central core Stem is the oldest part of a flower of the brain, beginning where the (oldest part of brain core) and spinal cord swells as it enters thconnects the flower to the stem skull; the brainstem is and is responsible for survival responsible for automatic survival absorbing water from ground). functions. medulla the base of the brainstem; Mud (sounds likeMedulla)is at controls heartbeat and breathing. base of the flowe(brainstem) and if wet,controls the flower to absorb waterbreathe) and photosynthesiseheartbeatcircul ation) electroencephalogram (EEG) an amplified recording of the Electric chai(electro helmets waves of electrical activity hooked up to scalp, encephal sweeping across the brain’s (means brain),gram (means to surface. These waves are record/take a picture) measured by electrodes placed on the scalp PET (positron emission a visual display of brain activitPET → Ice cream → tomography) scan that detects where a radioactive Sugary(glucose) “I scream, you form of glucose goes while the scream, we all scream for ice brain performs a given task. cream” *a iven task=screaming for ice cream* MRI (magnetic resonance a technique that uses magnetic MR. (similar to MR Roboto→ is imaging) fields and radio waves to a computergenerated robot. produce computergenerated was a song on theradio images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy. fMRI (functional MRI) a technique for revealing ffunction) MR.similar to MRi) bloodflow and, therefore, brain Roboto→ is a activity by comparing successive computergenerated robot. MRI scans. fMRI scans show was a song on theradio brain function. thalamus the brain’s sensory router, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla. reticular formation a nerve network that travels Erection (sounds likretic) → a through the brainstem and plays form ofarousal (male). an important role in controlling arousal. cerebellum the “ little brain” at the rear oCere (prefix for brabell(as brainstem; functions include small as a bell)“little brain” processing sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance, and enabling nonverbal learning and memory. limbic system neural system (including the Limbo (sounds likelimbic) go hippocampus, amygdala, and below the stickerebral hypothalamus) located below the hemispheres ) that goes high cerebral hemispheres; and low (likemotions ). associated with emotions and drives. amygdala two limabeansized neural Amy (amy)and (g) Dala clusters in the limbic system; (dala): 2 little glittle linked to emotion. clusters) that play limbo (limbic and are best friends (emotion al relationship) hypothalamus a neural structure lying below Hypo (means below) (sounds (hypo) the thalamus; it directs like hippo→ hungry hungry several maintenance activities hippo→ directs eating) (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward. cerebral cortex the intricate fabric of Vortex (sounds like cortex) of interconnected neural cells intermingled cells on the cerebral covering the cerebral where info is processed. hemispheres; the body’s ultimate control and informationprocessing center. frontal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex Frontal isforehead in spanish. lying just behind the forehead; You speak in the rontof the involved in speaking and muscle class (speaking). Youmove movements and in making plans foward muscle movement ). and judgments. The judge (sounds like judgement) sits in fron of the court. parietal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex Parents (sounds likparietal) lying at the top of the head and are the head/top of the house toward the rear; receives sensory and tells you where to sleep input for touch and body position.(body position). occipital lobes portion of the cerebral cortex Optical (sounds likeoccipita)= lying at the back of the head; vision (eceives info from the includes areas that receive visual field information from the visual fields. temporal lobes portion of the cerebral cortex Temples (sounds liemporal) are above the ear (hearing/audi ory). lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear. motor cortex an area at the rear of the frontalA motor is in the fro(frontal of lobes that controls voluntary a car, you can voluntarily move movements. (voluntary movements) a car by steering a whee(circular like a vortex → sounds likcortex) sensory cortex area at the front of the parietaOne of the fivsenses sounds lobes that registers and likesensory): ouchand processes body touch and movement sensations ( sounds movement sensations. likesensory) association areas areas of the cerebral cortex thaSmart Ass (sounds like are not involved in primary motoassociation) → it doesn’t or sensory functions; rather, thassociate with the other are involved in higher mental functions sensory and motor) functions such as learning, but withhigher mental remembering, thinking, and functions (smart). speaking. plasticity the brain’s ability to change, Children during childhood) especially during childhood, by have to useplastic (sounds like reorganizing after damage or by plasticit) forks and kniv to building new pathways based on prevent amage /cutting their experience. skin wilepair/change into a scab (create new skin → new pathways )ased on how deep the cut ithe experience) neurogenesis the formation of new neurons. Generates (sounds like genesis) new neurons (neuro) corpus callosum the large band of neural fibers Corpse (sounds likcorpus) → connecting the two brain ghosts after lionnects hemispheres and carrying with mortal world leave messages between them. message. connecting two hemispheres) split brain a condition resulting from surgeBanana Spli (sounds liksplit that isolates the brain’s two brain) cuts the bananain half hemispheres by cutting the fiber(splits brain in half/two (mainly those of the corpus hemispheres) and you eat (cut) callosum) connecting them. the ice cream(fibers) connecting them. environment every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us. behavior genetics the study of the relative power nd limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior. chromosomes threadlike structures made of Google Chrome (sounds like DNA molecules that contain the Chromo ) icon looks likedna genes. molecules → contains genes. *made of dna DNA: (deoxyribonucleic acid) a complex molecule containing Google Chrome (sounds like the genetic information that Chromo ) icon looks likedna makes up the chromosomes. molecules → contains genes. *makes chromosomes genes the biochemical units of heredity Handmedown jeans→ that make up the chromosomes; inherited (sounds like heredity) segments of DNA capable of by preteens (sounds like synthesizing proteins. proteins ) from sibling with the same d na. identical twins twins who develop from a single Two people identify (sounds like (monozygotic) fertilized egg that identical)with the same origin splits in two, creating two (one egg split in two) genetically identical organisms. fraternal twins twins who develop from separate Frat (sounds like fraternal) (dizygotic) fertilized eggs. They brothers can be brothers even if are genetically no closer than their from separate states in ordinary brothers and sisters, but college (separate eggs) . they share a fetal environment. interaction the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity). epigenetics the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change. evolutionary psychology the study of the evolution of Evolution→ natural selection behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection. natural selection the principle that, among the “Let nature (sounds like natural) range of inherited trait variations, take its course” (will tsurvive ) those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations. mutation a random error in gene replication that leads to a change.
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