UC Berkeley- Psych 1
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Date Created: 02/08/14
Psych Midterm 1 Concepts Experimental PsychologyWundt requires experiment to understand complex mental processes as sequences of elementary processes defined psychology as a science lst StructuralismTitchener focus on elementary parts and combine to make a whole introspection FunctionalismJames focus on purpose of behavior for the individual not EVERY trait has a function Ethologystudy of animal behavior in natural environment behaviorresut of evolution rather than learning Gestalt PsychologyFocuses on direct experience the whole rather than its parts Functionalism top down direct experience holism Laws of grouping Similarity Good Form Good Continuation Similar Direction Cultural Psychologyfocus on social nature of humans hierarchies within society Behaviorism Watson school of psychology focuses on stimuus response relationships ALL behavior is this mental processesNOT PSYCHOLOGY experiments are required all theories must predict and control learning explains behavior conscious experienceunscientific studies on animals can be generalized to humans bottomup complex behaviorstring of small S R associations Freudian Psychoogy Unconscious has dominant control parallel processing idegosuperego as 3 conflicting parts to the self humans are asocial subdue inner sexualaggression gratification via distortion defense mechanisms Fact Objective statement agreed to be true TheoryIdea used to explain many existing facts Independent variabe variable to be changed to affect dependent variable Dependent variabe variable that is affected by independent variable Experiment manipulation of one variable to see its effects on another everything else kept constant required to prove causation Correlational studyObservation of two already existing variables to determine their relationship Lab study vs field study lab study performed in lab controlled environment field study out of lab natural Correlation coefficient statistic that represents strength and direction of relationship of variables 1 to1 Biasnonrandom effects caused by outside factors to research hypothesis response nonresponse etc Artificial seection human controed selective breeding Natural seection explanation for evolution nature selects on traits most advantegous gt survivareproductiongtchange in allele frequencygtspeciation many holes extrapolates ignores quotregression to the mean natural mating rids of effects of artificial selection more generations regress to average traits quotdefault dogs cannot be proven if variation in species actually leads to formation of new species but is best of all theories involved no experiment or mathematics Mutation error in DNA replication only source of new genes FunctionalismJames psychological school behavior is explained in terms of its purpose for the individual o Ultimate Explanationexplains on an evolutionary level top down how the behavior contributes to survivalreproduction more satisfying assumes adaptation bird sings bc it wants to attract a mate o Proximate Explanationexplains on a biochemical level bottomup behavior is due to immediate conditions more certain no assumption of adaptation bird sings bc light hits visual area stimulates testosterone production o Limitations Vestigial characteristics leftover traits side effect traits belly button chance traits noses 0 Speciestypical behavior behaviora traits characteristic of a species instincts humans are genetically pre disposed to expressing emotions but learn from environment too expression of emotion walking talking are all defining characteristics of humans but each is affected by cutureearningspecies are equipped w biological structures that allow them to perform speciestypical behavior and motivation to learn their behavior o Homoogy similarity due to common ancestry o Anaogy similarity due to convergent evolution 0 Mating patterns dependant on amount of parental investment which parentparents put in timeenergy o Polygynyone male mates with many females greater female parental investment male fighting o Poyandry one female mates with many males greater paternal investment females aggressive o Monogamyone male and one female equal parental investment humansthispoygyny o Poygynandry one group of many males amp females mate with each other group investment 0 Helping and Hurting aggression fighting to show dominance fight for mates helping increases chance of survival in another individual involves cooperation working together all individuals benefit and altruism helping individual is at risk while helping another o Kin seection theory and reciprocity theory of altruism 0 Naturalistic amp deterministic faacies false beliefs that evolution has moralitygenes have ultimate control of our behavior 0 Learning Process through which experience at one time affects behavior at a different time 0 Classical conditioning Pavovearning process that creates new reflexes can condition behaviorresponses to drugs food fear Stimuus objective event in environment Responseresult of stimulus behavior Refex stimulusresponse sequence mediated by nervous system OOO Conditioned reflexreflex due to previous experience I Conditioned stimuus precedes unconditioned stimulus original cause of response I Conditioned responseresult of conditioned stimulus same a unconditioned response Neutral stimuusgtno response Unconditioned stimuusgt unconditioned response Neutral stimulus Unconditioned stimuusgt Unconditioned response Conditioned stimuusgt Conditioned response 0 Habituation decrease in intensity of response after repeated encounters of stimulus 0 Extinction conditioned response to conditioned stimulus decreases in intensity over time without unconditioned stimulus o Spontaneous recoveryafter time conditioned stimuusunconditioned stimulusresponse conditioning renewed GeneralizationIntensity of response to new stimuli depends on their similarity to original conditioned stimulus in visual comparison or meaning Little Albert39s fear was generalized to all fuzzy things o Discrimination training discourages generalization response to correct stimulus is reinforced over other Behaviorism WatsonSkinner school of psychology focuses on stimuus response relationships ALL behavior is this mental processesNOT PSYCHOLOGY experiments are required all theories must predict and control learning explains behavior conscious experienceunscientific studies on animals can be generalized to humans bottomup complex behaviorstring of small S R associations o Radical Behaviorism quotS R theory focuses on stimulusphysics and responsebehavior quotblack box is physioogy s domain conditioned stimuusgt response always disproved by extinction o Toman quotSOR theory focuses on stimulus and response but suggests that some cognition occurs within the organism to connect the two cognitive maps in mice I Experiment rats introduced to maze w 3 routes to food rates learn fastest route but use other routes when shortest one is blocked bottomup learning of maze topdown method of maneuvering CONTRADICTS Watson believed that the rats would have to start all over again after running into blocked path I Still focused on learning controlling and predicting in experiment o Pavlov quotSSR theory stimulus is followed by mental representation of unconditioned stimulus which leads to response I Expectancy theory conditioned response NOT unconditioned response meansend expectancy Operant Conditioning Thorndike Skinnerlearning process by which individuals learn to make operant responses effect of an operant response changes the likelihood of that response occurring again o Operant responseBehavior meant to produce some effect o Thorndike cats discovered ever puing as method of obtaining food I Law of effect Response that produces a satisfying effect will be more likely to occur in that situation and vice versa o SkinnerAnimal put in cage w lever for food for access whenever necessary I Reinforcerstimulus change that follows response and increases frequency of response later I Reinforcement increases frequency of response Punishment decreases frequency I ALL BEHAVORoperant responses due to past experiences Extinctionabsence of reinforcement of the response leads to decrease in response rate Partial reinforcement response only sometimes produces reinforce variablefixed ratiointervals Discriminative training earning to make operant response to specific stimuli in environment to produce response that leads to reinforcer o Generalization occurs in operant conditioning too birds learned to respond to any trees in a picture despite never having seen the picture before Herrnstein I Example of cognition bottomuptopdown processing Response Rate increases Response rate decreases Response causes stimulus to be present Positive reinforcement Levergtfood pellet Positive punishment Levergteectric shock Response causes stimulus to be removed Negative punishment Levergtremoves food Negative reinforcement Levergtturns off shock 0 Playgood for practice of speciestypical behavior repeats skillschallenges young no immediate purpose 0 Explorationinformation learning about the environment info may be used later 0 Bias in fear based earning organisms more likely to fear things that posed a threat to their ancestors 0 ImprintingBabies determine a mother figure and follow it Lorenz39s experiment with geese went from mother figure to potential mate 0 Critical period period during which imprinting can occur 0 Neuronnerve cell bundled into NERVES three types sensorycarries info from sense organs to cns motor carries message from cns to operate musclesglands interneuroncarries info from neuron to neuron o CNS centra nervous system brain and spinal cord o PNSperipheral nervous system extension of nerves from cns o Composed of cell body location of nucleus dendritesreceive info axon sends out impulse via neurotransmitters in axon terminal myelin sheath covers axon speeds up movement of action potential 0 Action potentias a or nothing impulse firings change in membrane potential runs down axon frequency Is due to intensity of stimulus analogue O O Resting membrane potentialnegative charge win cell more K ions inside Na ions outside Depoarization during action potential Na channel opensgtinflux of Na ions into cegtpositive charge in cell Repoarization after depolarization Na channel shuts and K opensgtfow of K out of cell restores negative charge 0 Synapsejunction between axon terminal of one cell body and dendrite of receiving one where neurotransmitters are released by one and bound to anothergtopening of ion channesgtchange O O ExcitatoryFast synapse neurotransmitter opens Na ion channels in receiving neurongtdepoarizationgtgreater rate of action potential in postsynaptic neuron InhibitoryFast synapse neurotransmitter opens KC channesgt hyperpolarizationgtdecrease in action potential Slow synapse alter postsynaptic neuron s functioning for a longer time alter responsiveness 0 Nucleuscluster of cell bodies of neurons in cns 0 Tract custer of axons in cns like nerves in pns 0 TMS transcrania magnetic stimulation disruptstriggers activity in cortical areas via magnetic field 0 EEG eectroencephalogram records electrical activity in areas of the brain just beneath the skull 0 PETfMRproduce images that depict changes in neural activity in each area of the brain based on blood flow 0 Peripheral nervesconnects cns to sensory organsmusclesglands sensory motor o Cranial nervesstem from brain o Spinal nervesstem from spine 0 Somatosensation sensations conveyed by inputs from nonsensory organs skin tendons muscles come through spinal nerves 0 Motor neuronsthrough these cns controls behavior comprise peripheral motor system o Skeletal portionneurons initiate activity of skeletal muscles o Autonomic portion neurons modify activity of visceral musclesglands receive 2 sets of neurons I Sympathetic divisionsetresponds to stressful situations increases heart rate I Parasympathetic divisionset regenerative energy conserving functions 0 Spinal Cord connects spinal nerves to brain contains pathways tofrom brain organizes simple reflexes contains pattern generators for locomotion o Pattern generatorsnetworks of neurons produce bursts of action potentials rhythmically controls rhythmic movements hierarchical control inhibits pattern generators to control them otherwise they all function 0 Subcortical brain structurescontrols simple bottomup behavior 0 Brainstemsite of entry of spinal nerves communicates btwn spinal cord and higher brain I Medulla amp Pons organize postural reflexes balance and vital reflexes heart rate I Midbraingoverns speciestypical behavior eating drinking increasesdecreases locomotion pattern generators Thalamusabove brainstem relays signals btwn brainstem and cerebral cortex arouses brain Cerebeum surrounds brainstem controls rapid movement feedforward response to info uses sensory info to plan movement before it occurs 0 Basal Gangliasides of thalamus controls slow controlled movement feed back response to info sensory info from an ongoing movement is used to adjust movement as it occurs 0 Limbic System Borders old parts of brain and higher parts involved in driveemotion memories Amygdalaregulates drive and emotions below hippocampus I Hippocampusorganizes spatial location encodes certain memories I Hypothaamus regulates internal body environment I Pituitary glandcontrols endocrine system 0 Cerebral Cortex Higher brain 2 hemispheres 4 lobes occipital temporal parietal frontal o Primary sensory areasreceives input from sensory nerves through thalamus o Primary motor areas sends axons down to motor neurons in brainstemspinal cord fine tunes movements Premotor areas in front of motor areas set up programs for movement Association areas receive input from sensory areas involved in thought perception Prefrontal cortexIn front of premotor areas involved in planning Topographic organizationadjacent neurons in brain correspond to adjacent somatosensory body parts amount of cortex devoted to a body part is due to the sensitivity of that partintricacy of its movements ipsbig area Sensory infogtparieta and tempora obe association areas back of braingtprefronta cortexgtpremotor areasgtprimary motor areasgtpremotor cortexgtower brain Hierarchical organization of the brainhigher levels make decisions control lower brain lower levels gather info bottomup in charge of executing movement commands of higher brain Control Lower Brain Higher Brain 1 MotivationPlanning of movement Limbic system motivation Association cortex planning 2 Generation of programs for Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum Premotor areas of cortex movement 3 Refinement of programs for Motor nuclei of upper Primary motor area of movement components brainstem cortex 4 Maintenance of posture and Motor nuclei of lower Motor nuclei of lower smooth execution of movements brainstem and spinal cord brainstem and spinal cord 5 Movement Muscles Muscles Longterm potentiationlowlevel conditioning association between neural cells those that fire together wire together Neuron Representation of InformationSensory coding preservation of information about stimuli o AnalogueIntensity of impulse is represented by frequency of action potentials fired by neuron reptrans o Ratio CodingTo perceive intensity of stimulus complementary multiple neurons fire at once ratio of frequencies interprets info I Sweetvs Sat neurons fire together but one fires more than other to determine if food is sweet or salty o Sensory Adaptationquothabituation neurons wear outdon t react as quickly to stimulus over time quotextinction not as sensitive after periods of strong stimulation or no stimulation SensationProcess by which sensory organsnervous system respond to stimulus resultant psychological experiencebitter taste loud sound Stimulus External physicsgtPhysioogica Response chem Rxns in bodygtSensory experience sensation or perception Stimuusgtneura impulse in sensory receptorsgtcnsgtpathways to sensory areas in cortex primary visuaIsomatosensoryolfactoryauditorytaste areasgtbrain activitygtsensation PerceptionOrganizing of sensory input within brain interpretation of information The coffee is bitter thought memories Transductionprocess of producing electrical charge in response to physical stimulation o Receptor potentialelectrical change 0 PsychophysicsFechner school of psychology study of relationship between stimuli and sensory experiences produced by stimuli physicsphenomenoogybehavior most scientificmathematicaIexperimentaI school o Absolute thresholdfaintest detectable stimulus softest sound lightest light o jndquotjust noticeabe difference difference threshold minimum difference in intensity of two stimuli to be detected as a difference magnitude of original stimulus must increase logarithmically to increase magnitude of sensory experience Fechner s law 0 PhotoreceptorsIightdetecting cells connected to nervous system in one thin layer on retina 0 Functional Organization of the Eye front to back Corneaclear tissue covering eye helps focus light ris pigmented provides eye color dilatesconstricts pupil to adapt to brightnessdarkness PupilHole through which light passes Lens Behind pupil aids in focusing of light OOOO Retina membrane lining back of eye image from lenscornea comes onto retina upside down transduction in retina photoreceptorsgtretina cesgtaction potentials in optic nervesgtbrain I Cones photoreceptors allows color vision in bright light more acute concentrated in fovea I Rods photoreceptors allows vision in dim lightperipheral visionblack and white vision more sensitive contains rhodopsin chemical 0 Neural convergence both rods and cones form synapses on bipolar cesgtsynapses on ganglion cells o Many rods synapse on each bipolar cell many bipolar cell synapses on each ganglion greater sensitivity less photons needed to detect object less acuity objects more fuzzy o Cones synapse on one bipolar cell which synapses on one ganglion cell each more acute image 0 Subtractive color mixingmixing of pigments NOT the focus of this class 0 Additive color mixing mixing of colored lights photons due to psychology not physics o Three primaries aw three different wavelengths of light can be mixed to create any color one sees 0 Law of complementaritypairs of wavelengths exist that when mixed make white 0 Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision Young Helmholtz 3 receptors cones respond to 3 different light wavelengths amp combine to make color blue green red short medium long 0 OpponentProcess Theory Heringneurons are excitedinhibited by a certain wavelength and its complementary wavelengthcolor bue yeow opponent cells and greenred opponent cells 0 Ex ability to see red quotred cone stimulated fires most frequently on bipolar cell quotgreen cone fires too not as frequent less inhibition of red than activation of redgt activation of red cegtoptic nervegtseeing red o All 3 cones fire when photons hit them just at different frequencies within ganglion cells only 1 of 2 colors is fired not both in bue yeow cell if blue fires yellow is inhibited and vice versa both cannot fire at once o Photon distributionwavelength number of photons in each wavelength more photonsbrighter o When all cones activate their colorinhibit opponent color equally it produces white Representative Transformation Change in representation of a figure where that representation maintains some but not all characteristics of the original figure o Physical arrowgtphotons of light reflecting from arrowgtsensory neurons in eye responding to photonsgtoptic intakegtmenta representation of arrow image o Intensity of stimulus brightness of light greater number of photonsgt increased frequency of firing in neuron o Bottomup learning of partscornerroutes of a maze for ratsgttopdown cognitive map of maze mental representation o Interaction with one example of an animagtgeneraized association between that animal and anything that remotely resembles it o Freud representative transformation between the unconscious which we cannot control and conscious that which the unconscious allow for us to experience I Defense mechanismrep trans of unconscious anxiousunacceptable thoughts Top down way of approaching ideas by focusing on main concept then analyzing details basis of ultimate explanations o Ex Tolman rats Ill cognitive maps higher levels of the brain control decisionmaking send commands down to lower brainspinal cord Darwin39s approach to theorizing evolution Fundamentalism Bottomup explaining concepts by focusing on their elementary aspects then building upward to create idea basis of proximate explanations o Ex Behaviorism science consists of accumulation of fundamental parts of a concept lower levels of the brain receive input from body commands from higher brain Structuralism 4 Domains of Psychology Physics stimuus objective physical phenomena external to individual Physiologyneural processing of information Phenomenologyexperience of the world result of physiological input Behavior objective resut response to stimulus OOOOO Behaviorists Physics Behavior o Psychophysicists Physics Phenomenology Behavior o Cognitive psychologists Focus on Physiology Phenomenology Treatment Clinical PsychologyPractice and research aimed towards helping people who suffer from mental disorders Treatment over history Burnedtorturedgtchained in dungeonsgtreformgtovercrowded unsanitary hospitalsgtoutreach programs 0 O 0 Drugs Antipsychotic chlorpromazine treat schizophrenic symptoms block dopamine damaging side effects Antianxiety tranquilizersValium augment GABA cause drowsiness Antidepressant SSRI s tricyclics questionable effects regarding recovery ECTshock side of the brain to treat depression seizure Psychosurgeryremoval ofputting lesions in one part of the brain PsychotherapyPractice of helping people overcome a mental problem psychologically restructure the patient s thinking 0 Psychodynamic therapyFreud s psychoanalysis related therapies based on idea that unconscious memories in uence conscious thoughtsactions usu from childhood presenting symptoms x real problem analyze patient s behaviorslipsdreamsfree associations to determine underlying cause once unconscious causesgt consciousness they can be modifiedconfronted and acted uponredirected to a more healthy path give conscious INSIGHT to source of their problems so it can be fixed I Free associationrelaxed mention every association that comes to mind after a word or image is presented I Resistancerefusal to comply with therapist s attempt to bring a certain topic into discussion from unconscious to conscious defense mechanism I TransferenceUnconscious feelings towards someone in patient s life redirected as conscious feelings towards therapist love hostility representative transformation I Insightbecoming consciously aware of the source of one s problems allows unconscious material to be reprogrammed into a more functional form releases energy spent of repressing memories resolves cognitive dissonance I Ex Ratmanfear of submitting fatherfiance to rat torture Predisposing outburst after biting nursegt feared he could kill his father with anger feared his father opposed all sexual advances Precipitatingwanting to marry poor girl against father s wishes pleasing father vs marrying his love rat free association Maintaining unable to work needed for marriage secondary gain avoid marriage decision transferencegtrecognition of underlying feargtconscious acceptancegtrecovery NeoFreudian PsychotherapySame as Freudian but focuses on social motives along w sexualaggressive same method free association dreams Jungian Psychotherapybringing conscious and unconscious polarities together an integrated whole optimism uses free association and dreams as method Humanistic TherapyCarl Rogers focuses on value of the self selfdirection people need support take control of one s life realize one s abilities I Clientcentered therapyclient is in control therapist must be empathetic and supportive interpret client s story carefully provide no criticism or advice empathy 0 Ex Rogers w Silent schizophrenia patient listeningsympathy empathy caring about patientgt patient recovery Cognitive TherapyAlbert Ellis Aaron Beck focuses on thoughts beliefs controlling behavior focuses on specific symptoms not usually the cause replace maladaptive thinking with adaptive thinking I Identifying maladaptive thinking ABC theory of emotionsgtEstablishing goals and how to achieve them aggressive therapistgtmoving from teaching to consulting role with client 0 Ex disliked man playing golf may have treated symptoms but not underlying cause Behavioral TherapyFocuses on maladaptive behavior retraining client to take on healthier behaviors good for treating phobias and some cases of OCD I Contingency managementChanging the relationship between actions and rewards good behaviorgtpositive reinforcement I Exposure treatment gradual exposure to one s phobia until one can confront it Wout fear 0 Many use combination of cognitive behavioral therapy at once 0 No form is better than others some work better depending on the problem 0 Support Hope Motivation gt faster more permanent recovery selfimprovement Mental DisordersPsychopathology 0 Mental Disorder Psychological disturbance that prevents one from living a satisfying life 0 O O DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders standard for labelingdiagnosing Symptomaspect of a person that is a potential indicator of a disorder Syndromecombination of related symptoms manifested in a person I Reliabilitythe extent to which different diagnosticians reach the same conclusion for diagnosis I Validityextent to which the categories of a diagnostic system are clinically meaningful Predisposing causesgenetic characteristicsenvironment in place before disorder began increase susceptibility Precipitating causesImmediate events that trigger disorder stress Maintaining causesconsequences of disorder that keep it going secondary gainmotivator to maintain disorder may be unconscious 0 Disorder List 0 ADHDAttentiondeficithyperactivity disorder difficulties in school inability to focus sit still treated with Ritalin true disorder or opposition to cultural shift towards obsession w school Down Syndrome trisomy 21 mental retardation IRREVERSIBLE brain deficit A1zheimer s Diseaseprogressive deterioration of cognition in elderly IRREVERSIBLE Anxiety Disorder fear and anxiety about something I Generalizedworry about issues experience muscle tension and irritability 6 months I Phobiaintenseirrational fear of a particular object or event socialspecific I ObsessiveCompulsive Disorderobsessive and compulsive thoughts are severe and prolonged disruptive must spend at least an hour each day involves damage to frontal lobe I Panic Disorderfeeling of helpless terror in unpredictable unprovoked times at least 2 attacks I Posttraumatic stress disorderanxiety brought on by one or more emotionally traumatic experiences Depressionprolonged sadness worthlessness no pleasure agitatedretarded motor movements connected to emotional event genetic predisposition I Major 2 weeks nonstop and Dyshymia less intense for 2 years Bipolar Disorderdepressive manic episodes I and II Imania IIhypomaniaenhanced creativity Somatoform Disordersperson experiences bodily ailments without reason I Somatization Disordermany different medical conditions due to psychological stress I Conversion Disorderperson temporarily loses body function blind deaf paralyzed Schizophreniadecline in ability to workfunctioncare for himself experience hallucinations delusions disorganized behaviorspeech brain deficits too much dopamine enlarged ventricles decreased hippocampus and prefrontal cortex I Predisposing causes genetics and prenatal environment highrisk environment I Less commonmore reversible and manageable in 3rd world countries Personality Personalitygeneral style of interacting with the world based on traits permanent stable predisposition to act a certain way 0 Trait theoryset of distinct personality traits that summarize differences amongst individuals I Factor analysis analyze correlations to extract defined factors survey people correlate their answers extract personality traits from results 0 Cattel s 16factor theoryl6PF questionnaire 16 different trait dimensions ex boldtimid o DW Fiske s 5factor modelneuroticism extraversion openness to experience agreeableness conscientiousness each w 6 subordinate dimensions ex extraversion warmdetached o Personalitygenerally stable through life changes mostly w age traumatic experiences I Trait theory traitshighly heritable not so much bc of environment Psychodynamic Theory of PersonalityFreud emphasize interplay of mental forces conscious and unconscious motives are unconscious defense mechanisms keep bad thoughts from reaching consciousness o Freud s psychoanalysis theorypeople are asocial cause of behavior lies in unconscious consciouscoverup unconscious is psychodynamic parallel processing occurs mental forces and irrational unacceptable thoughts occur con ict in human psyche multiple causesconstraints fights btwn idsuperegoego sexual energy involves tradeoffs I IDsexualaggressive inner drive must be inhibited in order to comply w societal source of motivation PRIMARY PROCESS reality and fantasy are one grati cation of id s desires I Superegoformed based on cultural rules values taught by cultureparents representation of morals GUILT I Egorationalization of actions understanding of reality and logic SECONDARY PROCESS conscious perception of the worldlogical thinking compromises demands of all components of the mind 0 Anna Freud s defense mechanisms selfdeception transformation of unacceptable unconscious thought into acceptable conscious thought I Repressionpushing bad thoughts out of consciousness may leak out but are then distorted only recovered though psychotherapy if repressed thoughts leak out of unconsciousness ego distorts them before they reach consciousness 0 Unable to recall a traumatic experience 0 Repressorsrepress feelings associated with an experience more able to avoid anxiety but suffer physical ailments more often I Displacement turning unacceptable unconscious thoughts into more acceptable alternatives 0 Kid wants to suck on a nipplegt wants to suck on a lollipop 0 Teen playing violent video gamesgtwants to be violent towards other humans I Sublimationunacceptable thoughts turned into acceptable altematives that contribute positively to society 0 Artists blues musicians lawyers 0 Inner desire for violencegtbecome a professional wrestler I Reaction formationtransforming a frightening thought into a safer one 0 Daughter hates mothergtdaughter has obsessive intense love for mother 0 Child wants to kill parentgtchild tries desperately to save dying parent I ProjectionOne s unacceptable unconscious thoughts are taken to be that of another person 0 One feels much angergt one thinks her friend is angry all the time I Rationalizationtrying to justify unacceptable thoughts 0 Father reason why I beat my kids is because they must be disciplined 0 Honor killings I Mature defensive stylesdo not distort reality as much suppression conscious avoidance of bad thoughts humor altruism I Immature defensive stylesdistort reality repression reaction formation projection Humanistic Theory of PersonalityC Rogers emphasizes people s understanding of themselves and their capacity to pursue fulfillment o Phenomenological reality person s conscious understanding of hisher worldselfconcept we must understand ourselves not be diverted by societal pressures I Selfactualizationthe act of becoming one s true self I Personal mythselftold story of one s experiences gives one a sense of direction meaning 0 Maslow s hierarchy of needs physiologicalgtsafetygtlovegtesteemgtselfactualization Socialcognitive theoryJ Rotter A Bandura emphasize the role of generalsocial beliefs about the world conscious but deeply ingrained automatic 0 Locus of controlone s perception of the source of control over rewards internal we control it vs external it s controlled by something else 0 Selfefficacypeople s beliefs about their own abilities malleability of one s personality 0 Optimism devote energy to creating positive outcomes have hope often leads to irrational thinking about one s invincibility vs Pessimism gives one the motivation to try out of fear of the worst outcome less able to cope with stress and overcoming obstacles 0 Personality can be situationspecific societybased collectivist vs individualist culturallybased east vs west Selfperceptions o EastCollectivist focus on social unity emphasize contributions to farnilycommunity modest o WestIndividualist focus on the self emphasize freedom liberty determination competition Memory and ConsciousnessVision Consciousnessexperiencing one s own mental events in a way that can be relayed to others involves physical stimuli innate processing sensory adaptation Gestalt laws learning 0 Structure 1 l3SS I 1 One context streamunable to pay attention to more than one thing at a time I 1 One interpretation of input at a timeunable to see things more than one different way at once 3D cube reversible figures I 3ability to perceive 3 chunks of input at one time everything beyond that is blurry I Ssensory input as background to conscious processing shadowing able to detect info about ignored voice Figures see components integrate them into a broader image I Snonsensory background to conscious processing semantic satiation repeat a word sound of word becomes a conscious experience meaning stays the same grouping closure priming sensorylongterm without conscious recognition schemas and scripts cues bring about mental representations I Fringeboundary between unconscious and conscious tipofthetongue imminence intuition feeling of knowing know you will be able to remember it gut feeling artificial grammar implicit resolution of cognitive dissonance kite paragraph o Serialparallel processing relationship I Neisser s target experiment nd a certain letter amongst lists of letters while task is serially processed time it takes to complete is dependent on of distracters of targets after time task becomes parallel processed nonconscious takes over targets pop out 0 Memoryall information in a person s mindability to store and retrieve information attention rehearsal encoding retrieval 0 Explicit declarative memorymemory that enters consciousness I Episodicremember events Semanticremember facts 0 Implicit nondeclarative memorymemory that does not enter consciousness not usually lost w amnesia I Proceduralskillsunconsciously learned habitsrules artificial grammarwithout knowing rules of fake grammar schemes able to recognize grammatical vs nongrammatical series by looking at examples of these Conditioning 0 Modal Model Three memory stores each with control processes languagepriming SENSORY gtattention SHORTTERMgtencoding LONGTERM ltattention ltretrieval priming o Sensory Memory all sense info that comes in is processedheld for a short period usually wout knowing able to focus on task at hand selective listeningcocktail party phenomenon selective viewinginattentional blindness and take in surrounding stimuli echoic memory of soundrepeat heard words wout paying attention to them iconic memorybrie y remember visual stimuli wout paying attention I Preattentive processingsensory memory is analyzed to determine relevancewhether or not it should be consciously processed I Attentionsensoryworking limits what is consciously processed I Primingsensorylongterm activation of info already stored in longterm memory exduck pic I Parallel processing of stimuli while driving reading words 0 Stroop interference effectwe cannot stop from reading words despite being asked to ignore it 0 Working Memoryconsciously processing input thinking fades if not rehearsedstored divided into components A Baddeley I Phonological loopverbal working memory holds it by repetition span of shortterm mem I Visuospatial sketchpad visual working memory able to visualize things to remember them I Central Executivecoordinates mind s activities brings new info into working memory from sensorylongterm stores attention retrieval I Encodingworkinglongterm via rehearsal elaboration helps understanding the meaning organization helps chunking info hierarchical organization visualization helps I HMtemporallobe amnesia unable to encode new memories retain implicit memories 0 Anterogradecannot form longterm memories after accident HM 0 Retrogradeloss of longterm info stored before accident 0 Consolidationunstablestable form of memory 0 Longterm Memorystored information not processed until brought into working memory unlimited capacity memories linked via associations contiguitythings occur together stored together similarity things that are similar stored together memoryreconstruction of original experience I More associationseasier to retrieve info I Schemaone s mental representation of obj ectsscenesevents Scriptsmental organization of events by time not location Bartlett 0 Memory can be reconstructed via suggestionfalse memories I Retrievallongtermworking remembering Objects defined by contours edges and borders enhanced by lateral inhibition active neuron inhibits activity of neighboring neurons 0 Primary Visual area analyzes sensory input 0 Feature detectorsneurons that are sensitive to elementary features of a scene Featureintegration TheoryTreisman theory of perception parallel processing of features detection followed by serial processing of features integration Gestalt psychologythe mind understands things in terms of organized wholes we perceive things as whole holistic tendency able to have sensory experience with no sensory input phi phenomenon phonemic restoration 0 Groupingtendency to groupclump input unconsciously Proxirnitythings close together will be perceived as part of the same thing Similaritythings that share similar features will be perceived as parts of the same object Closurethings are seen as completely enclosed by a border complete objects Good continuationlines that intersect will be perceived as such with each one continuing after the intersection OOOO 0 Common movementthings appearing to move in the same direction will be perceived as part of the same object 0 Good formthings will be seen as symmetrical complete esthetically pleasing 0 Divide scene into figure and ground foreground background can result in reversible figures facevase Unconscious interferencedistortingcreating features in order to complete a scene based on what you infer o Illusory contourscreate shapes and borders not specifically drawn in an image so that it makes sense Depth perception o Binoculareye convergence binocular disparity slightly different views each eye has 0 Monocularmotion parallax change in view one has when head is moved sideways pictorial cues occlusion relative image size linear perspective position relative to horizonall contribute to perception of size in an image 0 Size constancyability to see an object as unchanged in size despite its changing distance from the eyes Lecture info Repression of aliquis man forgets a1iquis gtfree associates a general theme of related topics St Augustine father blood infant conscious associations form a web of unconscious primary processes irrational one idea re ected on many associations prism conceptgtrepression of aliquis to prevent man from experiencing fear of possibly impregnating a mistress J ungParallel unconscious has control psyche is psychodynamic Freud o Polarities of the mind conscious gender is opposite from unconscious strive to bring both sides into consciousness o Integrationpositive outlook on the future strive not to repress the self we have a shadow bad component of the selfie the bad horse of the Phaedrus Olive Press Metaphor Psychodynamics is a commonality among Freud Jung NeoFreudians the press what is put in differs olive type Freudthe id Jungspirituality NeoFreudianssocial standing Platospiritual context describes how different components of the world are integrated personality is a complex of components nonconsciousness has much in uence on consciousness more controlling love connected to madness spirituality illusory contours of the lover madman and poet Freud vs Plato 0 Both Con ict of good vs bad within the individual unconscious is dominant primary processing as means of dealing with inner id s energy and creating secondary processing in the conscious mind is composed of three parts charioteer good horse and bad horseid superego and ego o Freud we have no good side must inhibit our inner bad side the id via the ego o Plato We have both a good self and a bad self good horse and bad horse much like Jung s polarities o Fringeboundary btwn conscious and unconscious transition point Unconscious parallel processingmost of cognitive heavy lifting conclusions expressed in consciousness Study Guide Holistic tendency of conscious representationWe tend to group things unconsciously Gestalt lawsthe mind perceives things as whole grouping based on proxirnitylsimilarityl good continuation good form want things to be whole resolution of cognitive dissonancekite paragraph Distinction between sensory and nonsensory experience o Sensorygrouping of pennies echoiciconic memory selective listening 0 Nonsensorygut feeling fringe tipofthetongue artificial grammar comprehension resolving cognitive dissonance GESTALT LAWS Modal Model SensoryAttentiongtShortterrnEncodinggtLongTerm o LongtermretrievalgtShortterm o SensoryLanguagePriminggtLongtermgtSensory Experimental evidence that nonconscious processing is parallel o Neisser s target searchAt first serial more distracterslonger time to find target after repetitive practice target search becomes a nonconscious task targets popout via parallel processing don t have to go down lists of letters number of distracters is irrelevant w two targets parallel processing can occur but participant isn t aware of which target was present I Conscious processing becomes unconscious serial processing is replaced by parallel o Dichotic listeninglistening to two things at once even when shadowing one speech and ignoring the other certain features of the ignored speech can be identified gender of speaker etc certain words stick out Hidden in uences of nonconscious processes on conscious o Priming nonconscious formation of memory I Duck exampleparticipants shown image duck figure conspicuously incorporated more likely to drawwrite about a duck or duckrelated things later 0 Defense mechanismsselfdeception via unconscious manipulation of thought to be presented differently in consciousness o Schemas and scriptsperception of situation based on associations triggered by a cue 1 13SS components of consciousness o 1 One context streamonly can pay attention to one thing at a time cannot effectively split attention cocktail party effect O 1 One interpretationonly see things in one form at a time reversible figures cannot be seen in both forms at once but switch back and forth 3Chunking of information we see three chunks of information at once everything beyond that is blurry S Sensorybackground to consciousness shadowingstill able to detect information about ignored speaker grouping Gestalt laws SNonsensorybackground to consciousness fringe gut feeling w artificial grammar tipofthetongue feeling of knowing semantic satiation Defense Mechanism examples 0 RepressionPerson abused as a child memory is unconsciously repressed no knowledge of it into adulthood but has hesitations towards intimacy for no conscious reason DisplacementYoung adult plays violent video games as means of quelling the id s desire to be violent towards other beings Sublimation Adult satisfies inner drive for aggression by becoming a professional boxer Reaction FormationYoung woman s persistent and obsessive desire to save her dying father result of inner desire to see him dead ProjectionI am narcissistic I see everyone else as narcissistic RationalizationHonor killings people rationalize their brutal murders by claiming it was to teach a cultural lessonrestore honor to their family Secondary gainany positive reinforcement for maintaining a disorder ie attention manic high avoiding fear of losing disorder maintaining cause of disorder Id ego superego model O Idpleasureseeking inner drive animalistic seeks gratification completely unconscious primary process reality and fantasy are not differentiated Egopeaceseeking inner drive to function reasonably win environment rational thinking represses memoriesdefense mechanisms as a way to decrease conscious anxiety of the unconscious attempt to meet the demands of all three components partially conscious knowledge of the world partially unconscious repression of bad thoughts Superegoinner representation of society s rules and values opposes any form of id gratification that is unacceptable in society creates feeling of GUILT partially conscious conscious understanding of morality partially unconscious irrational moral forces Psychotherapy as representative transformations presuming unconscious parallel processing 0 Presenting symptoms are not true source of problem but representative transformations of repressed con ict with the id hidden source must be brought to consciousness o Aliquisman cannot remember word free associationblood father St Augustine liquid Freud wordrepresentative transformation of sources of anxiety mind withheld this word so as to protect man from these anxious thoughts 0 Ratman Freud was perceived to be Ratman s father giving him same advice Father was representatively transformed into Freud TRANSFERANCE Ratman s feelings about his father directed towards his therapist FreudPlato 0 Both Unconscious is main source of control primary processing precedes conscious thought internal struggle between the 3 components of one s mind 0 Plato Duality of inner self good vs evil good horsebad horse spiritual context becoming whole 0 Freud inner id animalistic sex and aggression seeks gratification without reason superego formed by cultural values poses guilt on the individual and ego rational thinking most prominent in consciousness Humanistic theory amp contrast w Freud 0 Based on integration of the self selfactualization realizing one s capabilities and having the con dence to pursue them providing support for the client having empathy no criticism everyone is good genuineness 0 Vs Freud much more optimistic focuses on the conscious self vs unconscious repressed thoughts therapy involves no new insight free association or guidance mostly listening and repeating important concepts 0 Multiple causation of mental disorders 0 Predisposing genetic susceptibility esp with schizophrenia alcoholism environment abuse learned skills o Precipitating Events that lead up to onset loss of some sort perfect storm of experiences 0 Maintaining anything that perpetuates disorder ie keeps it from going away bad job bad love life losingnot making friends I Secondary gainpositive reinforcement for maintaining disorder 0 Folk psychology in Platospiritual context components of the world and how they fit together personality as a complex of elements fit together well or poorly nonconscious has much in uence on conscious healthywhole 0 Insightbrings unconscious repressed con ict into consciousness so that one is aware of them can confront them andor change them into a healthier alternative have peace of mind less energy spent on repressing bad thoughts or worries relief of cognitive dissonance 0 Romantic Loveillusory contours nonsensory experience something you like about them representative transformation idea vs actual person divinitypersonsexual gratification Questions Semantic satiation how it is an example of nonsensory experience Social Perceptions and Attitude 0 PERSONAL IDENTTY sefdescriptions that pertain to the person as an individual 0 SOCIAL IDENTITYselfperceptions that pertain to the social groups to which the individual belongs group enhancing bias o Can raise or lower selfesteem depending on situation 0 Stereotypesschema associated with a group of people may be realistic or exaggerated o EXPLICIT stereotypesconscious use of stereotypes to judge people public shared or private thought o IMPLICIT stereotypesinherent associations that automatically occur guide ourjudgments and actions I Primingany concept presented to someone primes activates the mind s associations to that concept makes ong termworking memory come quicker I Implicit association tests shows how fast people classify two concepts I Can cause people to behave in prejudicial ways wout meaning to can be deadly 0 ATTITUDEbelief or opinion that has an evaluative component judgment or feeling towards something most central onesVALUE o EXPLICIT attitude conscious verbay stated evaluations I Must be retrieved from memory to affect behavior o IMPLICIT attitude manifested in automatic mental associations influence behavior automatically o Attitudes result of classical conditioning alcohol beautiful peopeBUY IT explicit and implicit can oppose each other o Attitudes result from heuristics rules used to evaluate info and form attitudes exbig words agrees with my values said by famous people agreed on by mostTRUE I ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODELmajor determinant of whether a message will be processed logically or superficially is personal relevance of the message Petty and Cacioppo 0 COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY Festinger in the mind are mechanisms that create an uncomfortable feeling of dissonance when we sense inconsistencies among attitudesbeliefsknowledge in mental store o We seek ways to resolve contradictionsinconsistencies I Avoid dissonant information solidifying an attitude to support an action o INSUFFICIENTJUSTIFICATION EFFECT change in attitude to relive dissonance following an action opposite of previous beliefs not easy to justify behavior I Must be no high incentive for performing counter attitudina action change must be perceived to be of one s free choice Social Influences on Behavior 0 SOCIAL PRESSUREentire set of psychological forces that are exerted on us 0 SOCIAL FACILITATIONenhancing effect of an audience on one s task performance occurs w dominant simple tasks 0 SOCIAL INTERFERENCEhindering effect of an audience on one s task performance occurs with difficult non dominant tasks that involve working memory evaluation anxiety choking under pressure o STEREOTYPE THREATthreat testtakers experience when reminded of the stereotypical beliefs that the group they belong in is not expected to do well sef fufiing prophecies 0 IMPRESSION MANAGEMENTentire set of ways by which people consciouslyunconsciously modify behavior to influence others impressions of them actors and politicians 0 Conformity to others examples because of o INFORMATIONAL INFLUENCEsocial influence due to clues about objective natureknowledge of some event or situation learn from trials and errors made by other people follow their example o NORMATIVE INFLUENCEsocial influence to promote cohesion one s desire to be part of a group and be approved of o Asch s conformity experiment people told to say whether or not a line matches the original subject put secondtolast review his answers most subjects were swayed by confederates I Due more to normative influence people didn t want to seem different from the group rationalized their inner opposition by blaming eyesight o quotBroken Window theory of crimeclean up town to make it seem as though crimeinjusticecarelessness is not present crime rates go down o Passive Bystander effect the more people there are to witness a crimeemergency the less likely anyone will act out to help instead of using logicassessment to decide what to do look to others and they look to you informational and normative influences GROUP POLARIZATIONdiscussion win a group pushes members towards more extreme views of their side of the issue due to informational and normative influences o Groupthinkdesire of members to maintain a unified group surpasses desire to express individual opinionslogical thinking Principles of Compliance o Cognitive Dissonance formdesire to NOT contradict one s beliefs I LOWBALL TECHNIQU E customer agrees on low price then price is raised customers don t want to cause cognitive dissonance oppose original agreement to buy the product primed to pay more than initially agreed upon because they have exaggerated the quality of their decision I FOOTN THEDOOR TECHNIQUEpeople are more likely to agree to a large request if they have already agreed to a small one again attempt to avoid cognitive dissonance justification of initial actions bolster decision to continue fulfilling requests o RECIPROCITY NORMpeople feel obliged to return favors even ones they didn t want initially pregiving o Shared Identity or Friendshipmake connections with customer they fell more comfortable with you and are more willing to buy things Migram s Experiment o Requester seen as authority quotteacher feels compelled to abide by their requests most teachers continued to give shocks even after obvious painpleading from learner because they convinced themselves it wasn39t their faultthe authority approves and will handle it I The norm of obedience to a legitimate authority I The experimenter s selfassurance and acceptance of responsibility I The proximity of the experimenter and the distance of the learner I The absence of an alternative model of how to behave no one to follow I The incremental nature of the requests footinthedoor technique dissonant to think previous shocks were wrong so why admit that by stopping now Robbers Cave Examplecompetitionseparation of campers into two groups led to o Withingroup solidarityloyalty to their group became strong o Negatives stereotyping of the other groupdissociated themselves from members of the other group o Hostile betweengroup interactions o Resolved by using superordinate goalsgoals desired by both groups and could be best achieved through cooperation between the groups Lecture Notes Social Influences Vietnam example 0 O 0 People are inherently good toddler walking towards the well lowcrawler admitting truce w enemy soldier I BUT influenced by groupthink to do bad things quotsocial ie Social mammals cannot survive alone work better together even if leader is stupid hierarchical structure Cognitive Dissonancewe want things to seem whole and unified feel uncomfortable when our thoughtsbeliefsassumptions are challenged holismGestalt laws Psychological Analysis of Art 0 Freud Artdefense mechanism against sex and violence sublimation way to satisfy unconscious id in a more acceptable way Pato Artwhoe point of Phaedrus is to unify falling in love means all parts of the world fit together the person is divine and above human integration of parts grants access to a higher reality of unity Successful art must maximize and maintain rightness peak gratification I Ambiguity Distortion of reality Manipulation of schemas theme and variation inspection of one schema to open up another The Wundt curve relationship between stimulus and experience of it level of gratification and how it affects behavior o Adaptation eve abiity to take in knowledge and extrapolate adapt to sensory input I Habituation changes one s position on the curve usually back down towards origin 0 Indian MonkeysCity vs Country both habituated to sound of loud tape player but country monkeys took longer because the sound was further from their level of adaptation 0 SimpleComplex shapes over time simple shapes lose hedonic value and complex shapes gain hedonic value 0 Whale songsnew song from west coast started attracting more mates others followed suit Beryne s SOR analysis using Wundt Curve 0 Used to explain exploration rats aesthetics Phenomenology of Wholeness O Rightness conscious signal that something is or isn t quotright problemsolving reinforcement resoving cognitive dissonance phenomenological glue that binds parts together into a unified whole I Term paper wholeness detector subjective and objective coherence contribute to the quotrightness of a paper dissonant things are very noticeableconsciously recognized
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